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  • 1.
    Thorin, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Daianova, Lilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Guziana, Bozena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wossmar, Susanne
    Handelskammaren Mälardalen.
    Degerfeldt, Viveka
    Handelskammaren Mälardalen.
    Granath, Lennart
    Länsstyrelsen Västmanland.
    CURRENT STATUS OF THE WASTE- TO- ENERGY CHAIN IN THE COUNTY OF VÄSTMANLAND, SWEDEN2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Thorin, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Daianova, Lilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nordlander, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    The Municipal Federation of Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Malo, Laura
    Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for North Savo (CNS).
    den Boer, Emilia
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland.
    den Boer, Jan
    WAMECO S.C., ul. Malinowa 7, 55-002 Kamieniec Wrocławski, Poland.
    Szpadt, Ryszard
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland.
    Belous, Olga
    Klaipeda University (KLU).
    Kaus, Taivo
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency (ERKAS).
    Käger, Marja
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency (ERKAS).
    State of the art In the Waste to Energy Area: Technology and Systems2011Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    den Boer, Emilia
    et al.
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology.
    Szpadt, Ryszard
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Environmental Engineering, Teaching and Research, Savonia University of Applied.
    Malo, Laura
    Environmental Engineering, Teaching and Research, Savonia University of Applied, Center for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for North Savo,.
    Huopana, Tuomas
    The Department of Environmental Science, The University of Eastern Finland,.
    Current Status of Waste-to-Energy Utilisation in some parts of Baltic Sea Region2011In: Journal of Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences, ISSN 1799-6848, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of preliminary assessment of the current status ofwaste-to-energy utilisation in selected regions, which was conducted within theREMOWE (Regional Mobilizing of Sustainable Waste-to-Energy Production)project. The REMOWE project is part of the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013 and has been partly-financed by the European Union. The most and least advanced regions with regard to the renewable energy share in final energyconsumption were presented, also some Finnish data was included. The wastetypes which were identified as relevant for energy recovery include municipalwaste, sewage sludge, industrial waste, as well as agricultural waste and byproducts. In both considered regions there is high energy recovery potential.

  • 4.
    Thorin, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Guziana, Bozena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    The Municipal Federation of Savonia University of Applied Sciences .
    Szpadt, Ryszard
    Wroclaw University of Technology / Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering.
    Vasilic, Dejan
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Fachhochschule Braunschweig / Wolfenbüttel.
    Ahrens, Thorsten
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Fachhochschule Braunschweig / Wolfenbüttel.
    Anne, Olga
    Klaipeda University .
    Lõõnik, Jaan
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency (ERKAS).
    Potential future waste-to-energy systems2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses potential future systems for waste-to-energy production in the Baltic Sea Region, and especially for the project REMOWE partner regions, the County of Västmanland in Sweden, Northern Savo in Finland, Lower Silesia in Poland, western part of Lithuania and Estonia.

    The waste-to-energy systems planned for in the partner regions are combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and solid recovered fuels from household and industry as well as anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and agriculture waste.

    The potential future waste-to-energy systems in the partner regions include increased utilization of available waste resources. Examples of resources possible to use are straw that could be used for ethanol production and biowaste from households and manure that could be used for biogas production. If the utilization in all partner regions would reach the same level as already exists in the County of Västmanland it would correspond to an increased energy supply of 3 TWh/year which corresponds to about 2.5 % of the total energy use in the partner regions year 2008.

    An important aspect of future anaerobic processes for biogas production is the possibility to use the residue. West Lithuanian biogas production residue is planned to be dewatered up to 90 % of dry matter to make future utilization options possible.

    Pre-processing is necessary to be able to use the residue from digestion of solid waste as fertilizer. The pre-processing should include crushing, removal of metals, wood and plastics, and pulping. Without pre-processing it is possible to combust the residues with energy utilisation. Results from an investigation of the residues from biogas production tests using substrates from the project partner regions show a remaining energy potential of the digestate corresponding to 17 to 50% of the biogas energy. A combination of digestate combustion and fertilizer use could be a possibility.

    Hydrothermal carbonization, HTC, is a process that could be of interest to use for treating digestate in order both to utilize the energy left after biogas production but also for sanitation of the digestate. In this process heat is released and coal is produced. This process could also be of interest for waste-to-energy conversion of waste which is usually not usable for other biological process like e.g. biogas production, for example sharp leaved rush, straw or leaves from gardening etc. Initial tests on pulp and paper waste show promising results.

