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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Bestoun
    et al.
    Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    Zamli, Kamal
    University Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Malaysia..
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    Constrained Interaction Testing: A Systematic Literature Study2017In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, IEEE Access, ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. PP, no 99Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction testing can be used to effectively detect faults that are otherwise difficult to find by other testing techniques. However, in practice, the input configurations of software systems are subjected to constraints, especially in the case of highly configurable systems. Handling constraints effectively and efficiently in combinatorial interaction testing is a challenging problem. Nevertheless, researchers have attacked this challenge through different techniques, and much progress has been achieved in the past decade. Thus, it is useful to reflect on the current achievements and shortcomings and to identify potential areas of improvements. This paper presents the first comprehensive and systematic literature study to structure and categorize the research contributions for constrained interaction testing. Following the guidelines of conducting a literature study, the relevant data is extracted from a set of 103 research papers belonging to constrained interaction testing. The topics addressed in constrained interaction testing research are classified into four categories of constraint test generation, application, generation & application and model validation studies. The papers within each of these categories are extensively reviewed. Apart from answering several other research questions, this study also discusses the applications of constrained interaction testing in several domains such as software product lines, fault detection & characterization, test selection, security and GUI testing. The study ends with a discussion of limitations, challenges and future work in the area.

  • 2.
    Alvarez, Ines
    et al.
    Univ Balearic Isl UIB, Dept Math & Informat, Palma De Mallorca 07122, Spain..
    Moutinho, Luis
    Inst Telecomunicacoes IT, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal.;Escola Super Tecnol & Gestao Agueda ESTGA, P-3750127 Agueda, Portugal..
    Pedreiras, Paulo
    Inst Telecomunicacoes IT, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal.;Univ Aveiro UA, Dept Elect Telecommun & Informat, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal..
    Bujosa Mateu, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Proenza, Julian
    Univ Balearic Isl UIB, Dept Math & Informat, Palma De Mallorca 07122, Spain..
    Almeida, Luis
    Univ Porto FEUP, Fac Engn, Elect & Comp Engn Dept, P-4200465 Porto, Portugal.;Res Ctr Real Time & Embedded Comp Syst CISTER, P-4249015 Porto, Portugal..
    Comparing Admission Control Architectures for Real-Time Ethernet2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 136260-136260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 and Autonomous Driving are emerging resource-intensive distributed application domains that deal with open and evolving environments. These systems are subject to stringent resource, timing, and other non-functional constraints, as well as frequent reconfiguration. Thus, real-time behavior must not preclude operational flexibility. This combination is motivating ongoing efforts within the Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) standardization committee to define admission control mechanisms for Ethernet. Existing mechanisms in TSN, like those of AVB, its predecessor, follow a distributed architecture that favors scalability. Conversely, the new mechanisms envisaged for TSN (IEEE 802.1Qcc) follow a (partially) centralized architecture, favoring short reconfiguration latency. This paper shows the first quantitative comparison between distributed and centralized admission control architectures concerning reconfiguration latency. Here, we compare AVB against a dynamic real-time reconfigurable Ethernet technology with centralized management, namely HaRTES. Our experiments show a significantly lower latency using the centralized architecture. We also observe the dependence of the distributed architecture in the end nodes & x2019; performance and the benefit of having a protected channel for the admission control transactions.

  • 3.
    Alvarez, Ines
    et al.
    Univ Balearic Islands UIB, Dept Math & Informat, Palma De Mallorca, Spain..
    Moutinho, Luis
    Inst Telecomunicacoes IT, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal.;Escola Super Tecnol & Gestao Agueda ESTGA, P-3750127 Agueda, Portugal..
    Pedreiras, Paulo
    Inst Telecomunicacoes IT, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal.;Univ Aveiro UA, Dept Elect Telecommun & Informat, P-3810193 Aveiro, Portugal..
    Bujosa Mateu, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Proenza, Julian
    Univ Balearic Islands UIB, Dept Math & Informat, Palma De Mallorca, Spain..
    Almeida, Luis
    Univ Porto FEUP, Elect & Comp Engn Dept, Fac Engn, P-4200465 Porto, Portugal.;Res Ctr Real Time & Embedded Comp Syst CISTER, P-4249015 Porto, Portugal..
    Comparing Admission Control Architectures for Real-Time Ethernet (vol 8, pg 105521, 2020)2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 136260-136260Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Azari, Mehdi Saman
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Dept Comp Sci & Media Technol, S-35195 Växjö, Sweden..
    Flammini, Francesco
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Linnaeus Univ, Dept Comp Sci & Media Technol, S-35195 Växjö, Sweden.
    Santini, Stefania
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Elect Engn & Informat Technol, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnaeus Univ, Dept Comp Sci & Media Technol, S-35195 Växjö, Sweden..
    A Systematic Literature Review on Transfer Learning for Predictive Maintenance in Industry 4.02023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 12887-12910Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of Industry 4.0 has resulted in the widespread usage of novel paradigms and digital technologies within industrial production and manufacturing systems. The objective of making industrial operations monitoring easier also implied the usage of more effective data-driven predictive maintenance approaches, including those based on machine learning. Although those approaches are becoming increasingly popular, most of the traditional machine learning and deep learning algorithms experience the following three major challenges: 1) lack of training data (especially faulty data), 2) incompatible computation power, and 3) discrepancy in data distribution. A new data-driven technique, such as transfer learning, can be developed to overcome the issues related to traditional machine learning and deep learning for predictive maintenance. Motivated by the recent big interest towards transfer learning within computer science and artificial intelligence, in this paper we provide a systematic literature review addressing related research with a focus on predictive maintenance. The review aims to define transfer learning in the context of predictive maintenance by introducing a specific taxonomy based on relevant perspectives. We also discuss current advances, challenges, open-source datasets, and future directions of transfer learning applications in predictive maintenance from both theoretical and practical viewpoints.

  • 5.
    Bajracharya, Rojeena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Shrestha, Rakesh
    Res Inst Sweden RISE, S-72212 Västerås, Sweden..
    Hassan, Syed Ali
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan..
    Jung, Haejoon
    Kyung Hee Univ, Dept Elect & Informat Convergence Engn, Yongin 17104, South Korea..
    Shin, Hyundong
    Kyung Hee Univ, Dept Elect & Informat Convergence Engn, Yongin 17104, South Korea..
    5G and Beyond Private Military Communication: Trend, Requirements, Challenges and Enablers2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 83996-84012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication networks are becoming increasingly important in military operations, with task fields like time-critical targeting, covert special operations, command and control, training, and logistics, all relying heavily on the communication network and its services. On the other hand, commercial communication has dramatically transformed our society and the way we communicate. The newest network mode at present, 5G and beyond (5GB), is characterized by high speed, low latency, high reliability, and high communication density. Although the use of 5GB commercial networks for defense agencies can offer greater flexibility and efficiency, they also face a new challenge that requires high standards of network protection and harsh working conditions and environments. In this paper, we discuss the significance of communication networks in several potential military applications, particularly for warfare, training/drilling, logistics, and special mission-specific stations. We present the communication trends adopted in military applications. Then, we open up various 5GB key performance indexes and their use cases for the military communication systems. We also elaborate on unique challenges of the military communication networks that are unlikely to be resolved via commercial 5GB research. The various 5GB enabling technologies for military communication systems are discussed. Lastly, we present and analyze 5GB new radio for the private military communication under C-band.

  • 6.
    Bajracharya, Rojeena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Shrestha, Rakesh
    Res Inst Sweden RISE, S-72212 Västerås, Sweden..
    Jung, Haejoon
    Kyung Hee Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Yongin 17104, South Korea..
    Shin, Hyundong
    Kyung Hee Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Yongin 17104, South Korea..
    Neutral Host Technology: The Future of Mobile Network Operators2022In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 99221-99234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neutral host network (NHN) is a new self-contained network envisioned by fifth generation (5G) of cellular networks, which offers wireless connection to its subscribers from a variety of service providers, including both conventional mobile network operators and non-conventional service providers. The NHN infrastructure, which is operated and maintained by a third neutral party, is rented or leased to network operators looking to scale up their network capacities and coverage in a cost-effective way. This paper highlights NHN as an emerging communication technology for private networks and discuss its opportunities and challenges in realizing multi-tenanted space such as factory, hospitals, stadiums, and universities. The paper also investigates the current state of the art in NHN and elaborates on the underlying enabling technologies for the NHN. Lastly, an efficient radio access network (RAN) slicing scheme based on the multi-arm bandit approach has been proposed to allocate radio resources to various slices, which maximizes resource utilization while guaranteeing the availability of resources to meet the capacity needs of each multi-tenanted operator. The simulation results show that the proposed Thompson's sampling (TS)-based approach performs best in finding the optimal RAN slice for all the operators.

