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  • 1.
    Bergvall, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Etnicitet och kön:  Påverkar grupptillhörighet bedömningar av korrekthet i centrala meningar från ett vittnesmål?2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att studera möjligheten att bedöma korrekthet i vittnens utsagor beroende av deltagarnas grupptillhörighet. I studien ingick 120 deltagare som antingen fick se en film med vittnesmål från fyra vittnen med enstaka centrala meningar eller läsa en text med samma meningar. De viktigaste mätningarna i denna studie gjordes efter signal detection theory (SDT). Resultaten visade att deltagarna inte skattade mycket över slumpnivå och ofta till och med under slumpnivå i sina bedömningar. I en hopslagning av betingelserna (text/film) visade analyserna att män generellt var signifikant sämre än kvinnorna på att bedöma vittnesmål, men att kvinnorna gör fler falska alarm än männen i bedömningen av textversionen.  De funna könsskillnaderna i hur vittnesmål bedöms diskuterades.

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    Etnicitet och kön: Påverkar grupptillhörighet bedömningar av korrekthet i centrala meningar från ett vittnesmål?
  • 2.
    Bergvall, Sylvia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Diskriminering i vittnessammanhang: Resultat från ett social-kognitivt forskningsprojekt.2006In: Är rättvisan rättvis?: Tio perspektiv på diskriminering av etniska och religiösa minoriteter inom rättssystemet. / [ed] Jerzy Sarnecki, Stockholm: Edita Sverige AB , 2006, 388, p. 39-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Är rättvisan rättvis
  • 3.
    Brunnberg, Elinor
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Olsson, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Speak up! Giving a voice to Europe’s most vulnerable children: About the rights of young girls in a control group2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Speak up! Giving a voice to Europe's most vulnerable children will focus on children aged 12–15 years belonging to particularly vulnerable groups in eight European countries: Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, and the UK. The project aims to empower children and improve the knowledge and understanding of children’s own views about their rights and the protection conferred by these rights, and their perceptions of what needs to be improved in national and European policies. One group of participants from each country consists of children in an especially vulnerable situation and one group is considered to be a control group. This report is from the control group of eight children from a regula school. The study is a comparative qulaitative study

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  • 4.
    Dag, Munir
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Olsson, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Loeb, Carina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Utvärdering av IRIS - Intensiv rehabilitering i samverkan2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar en utvärdering av Intensiv rehabiliterande insatssamordning (IRIS) utifrån ett rehabiliterande förhållningssätt och uppnå effektiviseringar i verksamheten. Inriktningen på projektet är att följa upp, ompröva och se över behovet av tidigare beviljade insatser hos brukare med omfattande behov. Projektet har flera mål, där ett av dem utgör grunden för denna utvärdering: att implementera ett rehabiliterande förhållningsätt hos biståndshandläggare och uppnå effektiviseringar.

    Som underlag för utvärderingen har intervjuer genomförts med sju personal och en brukare. I intervjuerna med personal framkommer att det inte finns någon gemensam definition på vad självständighet innebär på de olika gruppboendena. Avsaknad av en gemensam definition leder ibland till att personal arbetar med brukarna på olika sätt. En del försöker så långt möjligt få brukarna att själva utföra olika vardagssysslor, medan andra i högre grad utför vardagssyssloråt brukarna, mycket på grund av att det blir smidigare och arbetet görs snabbare.

    Av personalens uttalanden framgår att brukarna har möjlighet till egna val när det gäller olika vardagssysslor, trots få alternativ att välja på. Vid städinsats får brukarna oftast välja mellan två tider då städning skall genomföras. Brukaren får däremot inte möjlighet att välja bort städningen. Av personalens uttalanden framgår att de är positiva till insatsen IRIS. Insatsen IRIS styrka är att det genomförs som ett samverkansprojekt där kommunens alla professioner samarbetar för att få en bild av brukarens behov. Personalen upplevde även IRIS som användbar insats med brukarna. IRIS blir ett stöd att få brukare mer självständiga, dvs. att klara av olika vardagssysslor själva. Av samtalen med personal framgår även att de flesta upplevde kontakten med kvalitetssamordnarna som positiv och givande. Det genomfördes även intervju med en brukare. Även brukaren upplevde insatsen IRIS som positiv. Brukaren upplevde en högre grad av självständighet med hjälp av insatsen IRIS. Med hjälp av insatsen IRIS klarar brukaren av att genomföra fler vardagssysslor själv.

