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  • 1.
    Eriksson, O.
    et al.
    Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hadin, Å.
    Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hennessy, Jay
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Industriell ekonomi och organisation. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, D.
    Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Life cycle assessment of horse manure treatment2016Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikel-id 1011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1) unmanaged composting; (2) managed composting; (3) large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant; (4) drying and small-scale combustion; and (5) liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  • 2.
    Guezgouz, M.
    et al.
    Mostaganem University, Algeria.
    Jurasz, Jakub
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland.
    Bekkouche, B.
    Mostaganem University, Algeria.
    Techno-economic and environmental analysis of a hybrid PV-WT-PSH/BB standalone system supplying various loads2019Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 3, artikel-id 514Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Algerian power system is currently dominated by conventional (gas- and oil-fueled) power stations. A small portion of the electrical demand is covered by renewable energy sources. This work is intended to analyze two configurations of renewables-based hybrid (solar–wind) power stations. One configuration was equipped with batteries and the second with pumped-storage hydroelectricity as two means of overcoming: the stochastic nature of the two renewable generators and resulting mismatch between demand and supply. To perform this analysis, real hourly load data for eight different electricity consumers were obtained for the area of Mostaganem. The configuration of hybrid power stations was determined for a bi-objective optimization problem (minimization of electricity cost and maximization of reliability) based on a multi-objective grey-wolf optimizer. The results of this analysis indicate that, in the case of Algeria, renewables-based power generation is still more expensive than electricity produced from the national grid. However, using renewables reduces the overall CO 2 emissions up to 9.3 times compared to the current emissions from the Algerian power system. Further analysis shows that the system performance may benefit from load aggregation. 

  • 3.
    Lundström, Lukas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Eskilstuna Kommunfastighet AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Akander, J.
    Division of Building, Energy and Environment Technology, Department of Technology and Environment, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Zambrano, Jesus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Development of a space heating model suitable for the automated model generation of existing multifamily buildings—a case study in Nordic climate2019Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 3, artikel-id 485Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Building energy performance modeling is essential for energy planning, management, and efficiency. This paper presents a space heating model suitable for auto-generating baseline models of existing multifamily buildings. Required data and parameter input are kept within such a level of detail that baseline models can be auto-generated from, and calibrated by, publicly accessible data sources. The proposed modeling framework consists of a thermal network, a typical hydronic radiator heating system, a simulation procedure, and data handling procedures. The thermal network is a lumped and simplified version of the ISO 52016-1:2017 standard. The data handling consists of procedures to acquire and make use of satellite-based solar radiation data, meteorological reanalysis data (air temperature, ground temperature, wind, albedo, and thermal radiation), and pre-processing procedures of boundary conditions to account for impact from shading objects, window blinds, wind- and stack-driven air leakage, and variable exterior surface heat transfer coefficients. The proposed model was compared with simulations conducted with the detailed building energy simulation software IDA ICE. The results show that the proposed model is able to accurately reproduce hourly energy use for space heating, indoor temperature, and operative temperature patterns obtained from the IDA ICE simulations. Thus, the proposed model can be expected to be able to model space heating, provided by hydronic heating systems, of existing buildings to a similar degree of confidence as established simulation software. Compared to IDA ICE, the developed model required one-thousandth of computation time for a full-year simulation of building model consisting of a single thermal zone. The fast computation time enables the use of the developed model for computation time sensitive applications, such as Monte-Carlo-based calibration methods. 

  • 4.
    Martínez-Ortega, José-Fernán
    et al.
    Technical University of Madrid.
    Rodríguez-Molina, Jesús
    Technical University of Madrid.
    Castillejo, Pedro
    Technical University of Madrid.
    de Diego, Rubén
    Technical University of Madrid.
    Middleware Architectures for the Smart Grid: Survey and Challenges in the Foreseeable Future2013Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 6, nr 7, s. 3593-3621Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional power grid is just a one-way supplier that gets no feedback data about the energy delivered, what tariffs could be the most suitable ones forcustomers, the shifting daily needs of electricity in a facility, etc. Therefore, it is only natural that efforts are being invested in improving power grid behavior and turning it into a Smart Grid. However, to this end, several components have to be either upgraded or created from scratch. Among the new components required,middleware appears as a critical one, for it will abstract all the diversity of the used devices for power transmission (smart meters, embedded systems, etc.) and will provide the application layer with a homogeneous interface involving power production and consumption management data that were not able to be provided before. Additionally, middleware is expected to guarantee that updates to the current metering infrastructure (changes in service or hardware availability) or any added legacy measuring appliance will get acknowledged for any future request. Finally, semantic features are of major importance to tackle scalability and interoperability issues. A survey on the most prominent middleware architectures for Smart Grids is presented in this paper, along with an evaluation of their features and their strong points and weaknesses.

  • 5. Rui, Xiong
    et al.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Xuan, Zhou
    Advanced Energy Storage Technologies and Their Applications (AESA2017)2017Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Myhren, J. A.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Life cycle cost of building energy renovation measures, considering future energy production scenarios2019Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 14, artikel-id 2719Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A common way of calculating the life cycle cost (LCC) of building renovation measures is to approach it from the building side, where the energy system is considered by calculating the savings in the form of less bought energy. In this study a wider perspective is introduced. The LCC for three different energy renovation measures, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and two different heat pump systems, are compared to a reference case, a building connected to the district heating system. The energy system supplying the building is assumed to be 100% renewable, where eight different future scenarios are considered. The LCC is calculated as the total cost for the renovation measures and the energy systems. All renovation measures result in a lower district heating demand, at the expense of an increased electricity demand. All renovation measures also result in an increased LCC, compared to the reference building. When aiming for a transformation towards a 100% renewable system in the future, this study shows the importance of having a system perspective, and also taking possible future production scenarios into consideration when evaluating building renovation measures that are carried out today, but will last for several years, in which the energy production system, hopefully, will change.