  • 7.
    Baloch, Naveed Khan
    et al.
    Univ Engn & Technol Taxila, Comp Engn Dept, Taxila 47040, Pakistan..
    Baig, Muhammad Iram
    Univ Engn & Technol Taxila, Elect Engn Dept, Taxila 47040, Pakistan..
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Defender: A Low Overhead and Efficient Fault-Tolerant Mechanism for Reliable on-Chip Router2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 142843-142854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ever-shrinking size of a transistor has made Network on Chip (NoC) susceptible to faults. A single error in the NoC can disrupt the entire communication. In this paper, we introduce Defender, a fault-tolerant router architecture, that is capable of tolerating permanent faults in all the parts of the router. We intend to employ structural modifications in baseline router design to achieve fault tolerance. In Defender we provide the fault tolerance to the input ports and routing computation unit by grouping the neighboring ports together. Default winner strategy is used to provide fault resilience to the virtual channel arbiters and switch allocators. Multiple routes are provided to the crossbar to tolerate the faults. Defender provides improved fault tolerance to all stages of routers as compared to the currently prevailing fault tolerant router architectures. Reliability analysis using silicon protection factor (SPF) and Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) metrics confirms that our proposed design Defender is 10.78 times more reliable than baseline unprotected router and then the current state of the art architectures.

  • 8.
    Barua, Arnab
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Systematic Literature Review on Multimodal Machine Learning: Applications, Challenges, Gaps and Future Directions2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 14804-14831Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimodal machine learning (MML) is a tempting multidisciplinary research area where heterogeneous data from multiple modalities and machine learning (ML) are combined to solve critical problems. Usually, research works use data from a single modality, such as images, audio, text, and signals. However, real-world issues have become critical now, and handling them using multiple modalities of data instead of a single modality can significantly impact finding solutions. ML algorithms play an essential role in tuning parameters in developing MML models. This paper reviews recent advancements in the challenges of MML, namely: representation, translation, alignment, fusion and co-learning, and presents the gaps and challenges. A systematic literature review (SLR) was applied to define the progress and trends on those challenges in the MML domain. In total, 1032 articles were examined in this review to extract features like source, domain, application, modality, etc. This research article will help researchers understand the constant state of MML and navigate the selection of future research directions.

  • 9.
    Biabani, Morteza
    et al.
    Univ Tehran, Sch Elect & Comp Engn, Coll Engn, Tehran, Iran..
    Yazdani, Nasser
    Univ Tehran, Sch Elect & Comp Engn, Coll Engn, Tehran, Iran..
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    REFIT: Robustness Enhancement Against Cascading Failure in IoT Networks2021In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 9, p. 40768-40782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been tremendous growth in the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, and many new applications have emerged. However, cascading failure as one of the major issues in such constrained networks have been neglected. In this paper, we apply an effective clustering approach dubbed as REFIT to enhance network topology robustness via nodes' residual energy. The REFIT protocol divides the network processes into two stages, (i) set-up state and (ii) steady state. The Cluster Head (CH) selection method determines the supreme set of CHs that balances load distribution. The routing method is developed with the modified Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm and the objective function to find the supreme set of Relay Nodes (RNs). These complete methods are combined into a set-up state to construct an optimal routing tree that links these CHs to the sink via RNs. In steady state, we model the routing tree to Conditional Directed Acyclic Graph (C-DAG) infrastructure that leads to shortcut routes. Simulation results on MATLAB Simulink have demonstrated that compared with the state-of-the-art works, REFIT can significantly promote network robustness against cascading failure.

  • 10.
    Brahneborg, Daniel
    et al.
    Braxo AB, S-11864 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Duvignau, Romaric
    Chalmers Tekn Hgsk, Dept Comp Sci & Engn, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    GeoRep-Resilient Storage for Wide Area Networks2022In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 75772-75788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems typically have limited processing and storage capabilities, and may only intermittently be powered on. After sending data from its sensors upstream, the system must therefore be able to trust that the data, once acknowledged, is not lost. The purpose of this work is to propose a novel solution for replicating data between the upstream nodes in such systems, with a minimal effect on the software architecture. On the assumption that there is no relative order between replicated data tuples, we designed a new replication protocol based on partial replication. Our protocol uses only 2 communication steps per data tuple, instead of the 3 to 12 used by other solutions. We verified its failover mechanism in a proof-of-concept implementation of the protocol using simulated network failures, and evaluated the implementation on throughput and latency in several controlled experiments using up to 7 nodes in up to 5 geographically separated areas, with up to 1000 data producers per node. The recorded system throughput increased linearly relative to both the number of nodes and the number of data producers. For comparison, Paxos showed a performance similar to our protocol when using 3 nodes, but got slower as more nodes were added. The lack of a relative order, in combination with partial replication, enables our system to continue working during network partitions, not only in the part containing the majority of the nodes, but also in any sufficiently large minority partitions.

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  • 11.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eramo, Romina
    University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy..
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    MoVES: a Model-driven methodology for Vehicular Embedded Systems2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, p. 6424-6445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel model-driven methodology for the software development of real-time distributed vehicular embedded systems on single- and multi-core platforms. The proposed methodology discloses the opportunity of improving the cost-efficiency of the development process by providing automated support to identify viable design solutions with respect to selected non-functional requirements. To this end, it leverages the interplay of modelling languages for the vehicular domain whose integration is achieved by a suite of model transformations. An instantiation of the methodology is discussed for timing requirements, which are among the most critical ones for vehicular systems. To support the design of temporally correct systems, a cooperation between EAST-ADL and the Rubus Component Model is opportunely built-up by means of model transformations, enabling timing-aware design and model-based timing analysis of the system. The applicability of the methodology is demonstrated as proof of concepts on industrial use cases performed in cooperation with our industrial partners.

  • 12.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Metamodel for the Rubus Component Model: Extensions for Timing and Model Transformation from EAST-ADL2017In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, ISSN 2169-3536, p. 9005-9020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Model-Driven Engineering paradigm, one of the entry requirements when realising a seamless tool chain for the development of software is the definition of metamodels, to regulate the specification of models, and model transformations, for automating manipulations of models. In this context, we present a metamodel definition for the Rubus Component Model, an industrial solution used for the development of vehicular embedded systems. The metamodel includes the definition of structural elements as well as elements for describing timing information. In order to show how, using Model-Driven Engineering, the integration between different modelling levels can be automated, we present a model-to-model transformation between models conforming to EAST-ADL and models described by means of the Rubus Component Model. To validate our solution, we exploit a set of industrial automotive applications to show the applicability of both the Rubus Component Model metamodel and the model transformation.

  • 13.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Di Ruscio, Davide
    University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy.
    Malavolta, Ivano
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Pelliccione, Patrizio
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adopting MDE for Specifying and Executing Civilian Missions of Mobile Multi-Robot Systems2016In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, ISSN 21693536, Vol. 4, p. 6451-6466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are meant to replace humans for a broad variety of everyday tasks such as environmental monitoring or patrolling large public areas for security assurance. The main focus of researchers and practitioners thus far has been on providing tailored software and hardware solutions for very specific and often complex tasks. On one hand, these solutions display, in some cases, great potential and provide advanced capabilities for solving the specific task. On the other hand, the polarized attention to task-specific solutions makes them hard to reuse and combined. In this paper we propose a family of domain-specific modeling languages for the specification of civilian missions of mobile multi-robot systems. These missions are meant to be described in terms of models that are (i) closer to the general problem domain, (ii) independent from the underlying technologies, (ii)i ready to be analyzed, simulated, and executed, and (iv) extensible to new application domains, thus opening up the use of robots to even non-technical operators. Moreover, we show the applicability of the proposed family of languages in two real-world application domains: unmanned multicopters and autonomous underwater vehicles.

  • 14.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Corcoran, Diarmuid
    Ericsson Software Research.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Alten Sverige AB.
    UML-based Development of Embedded Real-Time Software on Multi-core in Practice: Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives2016In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-Driven Engineering has got a foothold in industry as an effective way to tame the complexity of modern software which is meant to run on embedded systems with real-time constraints by promoting abstraction, in terms of prescriptive models, and automation, in terms of model manipulations. In the plethora of modelling languages, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has emerged and established itself as a de facto standard in industry, the most widely used architectural description language and an ISO/IEC standard. In the SMARTCore project we have provided solutions for UML-based development of software to run on multicore embedded real-time systems with the specific focus of automating the generation of executable code and the optimization of task allocation based on a unique combination of model-based and execution-based mechanisms. In this paper we describe the lessons learned in the research work carried out within SMARTCore and provide a set of perspectives that we consider to be highly relevant for the forthcoming future of this research area to enable a wider adoption of UML-based development in industry in general, and in the multicore embedded real-time domain in particular.