    Rapporten inleds med en kort bakgrund med syfte, en genomgång av tidigare forskning om personer med funktionsnedsättning, teoretisk referensram om normaliseringsprincipen, social inkludering, social exkludering och self-efficacy (tilltro till den egna förmågan) och ett metodavsnitt. Därefter följer en redovisning av resultatet, diskussion, och en slutsats med några förbättringsförslag

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  • 5.
    Olsson, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Socialt arbete.
    Longing to belong: deaf and hard of hearing young adults’ social interaction, social relationships, and identity2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis gives an insight about the impact of hearing loss on young adults as they function in daily life. Young adults with hearing loss included in the thesis can convey a very central perspective that can have an impact on a change in interventions and treatment in school life, working life and even in their leisure time. The overall aim of the thesis is to study the living conditions and life experiences of young men and women who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH). Despite the increased proportion of people with hearing loss, there still seem to be challenges in the face of inclusive environments for people with hearing loss. This thesis hopes to shed some light on the experiences of people with hearing loss and also to explain the link between hearing loss, social inclusion and social exclusion.

    The thesis is based on four different sub-studies. In Studies I and IV, a survey study with material collected from the web-based survey Liv och Hälsa Ung (Life and Health of Young People) was used. Pupils attending grades 7 and 9 in compulsory schools and year 2 in upper-secondary schools in all municipalities of the county of Örebro in Sweden. Life and Health of Young People survey examines young people's living conditions, lifestyles and health. The results of Study I showed that people with (DHH) experienced lower levels of well-being than those who had no disability. The results also showed that those who went to special school felt that they had more friends and were more socially included than those who went to mainstream schools. The results of Study IV showed that adolescents without disabilities rate their well-being higher, have lower mental ill-health and have fewer somatic problems than adolescents with DHH. The results also showed that boys rate their well-being, lower mental ill-health and somatic problems higher than girls. These patterns were the same regardless of whether the adolescents had a disability and regardless of their year in school.

    In Studies II and III, interviews were conducted with 16 participants (10 male, 6 female), aged 24 to 31 years, and all had severe-to-profound hearing loss. The results of that analysis in Study II showed that they longed to be included, to be accepted, to create an inclusive social environment, to find friends and partners, and to communicate effectively so that they could be understood. In other words, they desired to feel a sense of belonging. Study III showed that most HH people experience communication barriers in higher education, at work and in leisure time. These barriers lead to feelings of loneliness and make it difficult to achieve social inclusion. Another result in study III revealed how important technology is for social interactions and social relationships. The technology has helped reduce several barriers when it comes to communicating with others. Both Assistant Technology (AT) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are important tools for facilitate social interaction and maintaining social activities with friends and partner and creating inclusive arenas.

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  • 6.
    Olsson, Sylvia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Brunnberg, Elinor
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Childhood to Adult Life. A longitudinal study about psycho-social aspects of living with a hearing disability2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim in the current study is to describe, analyze and understand psycho-social aspects of living with an innate hearing impairment. In the study, issues come around near relationships and the feeling of group property and identity and participation in social environments. Issues around the communication’s importance become also a central part. The existing study is one longitudinally study where materials earlier been collected in 1994 and 1996 with all hearing-impaired children that went in hearing impairment class. The study was a child study with empirical materials only from children/young people. The children went in hearing impairment class when the study started integrated on a school where it also went hearing children. The special-need school’s students were moved the autumn 1994 to the special-need school. The students became then placed in one sign language school environment and got deaf schoolmates instead for hearing. They changed therefore from hearing schoolmates to deaf. The current children are today young adult in the age 24 - 30 years old, both women and men. They have implemented or their started establishment in the society like adults and twenty depth interviews were conducted with them in the fall of 2011

  • 7.
    Olsson, Sylvia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dag, Munir
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Kullberg, Christian
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Deaf and hard-of-hearing adolescents' experiences of inclusion and exclusion in mainstream and special schools in Sweden2018In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 495-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the question of which school environment - special or mainstream school - is more favourable for deaf and hard-of-hearing students in Sweden, when it comes to their well-being, and their social and academic inclusion. The aim is threefold: first to compare the well-being of adolescents who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, who are deaf or hard-of-hearing and have additional disabilities, and who have no disabilities; second to compare the adolescents from the two deaf and hard-of-hearing groups and their experiences of inclusion and exclusion in school; and third to ascertain if any gender differences exist between the two groups of deaf and hard-of-hearing students concerning their experiences of inclusion and exclusion. A total of 7865 adolescents (13-18 years of age) answered a total survey about the life and health of young people in a county in Sweden. The results show that both boys and girls in the hard-of-hearing groups rated their well-being lower and were less satisfied with their lives than pupils without disabilities. They also show that the hard-of-hearing boys and girls attending special school were more satisfied with their lives and to a greater extent felt included both socially and academically than students in mainstream school.

