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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Run-Time Assurance for the E-care@home System2018Ingår i: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, Volume 225, 2018, s. 107-110Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the software for a run-time assurance infrastructure in the E-care@home system. An experimental evaluation is conducted to verify that the run-time assurance infrastructure is functioning correctly, and to enable detecting performance degradation in experimental IoT network deployments within the context of E-care@home.

  • 2.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ES (Embedded Systems).
    IPv6 connectivity in eHealth IoT networks2018Ingår i: Medicinteknikdagarna 2018 MTD 2018, Umeå, Sweden, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Gardasevic, Gordana
    et al.
    University of Banja Luka, Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Heterogeneous IoT-based Architecture for Remote Monitoring of Physiological and Environmental Parameters2018Ingår i: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, Volume 225, 2018, s. 48-53Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A heterogeneous Internet of Things (IoT) architecture for remote health monitoring (RHM) is proposed, that employs Bluetooth and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless connectivity. The RHM system encompasses Shimmer physiological sensors with Bluetooth radio, and OpenMote environmental sensors with IEEE 802.15.4 radio. This system architecture collects measurements in a relational database in a local server to implement a Fog node for fast data analysis as well as in a remote server in the Cloud. 

  • 4.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A remote health monitoring system featuring relational databases2017Ingår i: Medicinteknikdagarna 2017 MTD 2017, Västerås, Sweden, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote health monitoring (RHM) through the use of wearable wireless sensors, has drawn a lot of attention from academia and industry in the last decade [1,2]. The aging population, increasing cost of health-care, and lack of human resources in healthcare, are the three key motivators for the development of RHM [3,4]. The RHM systems should reduce health care costs and improve care quality. How to ensure a reliable and secure data collection from sensor devices to stake holders in RHM systems, is an open research question. The most established data storage technology that can ensure the security and privacy of data is the relational database management systems (RDBMSs). Besides security, RDBMSs provide a number of additional convenient features like querying the data, indexing, backups, replication, but are however in general slower than storing the data directly in a file system. Presented is a RHM system with a RDBMS in its core. The system was developed for the needs of ESS-H research profile [5] at Mälardalen University, Sweden. We also present a comprehensive system design which covers all the needs for the RHM application. The system is composed of four main components: (I) Shimmer sensors [6], (II) data acquisition layer (LabVIEW or C#.NET program), (III) RDBMS, and (IV) web service and web interface. The system communicates with the Shimmer sensors over Bluetooth and collects measurements in a relational database, either through a C#.NET or a LabVIEW program. The web service and a web interface are both written in PHP and are running on the Apache HTTP Server. The end-user is able to observe either real-time data (i.e. with insignificant delay) or processed historical data on any web browser. The advantage of using the web interface instead of a desktop application is that it makes the presentation layer easily accessible and platform independent. The RDBMSs provide data security and privacy in addition to other convenient features. Therefore, it is beneficial to incorporate RDBMSs in RHM systems. However, the RDBMSs provide no solution for security and privacy issues in wireless communication which is another research problem.

  • 5.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Risman, Per Olov
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Detection of Human Bodypart Abnormalities by Microwaves – A New Approach2019Ingår i: 42nd International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics MIPRO 2019, 2019, s. 270-274Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present modified antenna-like devices - applicators - for direct detection of internal inhomogeneities such as breast tumours and brain haemorrhages, at a frequency about 1 GHz. This direct detection provides the possibility of using a simple microwave generator and simple rectification and position registration of the received signals. Direct readouts are thus possible, without any massive computing resources as with tomographic imaging. The transmitting applicator is non-contacting and in free air close to the object. It generates an essentially quasistatic axial magnetic field which induces a circular electric field in the tissue. The receiving 3D contacting applicator contains a high-permittivity ceramic and is resonant. Its mode field provides the desired polarisation sensitivity and filters out the main electric field. The overall system sensitivity for detection of internal inhomogeneities is accomplished by optimised use of the orthogonality of the primary magnetic, induced electric, and diffracted electric fields. When developments are completed, the system will replace or complement existing commercial technologies at a low cost.