  • 15.
    Dehlaghi Ghadim, Alireza
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Res Inst, S-50115 Pitea, Sweden..
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Res Inst, S-50115 Pitea, Sweden..
    Anomaly Detection Dataset for Industrial Control Systems2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 107982-107996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades, Industrial Control Systems (ICS) have been targeted by cyberattacks and are becoming increasingly vulnerable as more ICSs are connected to the internet. Using Machine Learning (ML) for Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) is a promising approach for ICS cyber protection, but the lack of suitable datasets for evaluating ML algorithms is a challenge. Although a few commonly used datasets may not reflect realistic ICS network data, lack necessary features for effective anomaly detection, or be outdated. This paper introduces the 'ICS-Flow' dataset, which offers network data and process state variables logs for supervised and unsupervised ML-based IDS assessment. The network data includes normal and anomalous network packets and flows captured from simulated ICS components and emulated networks, where the anomalies were applied to the system through various cyberattacks. We also proposed an open-source tool, "ICSFlowGenerator," for generating network flow parameters from Raw network packets. The final dataset comprises over 25,000,000 raw network packets, network flow records, and process variable logs. The paper describes the methodology used to collect and label the dataset and provides a detailed data analysis. Finally, we implement several ML models, including the decision tree, random forest, and artificial neural network to detect anomalies and attacks, demonstrating that our dataset can be used effectively for training intrusion detection ML models.

  • 16.
    Faramondi, L.
    et al.
    Unit of Automatic Control, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Guarino, S.
    University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Setola, R.
    Unit of Automatic Control, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    A Hardware-in-the-Loop Water Distribution Testbed Dataset for Cyber-Physical Security Testing2021In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 9, p. 122385-1223896, article id 9526562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a dataset to support researchers in the validation process of solutions such as Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) based on artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques for the detection and categorization of threats in Cyber Physical Systems (CPS). To this end, data were acquired from a hardware-in-the-loop Water Distribution Testbed (WDT) which emulates water flowing between eight tanks via solenoid-valves, pumps, pressure and flow sensors. The testbed is composed of a real subsystem that is virtually connected to a simulated one. The proposed dataset encompasses both physical and network data in order to highlight the consequences of attacks in the physical process as well as in network traffic behaviour. Simulations data are organized in four different acquisitions for a total duration of 2 hours by considering normal scenario and multiple anomalies due to cyber and physical attacks.

  • 17.
    Faruqui, Nuruzzaman
    et al.
    Daffodil International University, Bangladesh.
    Kabir, Md Alamgir
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Yousuf, Mohammad Abu
    Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh.
    Whaiduzzaman, Md
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Barros, Alistair
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Mahmud, Imran
    Daffodil International University, Bangladesh.
    Trackez: An IoT-based 3D-Object Tracking from 2D Pixel Matrix using Mez and FSL Algorithm2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, p. 1-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The imaging devices sense light reflected from objects and reconstruct images using the 2D-sensor matrix. It is a 2D Cartesian coordinate system where the depth dimension is absent. The absence of a depth axis on 2D images imposes challenges in locating and tracking objects in a 3D environment. Real-time object tracking faces another challenge imposed by network latency. This paper presents the development and analysis of a real-time, real-world object tracker called Trackez, which is capable of tracking within the top hemisphere. It uses Machine Vision at the IoT Edge (Mez) technology to mitigate latency sensitivity. A novel algorithm, Follow-Satisfy-Loop (FSL), has been developed and implemented in this paper that optimally tracks the target. It does not require the depth-axis. The simple and innovative design and incorporation of Mez technology have made the proposed object tracker a latency-insensitive, Z-axis-independent, and effective system. The Trackez reduces the average latency by 85.08% and improves the average accuracy by 81.71%. The object tracker accurately tracks objects moving in regular and irregular patterns at up to 5.4 speed. This accurate, latency tolerant, and Z-axis independent tracking system contributes to developing a better robotics system that requires object tracking.

  • 18.
    Ferko, Enxhi
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Architecting Digital Twins2022In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 50335-50350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2002, Grieves defined the concept of the digital twin as a virtual instance of physical assets capable of continuously mirroring them. Ever since then, driven by remarkable industrial attention, digital twins flourished and ripened in several sectors. The notable industrial adoption has been sided by a growing interest from the software engineering community in general and the software architecture community in particular as demonstrated by the growing number of published peer-reviewed publications and proposed software architectural solutions for digital twins. In this paper, we report on the planning, execution, and results of a systematic mapping study on architecting digital twins. The study captures crucial aspects of software architectures for digital twins as types of architectural solutions, quality attributes, and architectural patterns. It supports practitioners in creating digital twins tailored to their specific needs and researchers in identifying trends and open challenges. Starting from an initial set of potentially relevant 1630 peer-reviewed publications, we selected 140 primary studies. We analysed the set of primary studies using thorough data extraction, analysis, and synthesis process. To compensate for single method limitations and reduce possible threats to conclusion validity, we discussed the results of our study with experts in the software architecture community. Based on our results, the field of software architecture for digital twins is lively and an increasing number of architectural solutions are being proposed. Although there is a lack of widely accepted reference architectural solutions for digital twins, most of them are built using a combination of the layered and service-oriented patterns and address maintainability, performance efficiency, and compatibility quality attributes.

  • 19.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Systematic Literature Study on Definition and Modeling of Service-Level Agreements for Cloud Services in IoT2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 134498-134513, article id 9146632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cloud computing paradigm provides remote computing resources to the cloud service consumers and businesses. When combined with Internet of Things (IoT), both technologies open up a wide range of new possibilities for more agile and flexible applications. However, guaranteed quality of service is essential in provisioning of cloud services, which makes Service Level Agreements (SLAs) a focal point in the cloud computing and IoT ecosystem. The SLA definition and modeling phase is crucial in establishing SLAs between service providers and consumers. This paper identifies that the research on definition and modeling of SLAs for cloud services in IoT is widely dispersed and there is a lack of a systematic and comprehensive literature review. Thus, in this paper we build on top of a previously conducted systematic mapping study on management of SLAs for cloud computing and IoT to perform a comprehensive systematic review and discuss sub-categorization of the definition and modeling aspects of SLAs for cloud services in IoT. Furthermore we analyze the extracted relevant literature, present commonalities in the studies, identify gaps and discuss opportunities for further research in the area. 

  • 20.
    Javed, Haseeb
    et al.
    Muhammad Nawaz Sharif Univ Engn & Technol, Dept Elect Engn, Multan 66000, Pakistan..
    Muqeet, Hafiz Abdul
    Punjab Tianjin Univ Technol, Dept Elect Engn Technol, Lahore 54770, Pakistan..
    Javed, Tahir
    Natl Univ Comp & Emerging Sci NUCES, Dept Comp Sci, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan..
    Rehman, Atiq Ur
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sadiq, Rizwan
    Cent Asian Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Tashkent 111221, Uzbekistan..
    Ethical Frameworks for Machine Learning in Sensitive Healthcare Applications2024In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 12, p. 16233-16254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of Machine Learning (ML) in healthcare has opened unprecedented avenues for predictive analytics, diagnostics, and personalized medicine. However, the sensitivity of healthcare data and the ethical dilemmas associated with automated decision-making necessitate a rigorous ethical framework. This review paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing ethical frameworks that guide ML in healthcare and evaluates their adequacy in ad-dressing ethical challenges. Specifically, this article offers an in-depth examination of prevailing ethical constructs that oversee healthcare ML, spotlighting pivotal concerns: data protection, in-formed assent, equity, and patient autonomy. Various analytical approaches including quantitative metrics, statistical methods for bias detection, and qualitative thematic analyses are applied to address these challenges. Insights are further enriched through case studies of Clinical Decision Support Systems, Remote Patient Monitoring, and Telemedicine Applications. Each case is evaluated against existing ethical frameworks to identify limitations and gaps. Based on our com-prehensive review and evaluation, we propose actionable recommendations for evolving ethical guidelines. The paper concludes by summarizing key findings and underscoring the urgent need for robust ethical frameworks to guide ML applications in sensitive healthcare environments. Future work should focus on the development and empirical validation of new ethical frameworks that can adapt to emerging technologies and ethical dilemmas in healthcare ML.

  • 21.
    Leander, Bjorn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB Proc Automat, S-72180 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindstrom, Tomas
    ABB AB Proc Automat, S-72180 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Toward an Ideal Access Control Strategy for Industry 4.0 Manufacturing Systems2021In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 9, p. 114037-114050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial control systems control and supervise our most important and critical infrastructures, such as power utilities, clean water plants and nuclear plants, as well as the manufacturing industries at the base of our economy. These systems are currently undergoing a transformation driven by the Industry 4.0 evolution, characterized by increased connectivity and flexibility. Consequently, the cybersecurity threat landscape for industrial control systems is evolving as well. Current strategies used for access control within industrial control systems are relatively rudimentary. It is evident that some of the emerging cybersecurity threats related to Industry 4.0 could be better mitigated using more fine-grained access control policies. In this article we discuss and describe a number of access control strategies that could be used within manufacturing systems. We evaluate the strategies in a simulation experiment, using a number of attack-scenarios. Moreover, a method is outlined for automatic policy-generation based on engineering-data, which is aligned with one of the best performing strategies.