    Among the possible processes for increasing the output of biogas from anaerobic digestion using ultrasound technology for thickening of surplus waste water sludge can be mentioned. It allows increasing the biogas production up to 30 % and reducing the amount of organic substances in the digested sewage sludge by up to 25 %. Another area of possible improvement is the mixing in the digester. The mixing is important for distribution of microorganisms and nutrition, inoculation of fresh feed, homogenizing of the material and for the removal of end products of the metabolism. Studies of the digester for biowaste in the County of Västmanland indicate that about 30 % of digester volume can have dead and stagnant zones.

    2

    Waste-to-energy utilisation could also be possible to realise by further development and introduction of new processes and concepts. An option for solving the problem of old sewage sludge could be to use it in a gasifier to convert it to energy rich gases. Microbiological conversion of waste can be further developed to produce several different products, such as heat, power, fuels and chemicals, the development of so-called biorefineries. Also the biorefinery‘s water management can be renewed in order to remove toxic substances, minimize environmental impacts and produce pure, clean water. Finnoflag Oy has developed a technology that converts waste materials into e.g. fuels, chemicals, plastic and rubber via low-energy routes. The Finnoflag technology is based on the PMEU (Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit) which is a new innovative instrument for use in the microbe detection process and that is designed to create an optimal growth environment for microbes.

    For fibrous and well-structured biowaste dry digestion could be a good option for biogas production. Several different configurations have been tested in Germany. The garage digestion method has the advantage that an extensive pre- treatment of substrate is not necessary and no pumps or stirrers, which can be destroyed by disturbing materials, are involved. However, the efficiency of garage digesters is low compared to other digestion methods due to lack of effective substrate turbation. More research work is needed to improve the efficiency. Tests of five existing dry digestion processes show that the Tower-digester is the most suitable dry digestion method for household waste. Among the reviewed plants the Dranco-tower digester showed the best efficiency in reference to biogas potential. The plant design is robust enough to handle substrates like household waste with fractions of disturbing materials. The mixing in the reactor is based on the force of gravity and the used pumps are powerful and very resistant.

    Pyrolysis is a process of interest for converting wood based waste into energy products such as gas, bio-oil and/or solid fuel/carbon. This has been identified as a process suitable for a new business model with a franchise based model, offering an earning opportunity for small size entrepreneurs.

    Possible improvement of existing and new waste-to-energy systems also includes increasing the overall efficiency of the utilization of waste resources by integration of several processes. A study on integrating pellets production from the residues from straw-based ethanol production with an existing combined heat and power plant shows that the total production cost can be reduced by the integration.

    Possible development of waste-to-energy systems for the partner regions could be the following:

     Estonian - biogas production using the organic waste, use of the digestate as fertilizer on demand or combustion for power and heat production, recycling plants for paper, plastics and other recyclable wastes and combustion for power and heat production after recycling

     North Savo, Finland- the same options as for Estonia is of interest. Added to this is the potential for power and heat production from large amount of wood waste. Also the possibility for pellet production from wood waste could be of interest.

     Western Lithuania- the same system as mentioned for Finland is also of interest for western Lithuania.

    3

     

     Lower Silesia, Poland- also for Lower Silesia high amounts of organic wastes is suitable to use for biogas production in anaerobic digestion. Recovered derived fuel (RDF) is already used as fuel for power and heat production. There are also some attempts to involve combustion of residual mixed waste in 1-2 of the most densely populated areas.

     County of Västmanland, Sweden- Here a system for separate collection of the biowaste from households, digestion of the fraction together with ley crop silage from regional farmers to produce biogas and use of the digestate from the digestion process as fertilizer at farmland already exists and a new power and heat plant using recovered derived fuels is under construction. Further waste- to-energy plants for production of bioethanol from straw and biogas from agricultural waste could be possible.

    The potential future waste-to-energy systems are not only dependent on available technologies for waste-to-energy conversion but also on the development within the waste and energy areas including also economic and political aspects. There is a growing interest for waste prevention in waste management within the EU, and growing concern about food losses and food waste at global and national levels. During past decades the waste amounts have steadily increased with economic growth but due to waste prevention actions a decoupling of the waste amount and economic growth is foreseen. This has to be considered in development of future waste-to-energy systems. Further, policies and goals concerning fossil fuel free transportation systems and low carbon energy systems is of importance.