  • 6.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Andersson, A.
    Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mixed-Effect Models for the Analysis and Optimization of Sheet-Metal Assembly Processes2017Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, nr 5, s. 2194-2202, artikel-id 7857795Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assembly processes can be affected by various parameters, which is revealed by the measured geometrical characteristics (GCs) of the assembled parts deviating from the nominal values. Here, we propose a mixed-effect model (MEM) application for the purposes of analyzing variations in assembly cells, as well as for screening the input variables and characterization. MEMs make it possible to take into account statistical dependencies that originate from repeated measurements on the same assembly. The desirability functions approach was used to describe how to find corrective or control actions based on the fitted MEM. Objectives: To examine the usefulness of the MEM between the positions of the in-going parts as the input controllable variables and the measured GCs as the outputs. Methods: The data from 34 car frontal cross members (each measured three times) were experimentally collected in a laboratory environment by intentionally changing the positions of the in-going parts, assembling the parts, and subsequently measuring their GCs. A single MEM that completely describes the assembly process was fitted between the GCs and the positions of the in-going parts. Results: We present a modeling technique that can be used to establish which measured GCs are influenced by which controllable variables, and how this occurs. The fitted MEM shows evidence that the variability of some GCs changes over time. The natural variation in the system (i.e., unmodeled variations) is about two times larger than the variation between the assembled cross members. We also present two cases that demonstrate how to use the fitted MEM desirability functions to find corrective or control actions. Conclusion: MEMs are very useful tools for analyzing the assembly processes for car-body parts, which are nonlinear processes with multiple inputs and multiple correlated outputs. MEMs can potentially be applied in numerous industrial processes, since modern manufacturing plants measure all important process variables, which is the sole prerequisite for MEMs applications. 

  • 7.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Erdem, Ilker
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rahman, Hamidur
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Andersson, Alf
    Volvo Car Corporation Manufacturing Engineering, Sweden.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sources of Variation Analysis in Fixtures for Sheet Metal Assembly Process2016Ingår i: Swedish Production Symposium 2016 SPS 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The assembly quality is affected by various factors within which fixture variations are the most important. For that reason significant research on fixture variations has already been done. In this work we propose a linear mixed models (LMMs) application for the purpose of analyzing sources of variation in the fixture Objective: To estimate the strength of influences of different sources of variation on the control and assembly fixtures. The variables considered are: time, operator, default pin positions, shifts from the default pin positions . Methods: The data was collected through assembly and measurement for repeatability and experimental corrective actions. We use LMMs to model the relation between features measured on the assembled parts and the input variables of interest. The LMMs allow taking into account the correlation of observations contained in the dataset. We also use graphical data presentation methods to explore the data. Results: The expected results are the strengths of influences of the individual variables considered, and the pairwise interactions of between the variables, on the assembled parts variations.

  • 8.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Khosraviani, K.
    CNet Svenska AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosengren, P.
    CNet Svenska AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jornten-Karlsson, M.
    AstraZeneca R and D, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Enabling IoT based monitoring of patients' environmental parameters: Experiences from using OpenMote with OpenWSN and Contiki-NG2018Ingår i: 2018 41st International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics, MIPRO 2018 - Proceedings, 2018, s. 330-334Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote health monitoring can be leveraged by the IoT paradigm. We tested OpenMotes, state-of-the-art IoT devices featuring IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, with Contiki-NG and OpenWSN, two of the most popular IoT operating systems, for the purpose of obtaining data from the OpenMote's sensors. The procedure is not strait forward and requires additional programing of the operating systems. All the steps necessary to make the OpenMote work with Contiki-NG are presented in detail. We also describe how to use Copper Firefox add-on to access the sensors data over CoAP, as well as how to design a functional web interface in Node-RED for the sensors data. 

  • 9.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    IoT enabled monitoring of patients’ environmental parameters supported by OpenWSN, OpenMote, and relational databases2018Ingår i: Medicinteknikdagarna 2018 MTD 2018, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Data flow and collection for remote patients monitoring: From wireless sensors through a relational database to a web interface in real time2017Ingår i: IFMBE Proceedings, Springer Verlag , 2017, s. 89-92Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A reliable, secure, and real-time data collection from sensor devices to the end-user is an open research problem. Many research works have been focusing on the wireless communication level to obtain quality of service. This paper widens the problem, and provides a comprehensive system design, where it covers all the elements in a remote health monitoring application. The system collects measurements in a relational database, either through a C#.NET or a LabVIEW program. The end-user is able to observe either real-time data (i.e. with insignificant delay) or processed historical data on any web browser. We have shown that the inclusion of the relational database may impose a need for the data to be buffered before inserting into the database within a single transaction, but the buffering does not entail delays bigger than 50 ms. 