  • 22.
    Lin, Jing
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Division of Operation and Maintenance, Luleå; University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    Division of Measurement Science and Technologies, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Mylly, Nina
    Division of Measurement Science and Technologies, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Bollen, Math
    Division of Energy Science, Luleå; University of Technology, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Shen, Jingchun
    Division of Construction Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Xiong, Jiawei
    Division of Operation and Maintenance, Luleå; University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Silfvenius, Christofer
    SCANIA Technical Center, SCANIA AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Human-Centric and Integrative Lighting Asset Management in Public Libraries: Qualitative Insights and Challenges From a Swedish Field Study2024In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 12, p. 40905-40921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional reliability evaluation of lighting sources often assesses only 50% of a lamp’s volume, which can lead to performance disparities and misapplications due to their limited reflection of real-world scenarios. To address the limitations, it is essential to adopt advanced asset management approaches that enhance awareness and provide a more comprehensive evaluation framework. This paper delves into the nuances of human-centric and integrative lighting asset management in Swedish public libraries, employing a qualitative field study to ascertain the alignment of current practices with these advanced lighting principles. Expanding library services to 20 high-latitude locations (>55° N) in Sweden, our research employed field observations, stakeholder interviews, and questionnaires, coupled with a thorough gap analysis, to understand the current landscape and stakeholder perceptions. Our findings reveal a dichotomy between the existing conditions of library lighting and the stakeholders’ experiences and expectations. Despite the intention to create conducive environments, there is a clear disconnect, with overt problems and covert challenges affecting user satisfaction and efficacy of lighting management. Managers, staff, and users reported varied concerns, including eye strain and discomfort, indicative of substantial room for improvement. The study advocates for a paradigm shift in not only lighting asset management but also reliability evaluation of lighting sources, moving toward continuous improvement, and enhanced awareness and training on human-centric and integrative lighting principles.

  • 23.
    Lv, C.
    et al.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Yu, H.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Li, P.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Zhao, K.
    State Grid Customer Service Centre, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, S.
    State Grid Customer Service Centre, Tianjin, China.
    Coordinated Operation and Planning of Integrated Electricity and Gas Community Energy System with Enhanced Operational Resilience2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 59257-59277, article id 9044352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling in integrated electricity and gas community energy system (IEGS) provides alternative operation modes when unpredictable outages occur at energy-supply sides. Reasonable operation strategies and system configuration can effectively improve the system's resilience, making reliable and continuous operation feasible. Based on the complementary characteristics and reserve capabilities of IEGS, this paper proposes a multi-stage scheduling strategy for resilience enhancement in which thermal storage serves as emergency response resources. The resilient scheduling framework consists of rolling reserve optimization stage, day-ahead economic dispatch stage and fault restoration stage. With the reserve capacity of energy storage generated by rolling optimization and day-ahead dispatch, multiple forms' critical loads will be satisfied in priority when outage occurs on energy-supply sides. Furthermore, a two-level planning model integrating the resilient operation strategy is formulated to better adapt to the source emergency. The proposed planning method is applied to an IEGS with practical demands as a case study. The results show that the configuration generated by the two-level planning model can satisfy the daily reserve requirements for emergency failures, and the resilient scheduling strategy with storage reserve can improve the system resilience effectively.

  • 24.
    Markovic, Tijana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Leon, Miguel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Leander, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Modular Ice Cream Factory Dataset on Anomalies in Sensors to Support Machine Learning Research in Manufacturing Systems2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 29744-29758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A small deviation in manufacturing systems can cause huge economic losses, and all components and sensors in the system must be continuously monitored to provide an immediate response. The usual industrial practice is rather simplistic based on brute force checking of limited set of parameters often with pessimistic pre-defined bounds. The usage of appropriate machine learning techniques can be very valuable in this context to narrow down the set of parameters to monitor, define more refined bounds, and forecast impending issues. One of the factors hampering progress in this field is the lack of datasets that can realistically mimic the behaviours of manufacturing systems. In this paper, we propose a new dataset called MIDAS (Modular Ice cream factory Dataset on Anomalies in Sensors) to support machine learning research in analog sensor data. MIDAS is created using a modular manufacturing simulation environment that simulates the ice cream-making process. Using MIDAS, we evaluated four different supervised machine learning algorithms (Logistic Regression, Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Multilayer Perceptron) for two different problems: anomaly detection and anomaly classification. The results showed that multilayer perceptron is the most suitable algorithm with respect to model accuracy and execution time. We have made the data set and the code for the experiments publicly available, to enable interested researchers to enhance the state of the art by conducting further studies.

  • 25.
    Masud, Abu Naser
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Automatic Inference of Task Parallelism in Task-graph-based Actor Models2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 78965-78991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic inference of task level parallelism is fundamental for ensuring many kinds of safety and liveness properties of parallel applications. For example, two tasks running in parallel may be involved in data races when they have conflicting memory accesses, or one is affecting the termination of another by updating shared variables. In this article, we have considered a task-graph-based actor model, used in signal processing applications (e.g., baseband processing in wireless communication, LTE uplink processing) that are deployed on many-core platforms, in which actors, task-graphs and tasks are the active entities running in parallel. Actors invoke task graphs, which in turn invoke tasks, and they communicate through message passing, thus creating different kinds of dependencies and parallelism in the application. We introduce a novel May Happen in Parallel (MHP) analysis for complex parallel applications based on our computational model. The MHP analysis consists of (i) data-flow analysis applicable to parallel control-flow structures inferring MHP facts representing pairs of tasks running in parallel, (ii) identification of all direct and indirect communication by generating a context-free grammar and enumerating valid strings representing parallelism and dependencies among active entities, and (iii) inferring MHP facts when multiple task-graphs communicate. Our analysis is applicable to other computational models (e.g. Cilk or X10) too. We have fully implemented our analysis and evaluated it on signal processing applications consisting of a maximum of 36.57 million lines of code representing 232 different tasks. The analysis approximately 7 minutes to identify all communication information and 10.5 minutes to identify 12052 executable parallel task-pairs (to analyse for concurrency bugs) proving that our analysis is scalable for industrial-sized code-bases.

  • 26.
    Miloradović, Branko
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Optimizing Parallel Task Execution for Multi-Agent Mission Planning2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 24367-24381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-agent systems have received a tremendous amount of attention in many areas of research and industry, especially in robotics and computer science. With the increased number of agents in missions, the problem of allocation of tasks to agents arose, and it is one of the most fundamental classes of problems in robotics, formally known as the Multi-Robot Task Allocation (MRTA) problem. MRTA encapsulates numerous problem dimensions, and it aims at providing formulations and solutions to various problem configurations, i.e., complex multi-agent missions. One dimension of the MRTA problem has not caught much of the research attention. In particular, problem configurations including Multi-Task (MT) robots have been neglected. However, the increase in computational power, in robotic systems, has allowed the utilization of parallel task execution. This in turn had the benefit of allowing the creation of more complex robotic missions; however, it came at the cost of increased problem complexity. Our contribution to the aforementioned domain can be grouped into three categories. First, we model the problem using two different approaches, Integer Linear Programming and Constraint Programming. With these models, we aim at filling the gap in the literature related to the formal definition of MT robot problem configuration. Second, we introduce the distinction between physical and virtual tasks and their mutual relationship in terms of parallel task execution. This distinction allows the modeling of a wider range of missions while exploiting possible parallel task execution. Finally, we provide a comprehensive performance analysis of both models, by implementing and validating them in CPLEX and CP Optimizer on the set of problems. Each problem consists of the same set of test instances gradually increasing in complexity, while the percentage of virtual tasks in each problem is different. The analysis of the results includes exploration of the scalability of both models and solvers, the effect of virtual tasks on the solvers' performance, and overall solution quality.

  • 27.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Management of Service Level Agreements for Cloud Services in IoT: A Systematic Mapping Study2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 30184-30207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) are computing technologies that provide services to consumers and businesses, allowing organizations to become more agile and flexible. Therefore, ensuring Quality of Service (QoS) through Service Level Agreements (SLAs) for such cloud-based services is crucial for both the service providers and service consumers. As SLAs are critical for cloud deployments and wider adoption of cloud services, the management of SLAs in cloud and IoT has thus become an important and essential aspect. This paper investigates the existing research on the management of SLAs in IoT applications that are based on cloud services. For this purpose, a Systematic Mapping study (a well-defined method) is conducted to identify the published research results that are relevant to SLAs. The paper identifies 328 primary studies and categorizes them into seven main technical classifications: SLA management, SLA definition, SLA modeling, SLA negotiation, SLA monitoring, SLA violation and trustworthiness, and SLA evolution. The paper also summarizes the research types, research contributions, and demographic information in these studies. The evaluation of the results show that most of the approaches for managing SLAs are applied in academic or controlled experiments with limited industrial settings rather than in real industrial environments. Many studies focus on proposal models and methods to manage SLAs, and there is a lack of focus on the evolution perspective and a lack of adequate tool support to facilitate practitioners in their SLA management activities. Moreover, the scarce number of studies focusing on concrete metrics for qualitative or quantitative assessment of QoS in SLAs urges the need for in-depth research on metrics definition and measurements for SLAs.