  • 7.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Life Cycle Cost of Heat Supply to Areas with Detached Houses: A Comparison of District Heating and Heat Pumps from an Energy System Perspective2018Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, nr 12, artikel-id 3266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are different views on whether district heating (DH) or heat pumps (HPs) is or are the best heating solution in order to reach a 100% renewable energy system. This article investigates the economic perspective, by calculating and comparing the energy system life cycle cost (LCC) for the two solutions in areas with detached houses. The LCC is calculated using Monte Carlo simulation, where all input data is varied according to predefined probability distributions. In addition to the parameter variations, 16 different scenarios are evaluated regarding the main fuel for the DH, the percentage of combined heat and power (CHP), the DH temperature level, and the type of electrical backup power. Although HP is the case with the lowest LCC for most of the scenarios, there are alternatives for each scenario in which either HP or DH has the lowest LCC. In alternative scenarios with additional electricity transmission costs, and a marginal cost perspective regarding the CHP investment, DH has the lowest LCC overall, taking into account all scenarios. The study concludes that the decision based on energy system economy on whether DH should expand into areas with detached houses must take local conditions into consideration.

  • 8.
    Tao, Jun
    et al.
    NCEPU, China.
    Zhao, Leiqiang
    NCEPU, China.
    Dong, Changqing
    NCEPU, China.
    Lu, Qiang
    NCEPU, China.
    Du, Xiaoze
    NCEPU, China.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Catalytic Steam Reforming of Toluene as a Model Compound of Biomass Gasification Tar Using Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 Catalysts2013Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 3284-3296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickelsupported on SBA-15 doped with CeO2 catalysts (Ni-CeO2/SBA-15)was prepared, and used for steam reforming of toluene which was selected as amodel compound of biomass gasification tar. A fixed-bed lab-scale set wasdesigned and employed to evaluate the catalytic performances of the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15catalysts. Experiments were performed to reveal the effects of several factorson the toluene conversion and product gas composition, including the reactiontemperature, steam/carbon (S/C) ratio, and CeO2 loading content.Moreover, the catalysts were subjected to analysis of their carbon contentsafter the steam reforming experiments, as well as to test the catalyticstability over a long experimental period. The results indicated that theNi-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts exhibited promising capabilities on thetoluene conversion, anti-coke deposition and catalytic stability. The toluene conversionreached as high as 98.9% at steam reforming temperature of 850 °C and S/C ratioof 3 using the Ni-CeO2(3wt%)/SBA-15 catalyst. Negligible cokeformation was detected on the used catalyst. The gaseous products mainlyconsisted of H2 and CO, together with a little CO2

  • 9.
    Thygesen, Richard
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    An Analysis of Different Solar-Assisted Heating Systems and Their Effect on the Energy Performance of Multifamily Buildings—A Swedish Case2017Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the household sector in the European Union and in Sweden accounts for approximately 25% and 22% of the final energy demand, respectively, and the sector will continue to grow in the next decades. To limit the impact on the energy demand of buildings, the European Union has introduced the Energy Performance of Building Directive. In Sweden, a proposal for building regulations adapted to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive has been released, but no decision on implementation of it has been made. In this article, a real building is simulated to evaluate how different combinations of heating and decentralized energy generation systems are affecting the specific energy demand of the building. Also, an analysis on how the Swedish incentive schemes affect the choice of decentralized energy generation systems is conducted. Furthermore, it is investigated if it is necessary to adopt the incentive schemes to steer towards systems that reduce the specific energy demand of the building. The conclusion in this article is that the current incentive system is ineffective in terms of specific energy demand reduction of buildings. It needs to be adapted so it steers towards a reduction of the specific energy demand of buildings.

  • 10.
    Wang, Y.
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Nian, V.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yuan, J.
    China Institute of FTZ Supply Chain, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, China.
    Life cycle analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle power generation in the context of Southeast Asia2018Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikel-id en11061587Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coal remains a major source of electricity production even under the current state of developments in climate policies due to national energy priorities. Coal remains the most attractive option, especially to the developing economies in Southeast Asia, due to its abundance and affordability in the region, despite the heavily polluting nature of this energy source. Gasification of coal running on an integration gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) represents an option to reduce the environmental impacts of power generation from coal, but the decarbonization potential and suitability of IGCC in the context of Southeast Asia remain unclear. Using Singapore as an example, this paper presents a study on the life cycle analysis (LCA) of IGCC power generation with and without CCS based on a generic process-driven analysis method. We further evaluate the suitability of IGCC with and without CCS as an option to address the energy and climate objectives for the developing economies in Southeast Asia. Findings suggest that the current IGCC technology is a much less attractive option in the context of Southeast Asia when compared to other available power generation technologies, such as solar photovoltaic systems, coal with CCS, and potentially nuclear power technologies.

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