  • 11.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rashkovska, A.
    Jolef Stefan Inst, Dept Inst Commun Syst, Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Comparison of publicly available beat detection algorithms performanances on the ECGs obtained by a patch ECG device2019Ingår i: 2019 42ND INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY, ELECTRONICS AND MICROELECTRONICS (MIPRO) / [ed] Koricic, M Butkovic, Z Skala, K Car, Z CicinSain, M Babic, S Sruk, V Skvorc, D Ribaric, S Gros, S Vrdoljak, B Mauher, M Tijan, E Pale, P Huljenic, D Grbac, TG Janjic, M, IEEE , 2019, s. 275-278Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight ECG beat detection algorithms, from the PhysioNet's WFDR and Cardiovascular Signal toolboxes, were tested on twenty measurements, obtained by the Savvy patch ECG device, for their accuracy in beat detection. On each subject, one measurement is obtained while sitting and one while running. Each measurement lasted from thirty seconds to one minute. The measurements obtained while running were more challenging for all the algorithms, as most of them almost perfectly detected all the beats on the measurements obtained in sitting position. However, when applied on the measurements obtained while running, all the algorithms have performed with decreased accuracy. Considering overall percentage of the faulty detected peaks, the four best algorithms were jqrs, from the Cardiovascular Signal Toolbox, and ecgpuwave, gqrs, and wqrs, from the WEDB Toolbox, with percentages of faulty detected beats 1.7, 2.3, 2.9, and 3, respectively.

  • 12.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rashkovska, A.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Department of Communication Systems, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Comparison of publicly available beat detection algorithms performances on the ECGs obtained by a patch ECG device2019Ingår i: 2019 42nd International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics, MIPRO 2019 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 275-278Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight ECG beat detection algorithms, from the PhysioNet's WFDB and Cardiovascular Signal toolboxes, were tested on twenty measurements, obtained by the Savvy patch ECG device, for their accuracy in beat detection. On each subject, one measurement is obtained while sitting and one while running. Each measurement lasted from thirty seconds to one minute. The measurements obtained while running were more challenging for all the algorithms, as most of them almost perfectly detected all the beats on the measurements obtained in sitting position. However, when applied on the measurements obtained while running, all the algorithms have performed with decreased accuracy. Considering overall percentage of the faulty detected peaks, the four best algorithms were jqrs, from the Cardiovascular Signal Toolbox, and ecgpuwave, gqrs, and wqrs, from the WFDB Toolbox, with percentages of faulty detected beats 1.7, 2.3, 2.9, and 3, respectively. 

  • 13.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rahman, Hamidur
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Erdem, Ilker
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Alf
    Volvo Car Corporation Manufacturing Engineering, Sweden.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Input-output Mapping and Sources of Variation Analysis in Fixtures for Sheet Metal Assembly Processes2016Ingår i: Swedish Production Symposium 2016 SPS 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The assembly quality is affected by various factors within which fixture variations are the most important. For that reason an extensive research on fixture variations has already been done. In this work we propose a linear models (LMs) application for the purpose of analyzing sources of variation in the fixture as well as establishing a model between positions of ingoing parts and measured geometrical characteristics of the assemblies. Objectives: (1) To estimate the strengths of different sources of variation on the assembled parts. (2) Estimate a regression model between the positions of ingoing parts as inputs (that are defined by positions of pins holding them), and measured geometrical characteristics as outputs, that can be used to determine which measured characteristics are influenced by which input variable. Methods: The data was experimentally collected in a laboratory environment by intentionally changing positions of ingoing part, assembling the parts and subsequently measuring their geometrical characteristics. We use liner model to establish the relation between geometrical characteristics measured on the assembled parts, and the input variables of interest. Results: Presented is a modeling technique that can be used to establish which measured geometrical characteristics are influenced by input variables (i.e.pins’ positions) of interest. The natural variation in the system (i.e. not modeled variation) is quite high. The time passed between measurements has a significant influence on measured values.

  • 14.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rashkovska, A.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Trobec, R.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    The implications of the lead theory on the patch ECG devices positioning and measurement2019Ingår i: IFMBE Proceedings, Springer Verlag , 2019, nr 1, s. 693-696Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently we are witnessing fast development of patch ECG devices, some of which have already been extensively evaluated and shown to be useful for detecting arrhythmias. The research about using the patch ECG devices for purposes other than arrhythmia detection has been scarce. The efficiency of patch electrocardiography for a specific purpose can depend on the devices location on the body surface. It is still an open question where to position the ECG patch devices, and should the position depend on the specific purpose and perhaps even be personalized. We present the lead theory of differential leads (ECG leads obtained by patch ECG devices) and discuss its implications on the patch ECG devices positioning on the body surface.

