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  • 1.
    Bilstrup, Katrin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Inbyggda system (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Inbyggda system (CERES).
    Ström, Erik G.
    Chalmers.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Inbyggda system (CERES).
    Evaluation of the IEEE 802.11p MAC method for vehicle-to-vehicle communication2008Ingår i: 68th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2008. VTC 2008-Fall: IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC) (2008), Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press , 2008, s. Article number 4657278-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the medium access control (MAC) method of the upcoming vehicular communication standard IEEE 802.11p has been simulated in a highway scenario with periodic broadcast of time-critical packets (so-called heartbeat messages) in a vehicle-to-vehicle situation. The 802.11p MAC method is based on carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) where nodes listen to the wireless channel before sending. If the channel is busy, the node must defer its access and during high utilization periods this could lead to unbounded delays. This well-known property of CSMA is undesirable for time critical communications. The simulation results reveal that a specific node/vehicle is forced to drop over 80% of its heartbeat messages because no channel access was possible before the next message was generated. To overcome this problem, we propose to use self-organizing time division multiple access (STDMA) for real-time data traffic between vehicles. This MAC method is already successfully applied in commercial surveillance applications for ships (AIS) and airplanes (VDL mode 4). Our initial results indicate that STDMA outperforms CSMA for time-critical traffic safety applications in ad hoc vehicular networks.

  • 2.
    Bilstrup, Katrin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Inbyggda system (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Inbyggda system (CERES).
    Ström, Erik G.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Inbyggda system (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Inbyggda system (CERES).
    On the ability of the 802.11p MAC method and STDMA to support real-time vehicle-to-vehicle communications2009Ingår i: EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, ISSN 1687-1472, E-ISSN 1687-1499, Vol. 2009, nr 902414, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic safety applications using vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication is an emerging and promising area within the intelligent transportation systems (ITS) sphere. Many of these new applications require real-time communication with high reliability, meaning that packets must be successfully delivered before a certain deadline. Applications with early deadlines are expected to require direct V2V communications, and the only standard currently supporting this is the upcoming IEEE 802.11p, included in the wireless access in vehicular environment (WAVE) stack. To meet a real-time deadline, timely and predictable access to the channel is paramount. However, the medium access method used in 802.11p, carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), does not guarantee channel access before a finite deadline. In this paper, we analyze the communication requirements introduced by traffic safety applications, namely, low delay, reliable, real-time communications.We show by simulation of a simple, but realistic, highway scenario, that vehicles using CSMA/CA can experience unacceptable channel access delays and, therefore, 802.11p does not support real-time communications. In addition, we present a potential remedy for this problem, namely, the use of self-organizing time division multiple access (STDMA). The real-time properties of STDMA are investigated by means of the same highway simulation scenario, with promising results.

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