  • 28.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nikolaidis, Pavlos
    Mälardalen University.
    Didic, Alma
    Mälardalen University.
    Pei Breivold, Hongyu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden .
    Sandström, Kristian
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden .
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Delay Mitigation in Offloaded Cloud Controllers in Industrial IoT2017In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, ISSN 21693536, Vol. 5, p. 4418-4430, article id 7879156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the interplay of cloud computing, fog computing, and Internet of Things (IoT) in control applications targeting the automation industry. In this context, a prototype is developed to explore the use of IoT devices that communicate with a cloud-based controller, i.e., the controller is offloaded to cloud or fog. Several experiments are performed to investigate the consequences of having a cloud server between the end device and the controller. The experiments are performed while considering arbitrary jitter and delays, i.e., they can be smaller than, equal to, or greater than the sampling period. This paper also applies mitigation mechanisms to deal with the delays and jitter that are caused by the networks when the controller is offloaded to the fog or cloud.

  • 29.
    Nhan Vo, Van
    et al.
    Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    So-In, Chakchai
    Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
    Tran, Hung
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tran, Dung Duc
    Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    HENG, SOVANNARITH
    Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
    PHET, AIMTONGKHAM2
    Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
    ANH-NHAT, NGUYEN2
    Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
    On Security and Throughput for Energy Harvesting Untrusted Relays in IoT Systems Using NOMA2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the secrecy and throughput of multiple-input single-output (MISO) energy harvesting (EH) Internet of Things (IoT) systems, in which a multi-antenna base station (BS) transmits signals to IoT devices (IoTDs) with the help of relays. Specifically, the communication process is separated into two phases. In the first phase, the BS applies transmit antenna selection (TAS) to broadcast the signal to the relays and IoTDs by using non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). Here, the relays use power-splitting-based relaying (PSR) for EH and information processing. In the second phase, the selected relay employs the amplify-and-forward (AF) technique to forward the received signal to the IoTDs using NOMA. The information transmitted from the BS to the IoTD risks leakage by the relay, which is able to act as an eavesdropper (EAV) (i.e., an untrusted relay). To analyze the secrecy performance, we investigate three schemes: random-BS-best-relay (RBBR), best-BS-random-relay (BBRR), and best-BS-best-relay (BBBR). The physical layer secrecy (PLS) performance is characterized by deriving closed-form expressions of secrecy outage probability (SOP) for the IoTDs. A BS transmit power optimization algorithm is also proposed to achieve the best secrecy performance. Based on this, we then evaluate the system performance of the considered system, i.e., the outage probability and throughput. In addition, the impacts of the EH time, the power-splitting ratio, the numbers of BS antennas, and the numbers of untrusted relays on the SOP and throughput are investigated. The Monte Carlo approach is applied to verify our analytical results. Finally, the numerical examples indicate that the system performance of BBBR is greater than that of RBBR and BBRR.

  • 30.
    Partovian, Sania
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Sigma Technology Information, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Thornadtsson, Johan
    Sigma Technology Information, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Analysis of log files to enable smart-troubleshooting in Industry 4.0: a systematic mapping studyIn: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A crucial element of Industry 4.0, is the utilization of smart devices that generate log files. Log files are key components containing data on system operations, faults (unexpected glitches or malfunctions), errors (mistakes or incorrect actions), and failures (complete breakdowns or non-functionality). This paper presents a systematic mapping study analyzing research conducted on log files for smart-troubleshooting in Industry 4.0. To the best of our knowledge, this is the study that aims to identify research trends, log file attributes, techniques, and challenges involved in log file analysis for smart-troubleshooting. From an initial set of 941 potentially relevant peer-reviewed publications, 74 primary studies were selected and analyzed using a meticulous data extraction, analysis, and synthesis process. The results of the study demonstrate that the majority of research has focused on developing algorithms for log analysis, with machine learning being the most commonly used approach. The smart-troubleshooting encompasses a range of activities and tools that are essential for collecting failure data generated by diverse interconnected devices, conducting analyses, and aligning them with troubleshooting instructions and software remedies. Moreover, the study identifies the need for further research in the areas of real-time log analysis, anomaly detection, and the integration of log analysis with other Industry 4.0 technologies. In conclusion, our study provides insights into the current state of research in log analysis for smart-troubleshooting in Industry 4.0 and identifies areas for future research. The use of smart devices generating log files in Industry 4.0 highlights the importance of log file analysis for troubleshooting purposes. Further research is needed to address the challenges and opportunities in this field to integrate log analysis with other Industry 4.0 technologies for performing more efficient and effective troubleshooting.

  • 31.
    Quach, T. X.
    et al.
    TNU-University of Information and Communication Technology, Thai Nguyen, Viet Nam.
    Tran, Hung
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Truc, M. T.
    Vnu University of Engineering and Technology, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
    Secrecy performance of cooperative cognitive radio networks under joint secrecy outage and primary user interference constraints2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 18442-18455, article id 8964376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the secrecy performance of a Cooperative Cognitive Radio Network (CCRN) in the presence of an eavesdropper (EAV). The secondary users (SUs) are subject to three constraints which include peak transmit power level and interference limitation with respect to the primary user (PU) as well as secrecy outage constraints due to the EAV. Secrecy outage is achieved when the EAV cannot decode the targeted signal, but communications in the secondary network is still possible (non-zero capacity exists). Approximation expressions of the secrecy outage probability and the probability of non-zero secrecy capacity are derived to evaluate the secrecy performance. Monte Carlo simulations are provided to examine the accuracy of the derived approximation expressions. Based on this, power allocation policies for the SUs are derived, satisfying all the constraints while maximizing the secrecy performance as well as the quality of service performance of the secondary network. It can be concluded that with knowledge of the channel state information (CSI) of the EAV it is possible to calculate the optimal value for the secrecy outage threshold of the secondary user (SU) which in turn allows maximizing the secrecy performance. Most interestingly, our numerical results illustrate that the secrecy performance of the system is much improved when the parameters obtained using the CSI of the EAV are calculated optimally. Thence, the system can adjust the power allocation so that no eavesdropping occurs even without reducing quality of service (QoS) performance compared to a network without any EAV.

  • 32.
    Racherla, Sandeepkumar
    et al.
    Amazon, Seattle, WA 98109 USA..
    Sripathi, Prathyusha
    Amazon, Seattle, WA 98109 USA..
    Faruqui, Nuruzzaman
    Daffodil Int Univ, Dept Software Engn, Dhaka 1216, Bangladesh..
    Kabir, Md Alamgir
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Whaiduzzaman, Md
    Jahangirnagar Univ, Inst Informat Technol, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.;Queensland Univ Technol, Sch Informat Syst, Brisbane, Qld 4000, Australia..
    Shah, Syed Aziz
    Coventry Univ, Ctr Intelligent Healthcare, Coventry CV1 5FB, W Midlands, England..
    Deep-IDS: A Real-Time Intrusion Detector for IoT Nodes Using Deep Learning2024In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 12, p. 63584-63597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) represents a swiftly expanding sector that is pivotal in driving the innovation of today's smart services. However, the inherent resource-constrained nature of IoT nodes poses significant challenges in embedding advanced algorithms for cybersecurity, leading to an escalation in cyberattacks against these nodes. Contemporary research in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) predominantly focuses on enhancing IDS performance through sophisticated algorithms, often overlooking their practical applicability. This paper introduces Deep-IDS, an innovative and practically deployable Deep Learning (DL)-based IDS. It employs a Long-Short-Term-Memory (LSTM) network comprising 64 LSTM units and is trained on the CIC-IDS2017 dataset. Its streamlined architecture renders Deep-IDS an ideal candidate for edge-server deployment, acting as a guardian between IoT nodes and the Internet against Denial of Service, Distributed Denial of Service, Brute Force, Man-in-the-Middle, and Replay Attacks. A distinctive aspect of this research is the trade-off analysis between the intrusion Detection Rate (DR) and the False Alarm Rate (FAR), facilitating the real-time performance of the Deep-IDS. The system demonstrates an exemplary detection rate of 96.8% at the 70% threshold of DR-FAR trade-off and an overall classification accuracy of 97.67%. Furthermore, Deep-IDS achieves precision, recall, and F1-scores of 97.67%, 98.17%, and 97.91%, respectively. On average, Deep-IDS requires 1.49 seconds to identify and mitigate intrusion attempts, effectively blocking malicious traffic sources. The remarkable efficacy, swift response time, innovative design, and novel defense strategy of Deep-IDS not only secure IoT nodes but also their interconnected sub-networks, thereby positioning Deep-IDS as a leading IDS for IoT-enhanced computer networks.

