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  • 1.
    Gunnarsson, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    MICROWAVE IMAGING OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES: applied toward breast tumor detection2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Microwave imaging is an efficient diagnostic modality for non-invasively visualizing dielectric contrasts of non-metallic bodies. An increasing interest of this field has been observed during the last decades. Many application areas in biomedicine have been issued, recently the breast tumor detection application using microwave imaging.

    Many groups are working in the field at the moment for several reasons. Breast cancer is a major health problem globally for women, while it is the second most common cancer form for women causing 0.3 % of the yearly female death in Sweden. Medical imaging is considered as the most effective way of diagnostic breast tumors, where X-ray mammography is the dominating technique. However, this imaging modality still suffers from some limitations. Many women, mostly young ones, have radiographically dense breasts, which means that the breast tissues containing high rates of fibroglandular tissues. In this case the density is very similar to the breast tumor and the diagnosis is very difficult. In this case alternative modalities like Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with contrast enhancement and Ultrasound imaging are used, however those are not suitable for large scale screening program.Another limitation is the false-negative and false-positive rate using mammography, in general 5–15 % of the tumors are not detected and many cases have to go though a breast biopsy to verify a tumor diagnosis. At last the mammography using breast compression sometimes painful, and utilizing ionizing X-rays. The big potential in microwave imaging is the reported high contrast of complex permittivity between fibroglandular tissues and tumor tissues in breasts and that it is a non-ionizing method which probably will be rather inexpensive.

    The goal with this work is to develop a microwave imaging system able to reconstruct quantitative images of a female breast. In the frame of this goal this Licentiate thesis contains a brief review of the ongoing research in the field of microwave imaging of biological tissues, with the major focus on the breast tumor application. Both imaging algorithms and experimental setups are included. A feasibility study is performed to analyze what response levels could be expected, in signal properties, in a breast tumor detection application. Also, the usability of a 3D microwave propagation simulator, (QW3D), in the setup development is investigated. This is done by using a simple antenna setup with a breast phantom with different tumor positions. From those results it is clear that strong responses are obtained by a tumor presence and the diffracted responses gives strong information about inhomogeneities inside the breast. The second part of this Licentiate thesis is done in collaboration between Mälardalen University and Supélec. Using the existing planar 2.45 GHz microwave camera and the iterative non-linear Newton Kantorovich code, developed at Département de Recherches en Electromagnétisme (DRE) at Supélec, as a starting point, a new platform for both real-time qualitative imaging and quantitative images of inhomogeneous objects are investigated. The focusing is related to breast tumor detection. For the moment the tomographic performance of the planar camera is verified in simulations through a comparison with other setups. Good calibration is observed, but still experimental work concerning phantom development etc. is needed before experimental results on breast tumor detection may be obtained.

  • 2.
    Gunnarsson, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Microwave Imaging of Biological Tissues: the current status in the research areaManuscript (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gunnarsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Joachimowicz, Nadine
    Diet, Antoine
    Conessa, Cristoph
    Åberg, Denny
    Bolomey, Jean Charles
    QUANTITATIVE IMAGING USING A 2.45 GHz PLANAR CAMERAManuscript (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Henriksson (Gunnarsson), Tommy
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Microwave Imaging of Biological Tissues: the current status in the research area2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microwave imaging is a non-ionizing method promising an ability of depth-scanning different biological bodies. The research in this area started in the late 70s and many contributions has been achieved by different groups until present, which has influenced and open up new possibilities of the technique. This document will review the historical work by the different groups to settle objectives of the research in microwave imaging at the Department of Computer Science and Electronics at Mälardalen University and the plan of the author’s Ph. D. studies. The planar 2.45 GHz microwave camera located at Supélec, France, may be a very useful platform in early studies of the three-dimensional properties of microwave imaging for breast tumor detection. By applying the developed Newton- Kantorovich algorithm to the planar camera a solid state of the art platform for quantitative reconstruction of inhomogeneous objects may be established. 