  • 15.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Lund University, Sweden.
    Tomasic, Nikica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Trobec, Roman
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Dept Commun Syst, Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Krpan, Miroslav
    Univ Hosp Ctr, Dept Cardiol, Zagreb, Croatia..
    Kelava, Tomislav
    Univ Zagreb, Sch Med, Dept Physiol, Zagreb, Croatia..
    Continuous remote monitoring of COPD patients-justification and explanation of the requirements and a survey of the available technologies2018Ingår i: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, E-ISSN 1741-0444, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 547-569Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote patient monitoring should reduce mortality rates, improve care, and reduce costs. We present an overview of the available technologies for the remote monitoring of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, together with the most important medical information regarding COPD in a language that is adapted for engineers. Our aim is to bridge the gap between the technical and medical worlds and to facilitate and motivate future research in the field. We also present a justification, motivation, and explanation of how to monitor the most important parameters for COPD patients, together with pointers for the challenges that remain. Additionally, we propose and justify the importance of electrocardiograms (ECGs) and the arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) as two crucial physiological parameters that have not been used so far to any great extent in the monitoring of COPD patients. We cover four possibilities for the remote monitoring of COPD patients: continuous monitoring during normal daily activities for the prediction and early detection of exacerbations and life-threatening events, monitoring during the home treatment of mild exacerbations, monitoring oxygen therapy applications, and monitoring exercise. We also present and discuss the current approaches to decision support at remote locations and list the normal and pathological values/ranges for all the relevant physiological parameters. The paper concludes with our insights into the future developments and remaining challenges for improvements to continuous remote monitoring systems.

  • 16.
    Trobec, R.
    et al.
    Department of Communication Systems, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Jan, M.
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Detection and Treatment of Atrial Irregular Rhythm with Body Gadgets and 35-channel ECG2019Ingår i: 2019 42nd International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics, MIPRO 2019 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 301-308Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The atrial irregular rhythm, often reflected in atrial fibrillation, undulation or flutter, is recognized as one of the major causes of brain stroke and entails an increased risk of thromboembolic events because it increases the likelihood of blood clots formation. Its early detection is becoming an increasingly important preventive measure. The paper presents a simple methodology for the detection of atrial irregular rhythm by ECG body gadget that can perform long-term measurements, e.g. several weeks or more. Multichannel ECG, on the body surface, gives a more detailed insight into the atrial activity in comparison to standard 12-lead ECG. The information from MECG is compared with single-channel patch ECG. The obtained results suggest that the proposed methodology could be useful in treatments of atrial irregular rhythm. One can obtain a reliable information about the time and duration of fibrillation events, or determine arrhythmic focuses and conductive pathways in heart atria, or study the effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on existing arrhythmias and on an eventual development of new types of arrhythmias. 

  • 17.
    Trobec, R.
    et al.
    Joef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rashkovska, A.
    Joef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Avbelj, V.
    Joef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Lead theory of differential leads and synthesis of the standard 12-lead ECG2018Ingår i: SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, Springer Verlag , 2018, nr 9783319593388, s. 77-100Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the lead theory of differential leads is presented. A differential lead is an ECG lead obtained from two closely positioned electrodes on the body surface. It can be measured with an ECG body sensor. The theoretical background is needed to gain a formal and intuitive understanding of what is measured with differential leads, as well as to elaborate how the standard 12-lead ECG can be synthesized from three differential leads. The 12-lead ECG synthesis is based on the dipole volume source model. After introducing the dipole model, the Burger’s equation is derived and the concept of lead vector defined. We describe how to derive lead vectors from known heart vector and, vice versa, how to obtain the heart vector from known lead vectors. Then, the concepts of image surface and lead field are introduced, followed with a description of the lead field of a differential lead. Next, the theory and methods for ECG leads synthesis from differential leads is presented. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the evaluation and personalization of the synthesis. 

  • 18.
    Trobec, R.
    et al.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rashkovska, A.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Depolli, M.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Avbelj, V.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Commercial ECG systems2018Ingår i: SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, Springer Verlag , 2018, nr 9783319593388, s. 101-114Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Besides the standard 12-lead ECG and the Holter monitor, today the market offers a wide range of modern ECG devices and services supported by the latest developments in ICT. This chapter is devoted to the current state-of-the-art from the area of ECG with a reduced number of leads. We focus on ECG wireless body sensors, differentiating between those that measure only heart rate and are used just for entertainment or during sport activities, and those that actually measure and analyze the ECG signal, with all its waveforms. The latter are elaborated in more detail, particularly our differential ECG sensor and its commercial version Savvy, for which we provide also a comprehensive comparison to other state-of-the-art sensors in that field. It is, however, inevitable that the state-of-the art will change in the future. The constant progress in ICT will always drive the development of new and improved ECG devices. 