  • 33.
    Rahman, Hamidur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    D'Cruze, Ricky Stanley
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sohlberg, Rickard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Div Environm Technol & Management, SE-58183 Linköping, Sweden..
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Artificial Intelligence-Based Life Cycle Engineering in Industrial Production: A Systematic Literature Review2022In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 133001-133015Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last few years, cases of applying artificial intelligence (AI) to engineering activities towards sustainability have been reported. Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) provides a potential to systematically reach higher and productivity levels, owing to its holistic perspective and consideration of economic and environmental targets. To address the current gap to more systematic deployment of AI with LCE (AI-LCE) we have performed a systematic literature review emphasizing the three aspects:(1) the most prevalent AI techniques, (2) the current AI-improved LCE subfields and (3) the subfields with highly enhanced by AI. A specific set of inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to identify and select academic papers from several fields, i.e. production, logistics, marketing and supply chain and after the selection process described in the paper we ended up with 42 scientific papers. The study and analysis show that there are many AI-LCE papers addressing Sustainable Development Goals mainly addressing: Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure; Sustainable Cities and Communities; and Responsible Consumption and Production. Overall, the papers give a picture of diverse AI techniques used in LCE. Production design and Maintenance and Repair are the top explored LCE subfields whereas logistics and Procurement are the least explored subareas. Research in AI-LCE is concentrated in a few dominating countries and especially countries with a strong research funding and focus on Industry 4.0; Germany is standing out with numbers of publications. The in-depth analysis of selected and relevant scientific papers are helpful in getting a more correct picture of the area which enables a more systematic approach to AI-LCE in the future.

  • 34.
    Rajabli, Nijat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Nardone, Roberto
    University of Reggio, Calabria, Italy.
    Vittorini, Valeria
    University of Napoli Federico II, 80125 Naples, Italy.
    Software Verification and Validation of Safe Autonomous Cars: A SystematicLiterature Review2021In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 9, p. 4797-4819Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous, or self-driving, cars are emerging as the solution to several problems primarilycaused by humans on roads, such as accidents and traffic congestion. However, those benefits come withgreat challenges in the verification and validation (V&V) for safety assessment. In fact, due to the possiblyunpredictable nature of Artificial Intelligence (AI), its use in autonomous cars creates concerns that need tobe addressed using appropriate V&V processes that can address trustworthy AI and safe autonomy. In thisstudy, the relevant research literature in recent years has been systematically reviewed and classified inorder to investigate the state-of-the-art in the software V&V of autonomous cars. By appropriate criteria,a subset of primary studies has been selected for more in-depth analysis. The first part of the reviewaddresses certification issues against reference standards, challenges in assessing machine learning, as wellas general V&V methodologies. The second part investigates more specific approaches, including simulationenvironments and mutation testing, corner cases and adversarial examples, fault injection, software safetycages, techniques for cyber-physical systems, and formal methods. Relevant approaches and related toolshave been discussed and compared in order to highlight open issues and opportunities.

  • 35.
    Shah, S. M. A.
    et al.
    Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Swedish ICT AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Lindström, B.
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Andler, S. F.
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Robustness Testing of Embedded Software Systems: An Industrial Interview Study2016In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, ISSN 21693536, Vol. 4, p. 1859-1871, article id 7438745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded software is at the core of current and future telecommunication, automotive, multimedia, and industrial automation systems. The success of practically any industrial application depends on the embedded software system's dependability, and one method to verify the dependability of a system is testing its robustness. The motivation behind this paper is to provide a knowledge base of the state of the practice in robustness testing of embedded software systems and to compare this to the state of the art. We have gathered the information on the state of the practice in robustness testing from seven different industrial domains (telecommunication, automotive, multimedia, critical infrastructure, aerospace, consumer products, and banking) by conducting 13 semi-structured interviews. We investigate the different aspects of robustness testing, such as the general view of robustness, relation to requirements engineering and design, test execution, failures, and tools. We highlight knowledge from the state of the practice of robustness testing of embedded software systems. We found different robustness testing practices that have not been previously described. This paper shows that the state of the practice, when it comes to robustness testing, differs between organizations and is quite different from the state of the art described in the scientific literature. For example, methods commonly described in the literature (e.g., the fuzzy approach) are not used in the organizations we studied. Instead, the interviewees described several ad hoc approaches that take specific scenarios into account (e.g., power failure or overload). Other differences we found concern the classification of robustness failures, the hypothesized root causes of robustness failures, and the types of tools used for robustness testing. This paper is a first step in capturing the state of the practice of robustness testing of embedded software systems. The results can be used by both researchers and practitioners. Researchers can use our findings to understand the gap between the state of the art and the state of the practice and develop their studies to fill this gap. Practitioners can also learn from this knowledge base regarding how they can improve their practice and acquire other practices. 

  • 36.
    Singh, Rajendra
    et al.
    Manipal Univ Jaipur, Dept Comp & Commun Engn, Jaipur 303007, India..
    Bohra, Manoj Kumar
    Manipal Univ Jaipur, Dept Comp & Commun Engn, Jaipur 303007, India..
    Hemrajani, Prashant
    Manipal Univ Jaipur, Dept Comp & Commun Engn, Jaipur 303007, India..
    Kalla, Anshuman
    Uka Tarsadia Univ, Chhotubhai Gopalbhai Patel Inst Technol CGPIT, Bardoli 394620, Gujarat, India..
    Bhatt, Devershi Pallavi
    Manipal Univ Jaipur, Dept Comp Applicat, Jaipur 303007, India..
    Purohit, Nitin
    Kebri Dehar Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Kebri Dehar 3060, Ethiopia..
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Tallinn Univ Technol, EE-12616 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Review, Analysis, and Implementation of Path Selection Strategies for 2D NoCs2022In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 129245-129268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in very-large-scale integration (VLSI) technologies have offered the capability of integrating thousands of processing elements onto a single silicon microchip. Multiprocessor systems-on-chips (MPSoCs) are the latest creation of this technology evolution. As an interconnection network, Network-on-Chip (NoC) has emerged as a scalable and promising solution for MPSoCs to achieve high performance. In NoCs, a routing algorithm is a critical part of a router and provides a path for a packet toward its destination. Every routing algorithm should exhibit two characteristics. First, the route selection function should provide enough degree of adaptiveness to avoid network congestion. Second, it should not offer stale information on network congestion status to the neighboring routers. Many researchers have investigated network congestion and proposed techniques to control/avoid congestion. Such congestion avoidance-based algorithms significantly improve NoC performance. However, they may result in hardware overhead for side network implementation to collect congestion status. This paper reviews various output selection strategies used by routing algorithms to route a packet on a less congested network region. It also classifies them based on techniques adopted to handle and propagate congestion information. Additionally, this article provides the implementation and analysis details of state-of-art selection methods.

  • 37.
    Strandberg, Per Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Westermo Reserarch and Development AB.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Feldt, Robert
    Information Flow in Software Testing: An Interview Study with Embedded Software Engineering Practitioners2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 46434-46453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activities in software testing is a challenge for companies that develop embedded systems where multiple functional teams and technologically difficult tasks are common. This study aims at exploring the information flow in software testing, the perceived challenges and good approaches, for a more effective information flow. We conducted semi-structured interviews with twelve software practitioners working at five organizations in the embedded software industry in Sweden. The interviews were analyzed by means of thematic analysis. The data was classified into six themes that affect the information flow in software testing: testing and troubleshooting, communication, processes, technology, artifacts and organization. We further identified a number of challenges such as poor feedback and understanding exactly what has been tested; and approaches such as fast feedback as well as custom automated test reporting; to achieve an improved information flow. Our results indicate that there are many opportunities to improve this information flow: a first mitigation step is to better understand the challenges and approaches. Future work is needed to realize this in practice, for example to shorten feedback cycles between roles, as well as enhance exploration and visualization of test results

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  • 38.
    Tahvili, Sahar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE SICS Västerås.
    Pimentel, Rita
    RISE SICS Västerås, Västerås, Sweden.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ahlberg, Marcus
    KTH.
    Fornander, Eric
    KTH.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    sOrTES: A Supportive Tool forStochastic Scheduling of ManualIntegration Test Cases2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 12928-12946, article id 18609378Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Tram, Duc-Dung
    et al.
    Duy Tan Univ, Vietnam.
    Ha, Dac-Binh
    Duy Tan Univ, Vietnam.
    Vo, Van Nhan
    Duy Tan Univ, Vietnam.
    So-In, Chakchai
    Khon Kaen Univ, Thailand..
    Tran, Hung
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nguyen, Tri Gia
    Univ Danang, Vietnam..
    Baig, Zubair Ahmed
    CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia..
    Sanguanpong, Surasak
    Kasetsart Univ, Thailand..
    Performance Analysis of DF/AF Cooperative MISO Wireless Sensor Networks With NOMA and SWIPT Over Nakagami-m Fading2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 56142-56161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate downlink cooperative multiple-input single-output wireless sensor networks with the nonorthogonal multiple access technique and simultaneous wireless information and power transfer over Nakagami-m fading. Specifically, the considered network includes a multiantenna sink node, an energy-limited relay cluster, a high-priority sensor node (SN) cluster, and a low-priority SN cluster. Prior to transmission, a transmit antenna, a relay, a high-priority SN, and a low-priority SN are selected. In this paper, we propose three antenna-relay-destination selection schemes, i.e., sink node-high-priority, sink node-relay, and sink node-low-priority. In each proposed scheme, we consider two relaying strategies, i.e., decode-and-forward and amplify-and-forward, and then, we derive the corresponding closed-form expressions of outage probability at the selected SNs. In addition, we introduce two algorithms: 1) the power-splitting ratio optimization algorithm and 2) the best antenna-relay-destination selection determination algorithm. Finally, we utilize the Monte Carlo simulations to verify our analytical results.