    Analysis of combined previous proposed scenarios for energy demand and use development and waste amount development for waste-to-energy in Sweden 2010 to 2050 shows that the contribution of waste-to-energy to the total energy supply in 2050 varies from 6 to 47 % depending on the scenarios combined. The lowest contribution occur for scenarios with low waste amounts combined with energy scenarios with low changes in energy demand while the highest contribution occurs for scenarios with high amount of waste combined with energy scenarios with large decrease in energy demand.

  • 5.
    Huopanaa, Tuomas
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Niska, Harri
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Appled Sciences, Finland.
    Lõõnik, Jaan
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency, Estland.
    den Boer, Emilia
    Wroclaw University of Technology, Polen.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A REGIONAL MODEL FOR SUSTAINABLE BIOGAS  PRODUCTION: Case study: North Savo, Finland. REMOWE Report, Integrated report no: O5.3.3, O5.3.6, O5.4.3, O5.4.4, O5.6.12012Report (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Lõõnik, Jaan
    et al.
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency (ERKAS).
    Saarepera, Reljo
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency (ERKAS).
    Käger, Maarja
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency (ERKAS).
    Sogenbits, Thea
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency (ERKAS).
    Freienthal, Priit
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency (ERKAS).
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Guziana, Bozena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    The Municipal Federation of Savonia University of Applied Sciences (SUA).
    Eskelinen, Tuomo
    The Municipal Federation of Savonia University of Applied Sciences (SUA).
    Kajanus, Miika
    The Municipal Federation of Savonia University of Applied Sciences (SUA).
    Huopana, Tuomas
    University of Eastern Finland (UEF) .
    Niska, Harri
    University of Eastern Finland (UEF) .
    den Boer, Emilia
    Wroclaw University of Technology / Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering.
    den Boer, Jan
    Wroclaw University of Technology / Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering.
    Szpadt, Ryszard
    Wroclaw University of Technology / Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering.
    Behrendt, Anna
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Fachhochschule Braunschweig / Wolfenbüttel (BUA).
    Vasilic, Dejan
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Fachhochschule Braunschweig / Wolfenbüttel (BUA).
    Ahrens, Thorsten
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Fachhochschule Braunschweig / Wolfenbüttel (BUA).
    Anne, Olga
    Klaipeda University (KLU).
    Balčiũnas, Arũnas
    Klaipeda University (KLU).
    GUIDELINE ON ACTION PLANS AND STRATEGIES TO MOBILIZE WASTE-TO-ENERGY PRODUCTION: REMOWE report,  Report no: 4.3.1, December 20122012Report (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Guziana, Bozena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Belous, Olga
    Klaipeda University.
    den Boer, Emilia
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology.
    MANUAL FOR SORTING OF WASTE FOR WASTE-TO-ENERGY SYSTEMS2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Han, Song
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Retrofitting CHP Plant and Optimization of Regional Energy System2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biomass-based combined heat and power (CHP) plants is considered by the EU administration to be an effective way to increase the use of renewables in the energy system, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to alleviate the dependency on imported fossil fuels. At present in Sweden, most of the CHP plants are operated in part-load mode because of variations in heat demand. Further use of the potential heat capacity from CHP plants is an opportunity for integration with other heat-demanding processes. Retrofitting the conventional CHP plants by integration with bioethanol and pellet production processes is considered a feasible and efficient way to improve the plants’ performances.

     

    Modeling and simulation of the CHP plant integrated with feedstock upgrading, bioethanol production and pellet production is performed to analyze the technical and economic feasibility. When integrating with bioethanol production, the exhaust flue gas from the CHP plant is used to dry the hydrolysis solid residues (HSR) instead of direct condensation in the flue gas condenser (FGC). This drying process not only increases the overall energy efficiency (OEE) of the CHP plant but also increases the power output relative to the system using only a FGC. Furthermore, if steam is extracted from the turbine of the CHP plant and if it is used to dry the HSR together with the exhaust flue gas, pellets can be produced and the bioethanol production costs can be reduced by 30% compared with ethanol cogeneration plants.