  • 19.
    Trobec, R.
    et al.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rashkovska, A.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Depolli, M.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Avbelj, V.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    ECG pilot studies2018Ingår i: SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, Springer Verlag , 2018, nr 9783319593388, s. 61-75Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wireless ECG body sensors in two pilot studies is presented. The first study, running at the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana, is focused on the investigation of postoperative atrial fibrillation. The patients are monitored with wireless ECG body sensors one day before and five days after the surgery. The second study has been established at the primary care level in the Community Health Centre Ljubljana, with the intention to establish heart rhythm screening. As both studies are still in progress, we present just their setup and some interesting findings that emerged in their starting phase. Based on evidences from long-term ECG measurements, we identify several still open ECG research questions that could utilize the vast amount of long ECG recordings obtained from the pilot studies. 

  • 20.
    Trobec, R.
    et al.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rashkovska, A.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Depolli, M.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Avbelj, V.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Final remarks and conclusions2018Ingår i: SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, Springer Verlag , 2018, nr 9783319593388, s. 115-119Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The content of our book, devoted to body sensors and their implications to electrocardiography, is recapitulated with this chapter. The identified challenges in long-term ECG data analytics are discussed. Based on the presented material, the near future of mHealth perspectives is foreseen regarding the technology, the usability, and the potential of increased users’ awareness for their own health. 

  • 21.
    Trobec, R.
    et al.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rashkovska, A.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Depolli, M.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Avbelj, V.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    From multichannel ECG to wireless body sensors2018Ingår i: SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, Springer Verlag , 2018, nr 9783319593388, s. 13-35Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A more detailed description of multichannel electrocardiography and the differential lead aims to clarify why the multichannel ECG opens a path towards implementation of wireless wearable sensors. Several ways of how the differential lead could be used for heart rhythm monitoring are shown with options for analysis and interpretation of sensor ECG measurements. Finally, the most important vital signs that could be provided by a multifunctional body sensor are presented.

  • 22.
    Trobec, R.
    et al.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rashkovska, A.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Depolli, M.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Avbelj, V.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Introduction2018Ingår i: SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, Springer Verlag , 2018, nr 9783319593388, s. 1-12Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The motivation and goals for the development of mobile health solutions are presented. Short history and background of the electrocardiography provide basic principles and facts related to the heart activity and elucidate the path from the measurement of conventional electrocardiogram to the monitoring of the heart by wireless body sensors. A bipolar differential lead is introduced, which has enabled the implementation of a small body sensor for capturing electric potential differences on the skin. The chapter concludes with guidelines on how to read this book and with a short overview of all book chapters.

  • 23.
    Trobec, R.
    et al.
    Joef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rashkovska, A.
    Joef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Depolli, M.
    Joef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Avbelj, V.
    Joef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Software for an mHealth system2018Ingår i: SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, Springer Verlag , 2018, nr 9783319593388, s. 37-59Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A description of software requirements for an mHealth system is provided. Several layers of software are required for proper system functioning: ECG body sensor firmware, applications on smartphones, Cloud applications, and stand-alone applications for personal computers. The main functionality requirements of the mHealth software are described. Additionally, approaches for fulfilling those requirements are proposed.

  • 24.
    Trobec, Roman
    et al.
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova Cesta 39, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Avbelj, Viktor
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova Cesta 39, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Stanic, Uros
    BRIS, Puhova Ul 10, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Depolli, Matjaz
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova Cesta 39, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Rashkovska, Aleksandra
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova Cesta 39, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Kristofelc, Tomaz
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova Cesta 39, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Bregar, Klemen
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova Cesta 39, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Kosec, Gregor
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova Cesta 39, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    System for Mobile Monitoring of Vital Functions and Environmental Context2017Ingår i: BIOSENSORS 2016 / [ed] Turner, A Tang, A, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, s. 157-158Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ICT in the health care system is aimed to increase efficacy and decrease costs. We have designed a system and services for mobile monitoring of vital physiological parameters and environmental context. The system is based on a small multi-functional wireless body sensor for simultaneous measurement of ECG, temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, and movement. The sensor is wirelessly connected through Bluetooth Smart to a Smartphone. When necessary, the measurements are transferred to a server and can be accessed by authorized personnel. The contribution of the system to improved quality and efficiency of medical care is validated and estimated through several pilot studies.

  • 25.
    Trobec, Roman
    et al.
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Rashkovska, Aleksandra
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Depolli, Matjaž
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Avbelj, Viktor
    Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Body Sensors and Electrocardiography2017Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
1 - 25 av 25
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