  • 5.
    Henriksson (Gunnarsson), Tommy
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Joachimowicz, Nadine
    SUPÉLEC, Département de Recherche en Electromagnétisme, France.
    Diet, Antonie
    SUPÉLEC, Département de Recherche en Electromagnétisme, France.
    Conessa, Cristophe
    SUPÉLEC, Département de Recherche en Electromagnétisme, France.
    Åberg, Denny
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Bolomey, Jean-Charles
    SUPÉLEC, Département de Recherche en Electromagnétisme, France.
    Quantitative Imaging Using a 2.45 GHz Planar Camera2007In: 5th World Congress in Industrial Process Tomography, 2007, p. 108-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microwave imaging is recognized as an efficient diagnostic modality for non-invasively visualizing dielectric contrasts in non-metallic bodies. The usefulness of this modality results from the existing correlation between dielectric properties and quantities of practical relevance for industrial or biomedical applications. At the beginning of the 80s, Supélec developed a 2.45 GHz planar microwave camera and in the 90s, the group developed algorithms for quantitative microwave imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate the capability of these existing materials, or an extended version of it, in terms of quantitative imaging of high contrast inhomogeneous object for application of breast cancer detection.

  • 6.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Comparison Between a 2.45 GHz Planar and Circular Scanners for Biomedical Applications2007In: International Conference on Electromagnetic Near-Field Characterization and  Imaging (ICONIC), St. Louis, MO, USA: International Conference on Electromagnetic Near-Field Characterization and Imaging (ICONIC) , 2007, , p. 6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microwave imaging is an efficient technique to non-invasively visualizing dielectricproperties of non-metallic bodies. One potential of the technique is the high contrast in dielectricproperties between biological tissues. In the 80’s, Supélec developed a 2.45 GHz planarmicrowave camera, in the 90’s the group developed algorithms for quantitative microwaveimaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate the capability of these existing materials, oran extended version of them, in terms of quantitative imaging of high-contrast inhomogeneousobject for application of breast cancer detection. A two-dimensional formalization is consideredto be followed up with future three-dimensional investigations.

  • 7.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    CONTRIBUTION TO QUANTITATIVE MICROWAVE IMAGING TECHNIQUES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation presents a contribution to quantitative microwave imaging for breast tumor detection. The study made in the frame of a joint supervision Ph.D. thesis between University Paris-SUD 11 (France) and Mälardalen University (Sweden), has been conducted through two experimental microwave imaging setups, the existing 2.45 GHz planar camera (France) and the multi-frequency flexible robotic system, (Sweden), under development. In this context a 2D scalar flexible numerical tool based on a Newton-Kantorovich (NK) scheme, has been developed.

    Quantitative microwave imaging is a three dimensional vectorial nonlinear inverse scattering problem, where the complex permittivity of an object is reconstructed from the measured scattered field, produced by the object. The NK scheme is used in order to deal with the nonlinearity and the ill-posed nature of this problem. A TM polarization and a two dimensional medium configuration have been considered in order to avoid its vectorial aspect. The solution is found iteratively by minimizing the square norm of the error with respect to the scattered field data. Consequently, the convergence of such iterative process requires, at least two conditions. First, an efficient calibration of the experimental system has to be associated to the minimization of model errors. Second, the mean square difference of the scattered field introduced by the presence of the tumor has to be large enough, according to the sensitivity of the imaging system.

    The existing planar camera associated to a flexible 2D scalar NK code, are considered as an experimental platform for quantitative breast imaging. A preliminary numerical study shows that the multi-view planar system is quite efficient for realistic breast tumor phantoms, according to its characteristics (frequency, planar geometry and water as a coupling medium), as long as realistic noisy data are considered. Furthermore, a multi-incidence planar system, more appropriate in term of antenna-array arrangement, is proposed and its concept is numerically validated.

    On the other hand, an experimental work which includes a new fluid-mixture for the realization of a narrow band cylindrical breast phantom, a deep investigation in the calibration process and model error minimization, is presented. This conducts to the first quantitative reconstruction of a realistic breast phantom by using multi-view data from the planar camera. Next, both the qualitative and quantitative reconstruction of 3D inclusions into the cylindrical breast phantom, by using data from all the retina, are shown and discussed. Finally, the extended work towards the flexible robotic system is presented.

  • 8.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Quantitative Imaging Using a 2.45 GHzPlanar Camera2007In: 5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, Bergen, Norway, Bergen, Norway, 2007, , p. 8Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microwave imaging is recognized as an efficient diagnostic modality for no invasively visualizingdielectric contrasts in non metallic bodies. The usefulness of this modality results from the existingcorrelation between dielectric properties and quantities of practical relevance for industrial orbiomedical applications. At the beginning of the 80’s, Supélec developed a 2.45 GHz planarmicrowave camera, in the 90’s the group developed algorithms for quantitative microwave imaging.The purpose of this study is to investigate the capability of these existing materials, or an extendedversion of it, in terms of quantitative imaging of high contrast inhomogeneous object for application ofbreast cancer detection.

  • 9.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Joachimowicz, Nadine
    L2S/Supélec/Université Paris-SYD 11.
    Conessa, Christophe
    L2S/Supélec/Université Paris-SYD 11.
    Bolomey, Jean-Charles
    L2S/Supélec/Université Paris-SYD 11.
    Quantitative Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection Using a Planar 2.45 GHz System2010In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 59, no 10, p. 2691-2699Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microwave imaging is recognized as a potentialcandidate for biomedical applications, such as breast tumordetection. In this context a planar microwave camera isinvestigated for quantitative imaging of inhomogeneous objects.Promising simulation results indicates that the planar geometryis suitable for quantitative imaging, as long as the signal to noiseratio is higher than 40 dB. Different calibration techniques arediscussed with several proposed model improvements and thefirst reconstructed quantitative image of an inhomogeneous 2Dobject is obtained by using experimental data from the camera.

  • 10.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Joachimowicz, Nadine
    L2S/Supélec/Université Paris-SUD 11.
    Duchêne, Bernard
    L2S/Supélec/Université Paris-SUD 11.
    Bolomey, Jean-Charles
    L2S/Supélec/Université Paris-SUD 11.
    Breast Tumor Detection Ability Using aPlanar 2.45 GHz SystemManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the breast tumor detectionability of a planar microwave imaging system. Indeed, microwaveimaging seems to have a significant potential in such a biomedicalapplication. By means of a numerical model based upon electricfield volume integral equations, we investigate the influence ofseveral parameters, such as the respective sizes of the breastand the tumor, the operating frequency and the electromagneticproperties of the different media, on the detection ability. Thelatter is estimated by comparing the scattered fields observed inthe presence and in the absence of tumor and by accounting forthe signal to noise ratio available with the experimental setupdeveloped at the laboratory.

  • 11.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Joachimowicz, Nadine
    L2S/Supélec/Université Paris-SYD 11.
    Joisel, Alain
    L2S/Supélec/Université Paris-SYD 11.
    Conessa, Christophe
    L2S/Supélec/Université Paris-SYD 11.
    Diet, Antoine
    L2S/Supélec/Université Paris-SYD 11.
    Bolomey, Jean-Charles
    L2S/Supélec/Université Paris-SYD 11.
    Quantitative Microwave Breast Phantom Imaging Using a Planar 2.45 GHz System2008In: (Supélec), XXIX General Assembly of URSI, International Union of Radio Science, Chicago, MO, USA, August, 2008, Chicago, Illinois, USA: XXIX General Assembly of the International Union of Radio Science, URSI , 2008, , p. 4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer is a global health problem, needing cheep and effective alternative diagnosis methods in order to minimize the mortality. This experimental study is performed in the context of an ongoing collaborative project towards a future planar three-dimensional microwave breast mammography system. Herein the first quantitative image of an inhomogeneous breast tumor phantom, composed by different Triton X-100/water/salt mixtures, is obtained by using the existing planar 2.45 GHz microwave camera.

  • 12.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gunnarsson, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Joachimowicz, Nadine
    L2S/ Supélec/Universite Paris-Sud 11.
    Otterskog, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Robot Controlled Data Acquisition System for Microwave Imaging2009In: 3rd European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, 2009, , p. 5p. 3240-3244Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an experimental prototype of a robot controlled data acquisition system for microwave imaging is presented, where the transmitting and receiving antennas are immersed in a water-tank. The scattered field from the object under test is acquired by using the robot and scanning a single receiving antenna in cylindrical or half spherical coordinates, while the transmitting antenna is fixed at one position with possibilities to be manually moved to different positions. Careful design and construction of the system has given accurate measurements of incident and total field with a SNR of 45dB. A validation of the robot system is performed by comparing measured and computed data for a sunflower oil object.In this paper an experimental prototype of a robot controlled data acquisition system for microwave imaging is presented, where the transmitting and receiving antennas are immersed in a water-tank. The scattered field from the object under test is acquired by using the robot and scanning a single receiving antenna in cylindrical or half spherical coordinates, while the transmitting antenna is fixed at one position with possibilities to be manually moved to different positions. Careful design and construction of the system has given accurate measurements of incident and total field with a SNR of 45dB. A validation of the robot system is performed by comparing measured and computed data for a sunflower oil object.

  • 13.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Henriksson (Gunnarsson), Tommy
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Otterskog, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Antenna Modeling Issues in Quantitative Image Reconstruction Using a Flexible Microwave Tomography System2010In: PIERS 2010 CAMBRIDGE: PROGRESS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, 2010, p. 952-956Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative microwave imaging has been extensively studied in the past years as an alternative technique in biomedical imaging, with a strong potential in early stage breast can- cer detection [Keith D. Paulsen and Paul M. Meaney, \Alternative Breast Imaging", The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science, 778, 2005]. The image reconstruction involves a nonlinear inverse scattering problem, which consists to retrieve the dielectric prop- erties of the biological object from the measured scattered field, for an applied incident field. Consequently, the solution is highly sensitive to model errors in the incident field. This paper focus on the impact of this model error on the reconstructed quantitative image using a °exible robotic microwave imaging system, developed at MAalardalen University, together with an itera- tive Newton-Kantorovich (NK) algorithm. This study is conducted during the development of the imaging system and the first quantitative images of a breast phantom are obtained. The robotic microwave imaging system is developed as a °exible experimental platform for biomedical imaging, where one of the applications is breast imaging. Using a robot controlled system the scattered field can be measured with a single transmitting/receiving antenna-pair, thus avoiding the mutual coupling that occur when an antenna-array is used. The scattered field is, herein, measured around a breast phantom, along a circular arc, in the horizontal plane with vertically polarized monopole antennas, considering a two dimensional transverse magnetic case (2D-TM). The radiated field from the transmitting antenna is modeled as a vertical polarized cylindrical wave in the numerical incident field model of the NK algorithm, where images with both the real- and imaginary permittivity profile of the breast phantom are obtained. In this study, two di®erent monopole antenna designs are compared with the numerical incident field model. The di®erence between the antennas is the ground-plane design, where the first setup uses 4 wires forming a horizontal cross as a ground-plane. By varying the length of the wires and angel between the transmitting and receiving antenna the incident electromagnetic field is changed and could be modified to best fit the simulated field. The second setup uses a circular ground plane which will give a more rotational symmetric radiation pattern in the horizontal plane and a better match when comparing measured fields with computed values. The comparison is done directly with the numerical incident field model, as well as the computed and measured scattered field, and finally the impact on the reconstructed images by the NK algorithm are compared, using measured data from both antennas. The results show how the antenna selection impacts the error between the measured incident field and the numerical model, and how the quantitative image of an inhomogeneous object is a®ected by this model error.

  • 14.
    Åberg, Denny
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Gunnarsson, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Norin, Peder
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Steps to Microwave Probing of Complex Dielectric Bodies2005In: Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Volume 2005, 2005, p. 1932-1935Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microwave probing of dielectric materials is a challenging application of microwaves. This study investigates a Finite Difference Time Domain electro-magnetic wave simulation tool with the intent of establishing a quantitative simulation environment for microwave probing techniques. Measurements were compared to simulations on distilled water and a phantom resembling a human breast with and without a 10 mm diameter tumor. The measurements showed high signal differences on tumor insertion as well as on variation of the tumor position within the phantom. The simulation results shows agreement on quantitative levels for the whole phantom object, however the simulation results on tumor variation could not be quantitatively correlated to measurements

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