     

    Three optional pellet production processes integrated with an existing biomass-based CHP plant using different raw materials are studied to determine their annual performance. The option of pellet production integrated with the existing CHP plant using exhaust flue gas and superheated steam for drying allows for a low specific pellet production cost, short payback time and significant CO2 reduction. A common advantage of the three options is a dramatic increase in the total annual power production and a significant CO2 reduction, in spite of a decrease in power efficiency.

     

    The retrofitted biomass-based CHP plants play a crucial role in the present and future regional energy system. The total costs are minimized for the studied energy system by using wastes as energy sources. Analyses of scenarios for the coming decades are performed to describe how to achieve a regional fossil fuel-free energy system. It is possible to achieve the target by upgrading and retrofitting the present energy plants and constructing new ones. The conditions and obstacles have also been presented and discussed through optimizing the locations for proposed new energy plants and planting energy crops.

  • 9.
    Guziana, Bozena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Waste-to-energy in a Polish perspective2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Energy recovery from waste becomes increasingly interesting both with respect to waste management and for the sustainable energy supply. The REMOWE (Regional Mobilizing of Sustainable Waste-to-Energy Production) project, seeks to facilitate the implementation of sustainable systems for waste-to-energy in the project regions. Based on investigations done within the REMOWE project this paper discusses increased waste-to-energy utilization in Poland with focus on a comparison with the current state in Sweden. There are big differences between Sweden and Poland, and between Lower Silesia Voivodship in Poland and Västmanland County in Sweden. The REMOWE project through its outputs and discussions during meetings support transfer of technology, knowledge and best practice. Procedural justice and early involvement of public can increase social acceptance and successful implementation of projects regarding incineration, biogas production and separate collection of biodegradable waste.

  • 10.
    Guziana, Bozena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Kajanus, Miika
    Environmental Engineering, Teaching and Research, Savonia University of Applied.
    Eskelinen2, Tuomo
    Environmental Engineering, Teaching and Research, Savonia University of Applied, Finland.
    den Boer, Emilia
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology; Poland.
    Balčiūnas, Arūnas
    4Klaipeda University, Ecology Department, Lithuania.
    Regional Waste-to-Energy Innovation Processes in Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Poland and Lithuania.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to present the web-based environmental innovation processes in

    the waste-to-energy field, conducted within the Remowe project in Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Poland and Lithuania. The goal of this paper is to discuss lessons learnt from the experiences of these innovation processes in practice and to report experiences from a pilot projects where RPM Screening  was employed to enhance the  innovation work for waste-to-energy in the Remowe project.

    Methods

    The paper is based on a foresight methodology RPM Screening which consists of distributed

    generation, mutual  commenting,  iterative  revision,  multi-criteria  evaluation  and  portfolio analysis of innovation ideas. The portfolio analysis builds on the Robust Portfolio Modelling. Results

    The results show that the web platform was a convenient   and user-friendly tool for both

    generation and evaluation of innovation ideas within all of five regions. However, there are some problems to get higher participatory, especially in the case of evaluation of ideas.                All the innovation processes, as a part of a Remowe project, consists of the same main steps. Regional differences in implementation of these steps can be identiefied, such as differences in the preparation of innovation process, in simulation of innovation generation and in  the design of the workshop.

    Main conclusions

    The paper provides the description and comparison of the regional innovation processes

    conducted  in  different  countries.  The  web  platform  and  RPM  Screening  used  in  these innovation processes were suitable tools.  Projects such Remowe, with the aim of innovation generation should also include further work on implementation of selected innovations.

     

  • 11.
    Guziana, Bozena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Daianova, Lilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    SCENARIOS FOR WASTE-TO-ENERGY USE - SWEDISH PERSPECTIVE.2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of waste for energy purposes becomes increasingly interesting both with respect to waste management and for the energy systems. The decisions on alternative uses of waste for energy are mainly influenced by different policies, waste management, energy supply and use, as well as technologies. Two important issues, namely, a clear priority of waste prevention in waste management within EU and the growing concern for food losses and food waste at global and at national level, shall be carefully considered and addressed. This paper proposes scenarios for waste to energy systems with focus on Sweden and with a broader EU approach is applied: Biofuels Sweden, Electric vehicles and Bioenergy Europe. As baseline for the scenario development inventory of waste-to-energy related policies and goals on international, national, regional and local level as well as inventory of existing scenarios and reports with future trends is made. A low waste availability level is recommended to be included in sensitivity analysis for scenarios.

