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  • 1.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Critical aspects and how students concretize their molecular understanding: benefits and potential pitfalls with an animation2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the effects of an animation of ATP synthesis in mitochondria on students understanding of the process. University students were exposed to the animation without narration before their introductory course in cell metabolism. Our intention was to identify any visual aspects of the animation that helped students to understand the process, and how the animation influenced their reasoning. In a mixed-method design, individual questionnaires were administered and group discussions performed. We identified three features of the animation which helped the students to understand critical aspects of the process, namely 1) molecular dynamics, 2) an explicitly visualized coupling between the flow of protons through the protein complex and ATP-synthesis 3) movements and induced conformational changes in the proteins during the process. We also observed that students showed difficulties in predicting the reversibility of the reaction. Analogies might enhance the meaningfulness and provide qualitative insights of sub-microscopic explanations. Albeit so, our preliminary analysis of the group discussions indicates that they are also sometimes misleading and can act as traps that induce erroneous chemical reasoning. 

  • 2.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköpings universitet, Medie- och Informationsteknik.
    Critical features in an biochemistry animation: Designer's intention and students' interpretationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Various authors have investigated students’ interpretations of biochemistry visualizations, but none to our knowledge have compared the intentions of the visualizations’ design with students’ interpretations. This study contrasts an animator’s educational intentions for an animation visualizing ATP (adenosine triphosphate) synthesis, catalysed by the enzyme Fo/F1-ATP-synthase, with 43 university students’ interpretation of the animation. The aim was to identify symbolic expressions in the animation and assess how well they succeed or fail to communicate the intended learning object. We explored the animators’ intentions in a semi-structured interview. To analyse how the students observed and interpreted the animation we first collected individual written responses in a combined worksheet and questionnaire from the students who were using the animation as a thinking tool. Immediately thereafter we also recorded the students’ argumentation and reasoning in group discussions based on the same questions.’ In total, six key facets intentionally illustrated by the animator were successfully interpreted by the students: 1) The dynamics and movement in the protein 2) The conformational changes induced, 3) The driving force of the process (the proton gradient), 4) The causal sequence (coupling) in the process, 5) The cellular context and nature (protein) of the main actor and 6) The energy transfer. Four of the symbolic expressions chosen by the animator helped the students to interpret these facets of the process. Students’ successfully discerned the conformational change in the protein, the rotation of the catalytic part of the protein and the connection between the proton gradient and ATPsynthesis due to the transitory movement depicted in the animation. In addition, use of a ribbonmodel helped students to intuitively grasp that a protein was involved and the sub-microscopic nature of the process. However, a flash intentionally used to indicate the energy transfer associated with the formation of the phosphodiester bond, was misinterpreted by the students as a release of energy, instead of an energy transformation from mechanical to temporarily stored energy in a chemical bond. Further, only five students were able to predict the reversibility of the process from the animation.

  • 3.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    University Teachers View about Learning Metabolism - What are the core knowledge and which are the Students' Difficulties?2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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