  • 8.
    Olsson, Sylvia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dag, Munir
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Kullberg, Christian
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Hard of Hearing Adults’ Interpersonal Interactions and Relationships in Daily Life2021In: Disabilities, ISSN 2673-7272, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 71-88, article id 1020007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, there is limited research on how deaf and hard of hearing adults experience higher education and work. The purpose of the present study is to examine hard of hearing (HH) adults’ experiences of social interactions and social relationships in higher education, the workplace and leisure time. Data were obtained from semistructured interviews with 16 individuals (aged 24–31 years) from diverse cultural backgrounds (10 males and 6 females) with severe-to-profound hearing loss. Participants were selected based on previous expressed interest in participating in further studies after having been involved in an earlier study. The interviews were subjected to a qualitative thematic data analysis. According to the results, people with a hearing loss experience communication barrier in higher education, at work and in leisure time. These communication barriers lead to difficulties achieving social inclusion, and in some circumstances to social exclusion. Assistive technology (AT) and information and communication technologies (ICT) were important facilitators of moving from social exclusion towards social inclusion.

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    Hard of Hearing Adults’ Interpersonal Interactions andRelationships in Daily Life
  • 9.
    Olsson, Sylvia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Gustafsson, Christine
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Employees’ experiences of education and knowledge in intellectual disability practice2020In: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1741-1122, E-ISSN 1741-1130, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 219-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The value of support, service, and care in intellectual disability (ID) practice is linked to the competence of the professionalcaregivers. The quality of work is affected by the level of education of healthcare employees involved.Specific Aims: This study aimed to collect data on how employees perceive their education and training in ID practice and howeducational programs prepare them for their working environment.Methods: We used a quantitative approach to investigate how employees reflect on their knowledge about ID and other disabilitiesand the sources of such knowledge. A total of 262 employees engaged in ID practice completed an online survey.Findings: The results indicated that education significantly influenced the participants’ knowledge level, and highly specific education(i.e., workplace training) can substitute for work experience in ID practice. The authors conclude that all workplaces shouldexamine their employees’ skills regularly from the viewpoint of fulfilling the needs of people with ID.Discussion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that employees in ID practice need specific knowledge through workplacetraining (i.e., through hands-on practice at the workplace). Competence development in the form of workplace training is neededto upskill the staff and possibly increases employees’ participation at work.

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  • 10.
    Olsson, Sylvia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Gustafsson, Christine
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Estimated Effects of Web-Based Course from Adult Vocational Students’ Perspective—A PFA Course in Scandinavian Intellectual Disability Practice2021In: Disabilities, ISSN 2673-7272, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 98-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Scandinavia, the field of intellectual disability (ID) practice lacks specific course, professional training, theoretical foundation, guidelines, and practice consensus. However, Pedagogiskt Förhållnings-och Arbetsätt (PFA model) has the potential to offer a pedagogical attitude and a way of working within ID practice. PFA was developed in the context of Swedish ID practice and has attracted national and European interest. Most staff working in ID practice in Scandinavia are educated to upper secondary school (adolescent students) level or vocational course (adult students) level. In the present pilot study, we examined the effects of providing a web-based PFA course as a complement to the Swedish national curriculum. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the effects of self-assessed knowledge and learning using a web-based PFA course intervention on an adult vocational course. The study involved a quantitative intervention approach involving two equivalent groups in an experimental design: an experimental group (n = 12) and a comparison group (n = 46). These groups were administered a pre-test and a post-test questionnaire that estimated their knowledge of the course through self-reporting tests. The findings provide empirical evidence of the informed and sustained use of knowledge building through complementary web-based PFA courses.

  • 11.
    Olsson, Sylvia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Christine
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Longing to Belong: Hard of Hearing Young Adults’ Experiences of Social Identity and Group Membership2022In: American Annals of the Deaf, ISSN 0002-726X, E-ISSN 1543-0375, Vol. 166, no 166, p. 638-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on hard of hearing (HH) individuals have focused mostly on children´s experinces in school. Howerver, their lives as young adults have not received much attention. The present study therefore examined HH young adults´experiences of social identity and group membership. Semi-structured interviews were counducted with 16 individuals (10 males, 6 females) with servere-to-profound hearing loss. They were from diverse cultural backgrounds. A qualitative content analysis was performed with a manifest analysis. Two categories emerged: belonging to a social enviroment and engaging in important communication. The results indicate that the HH individuals, either deliberately or unconsciously, chose to be with other HH individuals because of their longing for group membership and desire to avoid being misunderstood. The participants longed for inclusion, acceptance, and opportunities to create an inclusive social environment and to communicate with others.

