mdh.sePublikasjoner
Endre søk
Begrens søket
1 - 11 of 11
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Ehn, Micael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Modeling Specialization and Division of Labor in Cultural Evolution2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Division of labor and division of knowledge are so important and common in society today that it is difficult to imagine a functional society where everyone knows the same things and performs the same tasks. In such a society everyone grows, or gathers, and prepares their own food, makes their own tools, builds their own house, and so on.

    Cultural evolution is the field of research that studies the creation and diffusion of ideas and societies. It is very uncommon for these studies to take into account the effects of specialization. This thesis will show that specialization is of great importance to cultural evolution.

    The thesis is divided into two parts: The first is an introduction to studies of specialization and division of labor. The thesis begins with an interdisciplinary survey of the research on division of labor and specialization, including both theoretic and empirical studies. Next is an introduction to modeling specialization and division of labor. This includes a general framework and a number of basic models of different aspects of specialization and division of labor.

    Part two consists of four papers. The first paper studies the interaction between specialization and cultural cumulation. The second and third papers examine cultural cumulation, specifically the circumstances under which cultural knowledge increases and how cultural knowledge is distributed in the population. The last paper is a mathematical model of how specialization of knowledge (i.e. higher education) leads to social stratification.

  • 2.
    Ehn, Micael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    On the causes and effects of specialization: A mathematical approach2009Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Division of labor and division of knowledge are so important andcommon in society today that it is almost impossible to imagine asociety where everyone knows the same things and perform the sametasks. This would be a society where everyone grows, or gathers, andprepares their own food, makes their own tools, builds their ownhouse, and so on.

    Cultural evolution is the field of research that studies the creationand diffusion of ideas and societies. It is very uncommon for thesestudies to take into account the effects of specialization. Thisthesis will show that specialization is of great importance tocultural evolution.

    The thesis is divided into three parts: one introduction and two papers. The introduction covers the mathematical models used byeconomists to study the relation between the market and division oflabor. The first paper is an interdisciplinary survey of the researchon division of labor and specialization, including both theoretic andempirical studies. The second paper is a mathematical model of howspecialization of knowledge (i.e. higher education) leads to socialstratification. The model is tested against statistical data fromseveral countries and found to be a good predictor of the differencesin income between people of high and low education.

  • 3.
    Ehn, Micael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Specialization leads to feedback cycles in cultural evolutionManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the interaction between specialization and cul-tural evolution. Four key components are identified from publishedempirical studies: Culture, Specialization, Production and Popula-tion. Mathematical models are used to investigate the interactionsbetween the components and the behavior of the entire system. Theresults show that specialization is both a cause and an outcome of cul-tural cumulation, which creates feedback cycles in cultural evolution.The feedback cycles can explain the drastic increase in innovation ratewe have observed throughout human history. Specialization is there-fore argued to be an integral part in understanding cultural evolution.

  • 4.
    Ehn, Micael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Temporal Discounting Leads to Social StratificationManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Social stratification is present in all modern societies. Do income dif-ferences simply reflect inherited differences in individual abilities and re-sources? If not, why does not everyone choose strategies that lead to highincome? This paper shows that the psychological phenomenon known astemporal discounting will lead to differences in educational attainmentand therefore social stratification in any society where the demand forworkers with a higher level of education is higher than for those witha lower level. The model is used to predict income differences betweenpeople with and without college education in seven developed countries,based only on official statistics of the cost and length of college education.The model explains 93 percent of the variance, strongly suggesting thattemporal discounting is a major factor behind income differences.

  • 5.
    Ehn, Micael
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Temporal discounting leads to social stratification2012Inngår i: The Journal of mathematical sociology, ISSN 0022-250X, E-ISSN 1545-5874, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 245-255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social stratification is present in all modern societies. Do income differences simply reflect inherited differences in individual abilities and resources? If not, why does not everyone choose strategies that lead to high income? This article shows that the psychological phenomenon known as temporal discounting will lead to differences in educational attainment and social stratification in any society where the demand for workers with a higher level of education is higher than for those with a lower level. The model is used to predict income differences between people with and without college education in seven developed countries, based only on official statistics of the cost and length of college education. The model explains 93% of the variance, strongly suggesting that temporal discounting is a major factor behind income differences.