  • 12.
    Thorin, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    den Boer, Emilia
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology.
    Belous, Olga
    Klaipeda University.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Waste to Energy- a review2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste materials can be used as a valuable resource for reuse, recycling or energy recovery. In this paper a review on using waste as energy resource, done in the REMOWE project, included in the EU funded Baltic Sea Region Programme, is presented. Five main conversion paths have been identified; combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, anaerobic digestion and fermentation. Combustion and anaerobic digestion are mature and well-proven technologies for waste treatment but improvements are needed to make the processes more efficient as energy conversion processes. For anaerobic digestion feedstock pre-treatment, avoidance of inhibition, mixing, residues utilization, and monitoring and control are identified development areas. A more recent trend is development of dry digestion technology for the treatment of municipal waste. The possible improvements of the combustion process using waste as fuel includes plant efficiency, improved emission control and ash handling. Pyrolysis and gasification have been used for waste treatment but the technologies are still in the development stage. Identified development areas are process operation conditions, gas and by-product quality, gas cleaning and plant efficiency.

    Studies comparing waste to energy systems found do not give a clear picture of what waste to energy technology that is most favourable. The results of the comparisons are dependent on the conditions chosen for the study such as location, economic activities, population, and possible system combinations.

  • 13.
    den Boer, Jan
    et al.
    WAMECO S.C., ul. Malinowa 7, 55-002 Kamieniec Wrocławski, Poland.
    den Boer, Emilia
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland.
    Szpadt, Ryszard
    Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland.
    Łukaszewska, Agnieszka
    Marshal Office of Lower Silesia, Wybrzeże Słowackiego 12-14, 50-411 Wrocław, Poland.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    ENERGY POTENTIAL FROM RESIDUES IN NORTHERN CENTRAL EUROPEAN REGIONS2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the results of a study on the energy potential of residual materials in 5 regions in the Northern Central European area are presented. The highest potential for waste-to-energy is provided by the incineration of municipal residual waste and the digestion of manure. Related to the number of inhabitants, the potential is the highest in North Savo, whereas the current utilisation is by far the highest in the County of Västmanland. The total potential of waste-to-energy for the considered regions is the highest for Western Lithuania at app. 7%, with the other regions varying between 2,5 and 4% of the total primary energy use. The following waste-to-energy installations should be planned: waste incinerators (Estonia, Western Lithuania and Lower Silesia); energy recovery from waste derived fuels (North Savo, Lower Silesia and the County of Västmanland); anaerobic digestion of biodegradable part of municipal waste and of agricultural waste and by-products (Lower Silesia) as well as sewage sludge drying in Western Lithuania and Lower Silesia.

  • 14.
    Ericson, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. KTH.
    A simplified model for anaerobic digestion of solid waste using real data from a full-scale biogas plant2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    den Boer, Emilia
    et al.
    Wroclaw University of Technology, POland.
    Szpadt, Ryszard
    Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Łukaszewska, Agnieszka
    Marschal Office of Lower Silesia, Poland.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Lõõnik, Jaan
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency, Estonia.
    Belous, Olga
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Comparative assessment of waste-to-energy potential in European regions2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of assessment of the current status of waste-to-energy utilisation in five selected regions, which was conducted within the REMOWE (Regional Mobilizing of Sustainable Waste-to-Energy Production) project. The REMOWE project is part of the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013 and has been partly-financed by the European Union. The objective of this paper is the evaluation of the current practice with focus on the best practices that can be transferred to other regions. The selected regions are Estonia; Lower Silesia (Poland), Western Lithuania and North Savo Region (Finland) and the County of Västmanland (Sweden). The current situations in the project regions are presented with regard to the waste generation and treatment and the potential to use waste as RES. The waste types which were identified as relevant for energy recovery include municipal waste, sewage sludge, industrial waste (two streams: one suitable for biogas generation and the other one as alternative fuel for combustion) as well as animal manure. The greatest energy potential show residual municipal waste (68% of the total potential) and animal manure (24%). Energy recovery from these wastes should be a priority in waste management systems of individual regions. Current energy recovery from waste is very low in the considered regions, except for the County of Västmanland, where app. 68% of the waste to energy potential is utilised.

    Keywords: waste, renewable energies, sustainability, residues.

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