  • 12.
    Olsson, Sylvia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Socialt arbete.
    Loeb, Carina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Psykologi.
    The psychosocial status of deaf and hard-of-hearing adolescents in mainstream schoolsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in many other industrialised countries, the official stance is an inclusive school promotes an integrated society and creates supportive local communities. Lack of attention to mental well-being of adolescents may lead to mental ill-health that may endure for the rest of an individual´s life. Many deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) adolescents in mainstream schools become depresses, have more illness and often have poorer health and develop a negative self-image. This self reported survey study, which used a cross-sectional, quantitative approach, is one of the first studies to address these issues. The sample for this study consisted of 5798 adolescents (235 DHH, 221 DHH with additional disabilites, 5342 hearing) attending compulsory and upper-secondary schools in Sweden. The results showed that adolescents without DHH have higher well-being, fewer somatic problems and lower mental ill-health than adolescents with DHH.

  • 13.
    Olsson, Sylvia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Loeb, Carina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Utvärdering av en fysisk respektive digital PFA-utbildning: Skiljer sig kunskapsinhämtning och yrkesrelaterad tilltro till förmågan åt beroende på utbildningsform?2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar en utvärdering av en utbildning i Pedagogiskt förhållnings- och arbetssätt, (PFA) vilken innebär att man utgår från varje persons färdigheter och svårigheter, för att skapa förutsättningar till en tillvaro där personens färdigheter används och svårigheter kompenseras. Utbildningsinsatserna görs i två varianter, antingen (1) fysiskt i grupp på en bestämd plats eller (2) digitalt individuellt och platsoberoende. Målet med projektet är att utvärdera kursdeltagarnas kunskapsinhämtning samt yrkesrelaterad tilltro till sin förmåga.  

    Deltagarna i utbildningarna var personal inom LSS-verksamhet som antingen gick en fysisk eller digital utbildning i Pedagogiskt förhållnings- och arbetssätt (PFA). För att utvärdera PFA-utbildningen samlades totalt 338 enkäter in fördelade på två mättillfällen; före utbildningen startade och direkt efter den var avslutad. Förutom bakgrundsfrågor om deltagarnas kännedom om PFA, KASAM, kognition samt kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar så utarbetades ett nytt frågeformulär med totalt 16 frågor för att mäta anställdas tilltro till sin förmåga att arbeta stödjande och omsorgsrelaterat.

    Sammanfattningsvis visade resultaten av utvärderingen att både den fysiska och digitala formen av PFA-utbildning bidrog till kunskapsutveckling inom PFA, KASAM (känsla av sammanhang), kognition och kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar. Resultaten indikerar att den fysiska formen av utbildning hade en mer positiv effekt på studerandes kunskapsnivå om PFA, KASAM, kognition samt kognitiva funktionsnedsättingar efter utbildningens slut jämfört med de deltagare som deltog i den digitala utbildningen. Dock var kunskapsnivån i den fysiska gruppen, speciellt gällande PFA, något högre redan innan de startade utbildningen jämfört med de som gick kursen digitalt. Det är möjligt att den personliga interaktionen och den fysiska närvaron i klassrummet bidrog till en starkare inlärningsupplevelse. Viktigt att påpeka är att resultaten av denna utvärdering behöver tolkas och förstås utifrån de andra skillnader som fanns mellan den fysiska utbildningen och den digitala lärmiljön. Exempelvis så pågick den fysiska utbildningen under en vecka på plats tillsammans med andra kursdeltagare, lärare och handledare med två dagars praktik medan den digitala utbildningen i PFA var individuell, innehöll filmer och egna övningar och tog cirka 5 timmar att fullfölja.

    När det gäller frågan om hur den fysiska och digitala PFA-utbildningen påverkar tilltron till yrkesförmågan, visar utvärderingen att det inte finns entydiga bevis för att den ena utbildningsformen är bättre än den andra. Det fanns väsentliga skillnader i hur de två utbildningarna genomfördes, som inte bara handlar om ifall utbildningen är fysisk eller digital. Därför bör slutsatserna vara försiktiga. Utvärderingen ger dock stöd för att tre av de fyra faktorer som tidigare studier har identifierat för att höja self-efficacy (självförtroende) enligt Banduras teori (1997) verkar vara betydelsefulla även i PFA-utbildningen. Att skapa positiva erfarenheter, få stöd (social persuasion) från signifikanta andra och att identifiera sig med andra jämförbara personer (ställföreträdande erfarenheter) har betydelse för att öka tilltron till den egna yrkesförmågan.

    Rapporten i sin helhet inleds med en kort bakgrund, syfte, ett metodavsnitt och en teoretisk referensram utifrån det salutogena perspektivet, KASAM och self-efficacy (tilltro till den egna förmågan). Därefter följer en redovisning av resultatet och några avlutande reflektioner. 

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