  • 40.
    Tran, Ha-Vu
    et al.
    Univ Quebec, ETS Engn Sch, LACIME Lab, Montreal, PQ H3C 1K3, Canada..
    Kaddoum, Georges
    Univ Quebec, ETS Engn Sch, LACIME Lab, Montreal, PQ H3C 1K3, Canada..
    Tran, Hung
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hong, Een-Kee
    Kyung Hee Univ, Sch Elect & Informat, Yongin 449701, South Korea..
    Downlink Power Optimization for Heterogeneous Networks with Time Reversal-based Transmission under Backhaul Limitation2017In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, ISSN 21693536, Vol. 5, p. 755-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate an application of two different beamforming techniques and propose a novel downlink power minimization scheme for a two-tier heterogeneous network (HetNet) model. In this context, we employ time reversal (TR) technique to a femtocell base station (FBS) whereas we assume that a macrocell base station (MBS) uses a zero-forcing-based algorithm and the communication channels are subject to frequency selective fading. Additionally, HetNet's backhaul connection is unable to support a sufficient throughput for signaling information exchange between two tiers. Given the considered HetNet model, a downlink power minimization scheme is proposed, and closed-form expressions concerning the optimal solution are provided, taking this constraint into account. Furthermore, considering imperfect channel estimation at TR-employed femtocell, a worst-case robust power minimization problem is formulated. By devising TR worst-case analysis, this robust problem is transformed into an equivalent formulation that is tractable to solve. The results presented in our paper show that the TR technique outperforms the zero-forcing one in the perspective of beamforming methods for femtocell working environments. Finally, we validate the proposed power loading strategy for both cases of perfect and imperfect channel estimations .

  • 41.
    Vo, V. N.
    et al.
    International School, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    So-In, C.
    Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Applied Network Technology (ANT) Laboratory, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
    Tran, D. -D
    Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Tran, Hung
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Optimal System Performance in Multihop Energy Harvesting WSNs Using Cooperative NOMA and Friendly Jammers2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 125494-125510, article id 8824086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the system performance of multihop energy harvesting (EH) wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with imperfect channel state information (CSI) using cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and friendly jammers in the presence of multiple passive eavesdroppers (EAVs). Specifically, we propose a two-phase communication protocol consisting of EH and information transmission (IT). In the first phase, relays in all clusters harvest energy from power transfer station (PTS) signals. In the first time slot of the second phase, the gateway simultaneously broadcasts information and interference signals. In the subsequent time slots, a relay acting as a friendly jammer in each cluster uses the harvested energy to send an interference signal. Simultaneously, another EH relay applies the NOMA technique to transmit the information signal according to an optimal scheduling scheme based on the maximum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of a far user (MSm) and a near user (MSn). To ensure security performance, we propose an algorithm for determining the EH time constraint for a friendly jammer. Additionally, closed-form expressions for the outage probability and throughput of the considered system are derived. Accordingly, an optimal power allocation coefficient algorithm is proposed to achieve throughput fairness for pairs of users. The results of the mathematical analysis are verified by Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, the numerical results demonstrate that the MSn scheme is recommended for guaranteeing throughput fairness for pairs of users. 

  • 42.
    Vo, Van Nhan
    et al.
    Duy Tan Univ, Fac Informat Technol, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.;Duy Tan Univ, Inst Res & Dev, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.;Khon Kaen Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Appl Network Technol ANT Lab, Fac Sci, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand..
    So-In, Chakchai
    Duy Tan Univ, Inst Res & Dev, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.;Khon Kaen Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Appl Network Technol ANT Lab, Fac Sci, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand..
    Tran, Hung
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Phenikaa Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.;Mälardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, S-72123 Västerås, Sweden..
    Tran, Duc-Dung
    Duy Tan Univ, Fac Elect & Elect Engn, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam..
    Huu, Tung Pham
    Natl Univ Civil Engn, Fac Informat & Technol, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam..
    Performance Analysis of an Energy-Harvesting IoT System Using a UAV Friendly Jammer and NOMA Under Cooperative Attack2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 221986-222000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we consider the information leakage and outage probabilities of a multiple-input single-output (MISO) energy-harvesting (EH) Internet of Things (IoT) system in which a multiantenna ground base station (GBS) transmits messages to legitimate IoT destinations (LIDs) with the help of IoT relays (IRs) using non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in the presence of a malicious jammer (MJ) and eavesdroppers (EAVs). The communication protocol is separated into two phases. In the EH phase, the IRs harvest energy from a power beacon (PB). In the information transmission (IT) phase, the communication process is further divided into two subphases: 1) The GBS broadcasts signals to the IRs using NOMA. Simultaneously, the MJ sends interfering signals to attack the IRs while the EAVs steal the confidential signals from the GBS, in a process called a cooperative attack. On the other hand, to protect the legitimate communication, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is used as a friendly jammer to defend against the EAVs. 2) A selected IR employs the time-switching-based relaying (TSR) technique to forward the received signal to the LIDs using NOMA. Similar to the first subphase, the LIDs are subjected to a cooperative attack, and the UAV attacks the EAVs in return. The secrecy performance of this communication protocol is characterized by deriving expressions for the information leakage probabilities (ILPs) for the LIDs' signals. A UAV altitude optimization algorithm is also proposed to achieve the best possible secrecy performance. Furthermore, we evaluate the system performance by deriving closed-form expressions for the outage probabilities (OPs). Accordingly, an algorithm is proposed to guarantee both the secrecy and system performance (in terms of the ILPs and OPs). Monte Carlo simulations are presented to verify our analytical results.

  • 43.
    Vo, Van Nhan
    et al.
    Duy Tan Univ, Danang, Vietnam.
    Tran, Duc-Dung
    Duy Tan Univ, Danang, Vietnam.
    So-In, Chakchai
    Khon Kaen Univ, Thailand.
    Tran, Hung
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Secrecy Performance Analysis for Fixed-Gain Energy Harvesting in an Internet of Things With Untrusted Relays2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 48247-48258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the radio frequency energy harvesting (EH) and security issues in Internet of Things (IoT) sensor networks with multiple untrusted relays are considered. In particular, the communication protocol is divided into two phases. The first phase is used for EH, in which the IoT sensor nodes (SNs) and relays harvest energy from multiple power transfer stations. The second phase is used for information transmission in two steps: 1) the selected SN uses the harvested energy to broadcast information to the controller and the relays, and 2) the selected relay forwards information to the controller by applying the amplify-and-forward protocol to improve the quality of the communication between the SN and the controller. During information transmission, the controller is at risk of losing information because the relay may act as an eavesdropper (namely, an untrusted relay). Thus, to improve the secrecy performance of the considered system, we propose an optimal scheme, namely, best-sensor-best-untrusted-relay (BSBR) and compare this scheme with random-sensor-random-untrusted-relay and a threshold-based scheme. The closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) and secrecy throughput (ST) are obtained and verified through Monte Carlo simulations to confirm the superior performance of our approach. EH time optimization and the target secrecy rate optimization algorithms are also proposed. In addition, the impacts of the EH time, the EH efficiency coefficient, the numbers of SNs and untrusted relays, and the target secrecy rate on the SOP and the ST are investigated. The results indicate that the BSBR generally outperforms the two baseline schemes in terms of the SOP and ST.

  • 44.
    Xiong, Rui
    et al.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Dept Vehicle Engn, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Sharkh, Suleiman M.
    Univ Southampton, Fac Engn & Phys Sci, Dept Mech Engn, Southampton SO17 1BJ, Hants, England..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bai, Hua
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Knoxville, TN 37996 USA..
    Shen, Weixiang
    Swinburne Univ Technol, Fac Sci Engn & Technol, Melbourne, Vic 3122, Australia..
    Bai, Peng
    Washington Univ St Louis, Dept Energy Environm & Chem Engn, St Louis, MO 63130 USA..
    Zhou, Xuan
    Kettering Univ, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Flint, MI 48504 USA..
    IEEE Access Special Section Editorial: Advanced Energy Storage Technologies and Their Applications2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 218685-218693Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Yasin, Affan
    et al.
    Tsinghua University, China.
    Fatima, Rubia
    Tsinghua University, China.
    Wen, Lijie
    Tsinghua University, China.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Azhar, Muhammad
    Shenzhen University, China.
    Torkar, Richard
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    On Using Grey Literature and Google Scholar in Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 36226-36243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The inclusion of grey literature (GL) is important to remove publication bias while gathering available evidence regarding a certain topic. The number of systematic literature reviews (SLRs) in Software Engineering (SE) is increasing but we do not know about the extent of GL usage in these SLRs. Moreover, Google Scholar is rapidly becoming a search engine of choice for many researchers but the extent to which it can find the primary studies is not known. Objective: This tertiary study is an attempt to i) measure the usage of GL in SLRs in SE. Furthermore this study proposes strategies for categorizing GL and a quality checklist to use for GL in future SLRs; ii) explore if it is feasible to use only Google Scholar for finding scholarly articles for academic research. Method: We have conducted a systematic mapping study to measure the extent of GL usage in SE SLRs as well as to measure the feasibility of finding primary studies using Google Scholar. Results and conclusions: a) Grey Literature: 76.09% SLRs (105 out of 138) in SE have included one or more GL studies as primary studies. Among total primary studies across all SLRs (6307), 582 are classified as GL, making the frequency of GL citing as 9.23%. The intensity of GL use indicate that each SLR contains 5 primary studies on average (total intensity of GL use being 5.54). The ranking of GL tells us that conference papers are the most used form 43.3% followed by technical reports 28.52%. Universities, research institutes, labs and scientific societies together make up 67.7% of GL used, indicating that these are useful sources for searching GL. We additionally propose strategies for categorizing GL and criteria for evaluating GL quality, which can become a basis for more detailed guidelines for including GL in future SLRs. b) Google Scholar Results: The results show that Google Scholar was able to retrieve 96% of primary studies of these SLRs. Most of the primary studies that were not found using Google Scholar were from grey sources.

  • 46.
    Zahraoui, Y.
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Cybernetics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Korotko, T.
    Finest Centre for Smart Cities, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia. Department of Electrical Power Engineering and Mechatronics, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia.
    Rosin, A.
    Finest Centre for Smart Cities, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia. Department of Electrical Power Engineering and Mechatronics, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia.
    Zidane, Tekai Eddine Khalil
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Agabus, H.
    Department of Electrical Power Engineering and Mechatronics, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia.
    Mekhilef, S.
    School of Software and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria, VIC 3122, Australia. Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.
    A Competitive Framework for the Participation of Multi-Microgrids in the Community Energy Trading Market: A Case Study2024In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 12, p. 68232-68248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increase in the deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and Renewable Energy (RE) resources is a promising paradigm in the decentralized energy era. It has motivated multi-Microgrids (MGs) to trade energy directly with others in the Local Energy Market (LEM), as well as with the main grid. The LEM has become a popular platform that covers several shortcomings of surplus/deficient energy, which can also manage the increasing connection of multi-microgrids, meet internal balance, and maximize the social welfare of the community Microgrid (MG). Moreover, in the LEM, the MGs would like to provide some payoff to encourage each other to exchange their energy locally. However, designing an appropriate market framework, privacy protection, and the community's unbalanced energy supply and demand is challenging. To cope with these challenges, in this study, an LEM for a multi-microgrid system is designed to maximize the social welfare of the community, and a decentralized clearing algorithm based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) is proposed for local market clearing and privacy protection. The Community Manager (CM) is used as an intermediate coordinator between the interconnected MGs. This way, the computation process will be completely distributed, and the privacy of each MG will be protected. Moreover, considering the utility function for the consumers and energy providers, an equivalent cost model based on internal pricing is proposed to state the willingness of the utility and motivate the participants to join LEM. Finally, an illustrative example and a case study are used to demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed design of LEM and algorithm in terms of social welfare and power balance. In our study, we found that by using dynamic pricing in conjunction with our proposed model, the social welfare of the energy community can be increased by 14.25%. This demonstrates the significant economic benefits and effectiveness of our approach in the Local Energy Market (LEM).

  • 47.
    Zahraoui, Younes
    et al.
    FinEst Centre for Smart Cities, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Korõtko, Tarmo
    FinEst Centre for Smart Cities, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Rosin, Argo
    FinEst Centre for Smart Cities, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Zidane, Tekai Eddine Khalil
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Mekhilef, Saad
    Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, School of Software and Electrical Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria, VIC, Australia.
    A Real-Time Simulation for P2P Energy Trading Using a Distributed Algorithm2024In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the deployment of Renewable Energy Resources (RES) , along with innovations in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), would allow prosumers to engage in the energy market and trade their excess energy with each other and with the main grid. To ensure an efficient and safe operation of energy trading, the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) energy trading approach has emerged as a viable paradigm to provide the necessary flexibility and coordinate the energy sharing between a pair of prosumers. The P2P approach is based on the concept of decentralized energy trading between prosumers (i.e., production capabilities or energy consumers). However, security protection and real-time transaction issues in the P2P market present serious challenges. In this paper, we propose a decentralized P2P energy trading approach for the energy market with high penetration of RE. First, the P2P energy market platform proposed coordinating the energy trading between energy providers and consumers to maximize their social welfare. A distributed algorithm is applied to solve the market-clearing problem based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). In this way, the computational complexity can be reduced. Furthermore, a P2P Manager (P2PM) utility is introduced as an entity to solve the synchronization problem between peers during the market clearing. Finally, through a real-time application using Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL), the effectiveness of the proposed P2PM is verified in terms of synchronizing the market participants and improving the power transaction. 

  • 48.
    Zidane, Tekai Eddine Khalil
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Aziz, Ali Saleh
    Al-Hussain University College, Iraq.
    Zahraoui, Younes
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Kotb, Hassam
    Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Aboras, Kareem M.
    Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Kitmo,
    National Advanced School of Engineering of University of Maroua, Cameroon.
    Jember, Yosef Berhan
    Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia.
    Grid-Connected Solar PV Power Plants Optimization: A Review2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 79588-79608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to photovoltaic (PV) technology advantages as a clean, secure, and pollution-free energy source, PV power plants installation have shown an essential role in the energy sector. Nevertheless, the PV power plant cost of energy must be competitive when compared to traditional energy sources. Therefore, numerous studies are continuously being conducted aiming to optimize PV power plants, including components arrangements within the installation site, the inverter topology, cables, PV modules and inverters numbers, PV module tilt angle and shading effect. For selecting the most suitable combinations for system parameters, this study seeks to systematically analyze and synthesize the design of the PV power plant optimization from the current literature. The study also examines component sizing for PV power plants, involving PV modules tilt angle, inverter, transformer, and cables. Moreover, it provides an overview of the main components employed to install the PV power plant, which includes PV modules, inverter, transformer and wiring. It examines the different inverter topologies used in PV power plants along with a comparison between these topologies.

  • 49.
    Zolfaghari, Samaneh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Stoev, Teodor
    Univ Greifswald, Inst Data Sci, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany..
    Yordanova, Kristina
    Univ Greifswald, Inst Data Sci, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany..
    Enhancing Kitchen Activity Recognition: A Benchmark Study of the Rostock KTA Dataset2024In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 12, p. 14364-14384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the global population aging, the demand for technologies facilitating independent living, especially for those with cognitive impairments, is increasing. This paper addresses this need by conducting a comprehensive evaluation of the Rostock Kitchen Task Assessment dataset, a pivotal resource in kitchen task activity recognition. Our study begins with an in-depth introduction, emphasizing the increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders and the crucial role of assistive technologies. Our contributions encompass a systematic literature review, design and implementation of a working prototype of our envisioned system, refinement of the Rostock Kitchen Task Assessment dataset, creation of a semantically annotated dataset, extraction of statistical features, comparative analysis, and rigorous model performance assessment. The core of our work is the thorough evaluation and benchmarking of different activity recognition approaches using the aforementioned Rostock Kitchen Task Assessment dataset. Our experimental results demonstrate that despite encountering an imbalance problem in the dataset, the fusion of the Hidden Markov Model and Random Forest leads to superior results, achieving a weighted-averaged F-1-score of 74.10% for all available activities and 81.40% for the most common actions in the Rostock Kitchen Task Assessment dataset. Moreover, through systematic analysis, we identify strengths and suggest potential refinements, thereby advancing the field of kitchen activity recognition. This offers valuable insights for researchers and practitioners in assistive and remote care technologies.

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