  • 6.
    Ehn, Micael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Under what circumstances can copying lead to increased cultural diversity?Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In many models of cultural evolution, agents learn cultural elements either by individual learning (innovation) or social learning (copying). This paper investigates what kind of learning, or combination of the two kinds, maximizes the total number of cultural elements known in the population. In a model where both kinds of learning are equally efficient, we find that this maximum is achieved when only individual learning is used. Analysis and simulation is used to investigate how much more efficient social learning has to be for a mixed solution to appear. Two possible reasons for social learning being more efficient than innovation are identified.

  • 7.
    Ehn, Micael
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Laland, Kevin
    University of St Andrews.
    Adaptive Strategies for Cumulative Cultural LearningManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences therelative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers’ paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers’ Paradoxin a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  • 8.
    Ehn, Micael
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation. Stockholms universitet, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Laland, Kevin
    Stockholm University.
    Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning2012Inngår i: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 301, s. 103-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  • 9.
    Ehn, Micael
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Stymne, Anna-Carin
    Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Stockholms Universitet.
    Theoretic and Empirical studies of Division of Labor and Specialization: An interdisciplinary surveyManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive division of labor in human societies is one of the aspects that make them unique. There are many areas which are influenced by this division. The most obvious one might be the economy, where division of labor yields much higher production. However, as we will show in this survey, a lot of other areas which affect society are influenced by division of labor, such as population size and density, technology, trade, accumulation of knowledge, social stratification, political organization, and institutions. Even the size of the family is argued to be linked to division of labor and specialization.This review will discuss how specialization evolved, including both theoretical and empirical studies from several disciplines. We will also study different kinds of specialization, as well as how and in which areas specialization has an influence.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University.
    Ehn, Micael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Ubiquity and efficiency of restrictions on informal punishment rights2013Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, ISSN 1789-2082, E-ISSN 1589-7397, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 17-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over-punishment often occurs in anonymous peer-to-peer punishment in public goods game experiments where punishment is free for all. We report a public goods game experiment in which a condition where punishment rights were restricted to one other player per player yielded higher total welfare than a condition with unrestricted punishment. In the restricted punishment condition, there was much less punishment but high levels of cooperation were achieved nonetheless. This indicates that it may be beneficial to groups to restrict punishment rights. In a second study we presented respondents from many different countries with three scenarios constituting everyday social dilemmas of various kinds. Across countries, respondents tended to judge it as inappropriate for most involved parties to punish selfish individuals in the scenarios. Typically, only one party was judged to have the right to punish. Whereas much prior work has considered punishment as a public good that needs to be encouraged, these findings suggest that informal norms about sanctions tend to constrain punishment to certain individuals. Such norms may serve the function to harness the positive effects of punishment while containing the negative effects, and we suggest that they are likely to arise from learning.

  • 11. Morgan, T. J. H.
    et al.
    Rendell, L. E.
    Ehn, Micael
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Hoppitt, W.
    Laland, K. N.
    The evolutionary basis of human social learning2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 279, nr 1729, s. 653-662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information. Such dependence requires the complex integration of social and asocial information to generate effective learning and decision making. Recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favour adaptive learning strategies, but relevant empirical work is scarce and rarely examines multiple strategies or tasks. We tested nine hypotheses derived from theoretical models, running a series of experiments investigating factors affecting when and how humans use social information, and whether such behaviour is adaptive, across several computer-based tasks. The number of demonstrators, consensus among demonstrators, confidence of subjects, task difficulty, number of sessions, cost of asocial learning, subject performance and demonstrator performance all influenced subjects' use of social information, and did so adaptively. Our analysis provides strong support for the hypothesis that human social learning is regulated by adaptive learning rules.

1 - 11 of 11
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf