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  • 1.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sander, Ingo
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Designing End-to-end Resource Reservations in Predictable Distributed Embedded Systems2017In: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 916-956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary distributed embedded systems in many domains have become highly complex due to ever-increasing demand on advanced computer controlled functionality. The resource reservation techniques can be effective in lowering the software complexity, ensuring predictability and allowing flexibility during the development and execution of these systems. This paper proposes a novel end-to-end resource reservation model for distributed embedded systems. In order to support the development of predictable systems using the proposed model, the paper provides a method to design resource reservations and an end-to-end timing analysis. The reservation design can be subjected to different optimization criteria with respect to runtime footprint, overhead or performance. The paper also presents and evaluates a case study to show the usability of the proposed model, reservation design method and end-to-end timing analysis. 

  • 2.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    End-to-end Resource Reservations in Distributed Embedded Systems2016In: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE 22nd International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2016, 2016, p. 1-11, article id 7579921Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The resource reservation techniques provide effective means to lower the software complexity, ensure predictability and allow flexibility during the development and execution of complex distributed embedded systems. In this paper we propose a new end-to-end resource reservation model for distributed embedded systems. The model is comprehensive in such a way that it supports end-to-end resource reservations on distributed transactions with various activation patterns that are commonly used in industrial control systems. The model allows resource reservations on processors and real-time network protocols. We also present timing analysis for the distributed embedded systems that are developed using the proposed model. The timing analysis computes the end-to-end response times as well as delays such as data age and reaction delays. The presented analysis also supports real-time networks that can autonomously initiate transmissions. Such networks are not supported by the existing analyses. We also include a case study to show the usability of the model and end-to-end timing analysis with resource reservations.

  • 3.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    End-to-end Resource Reservation Model2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Khalilzad, Nima
    Qamcom Research and Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Modeling, Designing and Analyzing Resource Reservations in Distributed Embedded Systems2018In: Real-Time Modelling and Processing for Communication Systems / [ed] Springer, Springer , 2018, p. 203-256Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Gålnander, Mattias
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Modeling and Timing Analysis of Vehicle Functions Distributed over Switched Ethernet2017In: IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2017, p. 8419-8424Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an approach to model switched Ethernet communication within a model- and component-based software development framework for vehicular distributed embedded systems. The paper also presents a method to extract the network timing model from the systems that use switched Ethernet networks. In order to provide a proof of concept, an existing industrial component model and its tool suite, namely RCM and Rubus-ICE respectively, are extended by implementing the modeling technique, the timing model extraction method and response-time analysis of the Ethernet AVB protocol. The extensions to RCM are backward compatible with the modeling and end-to-end timing analysis of traditional in-vehicle networks and legacy (previously developed) vehicular distributed embedded systems. Furthermore, the paper discusses the implementation and test strategy used in this work. Finally, the usability of the modeling approach and implemented timing analysis is demonstrated by modeling and time analyzing a vehicular application case study with the extended component model and tool suite.

  • 6.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Analyzing End-to-End Delays in Automotive Systems at Various Levels of Timing Information2016In: IEEE 4th International Workshop on Real-Time Computing and Distributed systems in Emerging Applications REACTION'16, Porto, Portugal, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software design for automotive systems is highly complex due to the presence of strict data age constraints for event chains in addition to task specific requirements. These age constraints define the maximum time for the propagation of data through an event chain consisting of independently triggered tasks. Tasks in event chains can have different periods, introducing over- and under-sampling effects, which additionally aggravates their timing analysis. Furthermore, different functionality in these systems, is developed by different suppliers before the final system integration on the ECU. The software itself is developed in a hardware agnostic manner and this uncertainty and limited information at the early design phases may not allow effective analysis of end-to-end delays during that phase. In this paper, we present a method to compute end-to-end delays given the information available in the design phases, thereby enabling timing analysis throughout the development process. The presented methods are evaluated with extensive experiments where the decreasing pessimism with increasing system information is shown.

  • 7.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Robert Bosch GmbH, Renningen, Germany.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Analyzing end-to-end delays in automotive systems at various levels of timing information2017In: ACM SIGBED Review, E-ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 8-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software design for automotive systems is highly complex due to the presence of strict data age constraints for event chains in addition to task specific requirements. These age constraints define the maximum time for the propagation of data through an event chain consisting of independently triggered tasks. Tasks in event chains can have different periods, introducing over- and under-sampling effects, which additionally aggravates their timing analysis. Furthermore, different functionality in these systems, is developed by different suppliers before the final system integration on the ECU. The software itself is developed in a hardware agnostic manner and this uncertainty and limited information at the early design phases may not allow effective analysis of end-to-end delays during that phase. In this paper, we present a method to compute end-to-end delays given the information available in the design phases, thereby enabling timing analysis throughout the development process. The presented methods are evaluated with extensive experiments where the decreasing pessimism with increasing system information is shown.

  • 8.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Robert Bosch GmbH, Renningen, Germany.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    End-to-End Timing Analysis of Cause-Effect Chains in Automotive Embedded Systems2017In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 80, no Supplement C, p. 104-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive embedded systems are subjected to stringent timing requirements that need to be verified. One of the most complex timing requirement in these systems is the data age constraint. This constraint is specified on cause- effect chains and restricts the maximum time for the propagation of data through the chain. Tasks in a cause-effect chain can have different activation patterns and different periods, that introduce over- and under-sampling effects, which additionally aggravate the end-to-end timing analysis of the chain. Furthermore, the level of timing information available at various development stages (from modeling of the software architecture to the software implementation) varies a lot, the complete timing information is available only at the implementation stage. This uncertainty and limited timing information can restrict the end-to-end timing analysis of these chains. In this paper, we present methods to compute end-to-end delays based on different levels of system information. The characteristics of different communication semantics are further taken into account, thereby enabling timing analysis throughout the development process of such heterogeneous software systems. The presented methods are evaluated with extensive experiments. As a proof of concept, an industrial case study demonstrates the applicability of the proposed methods following a state-of-the-practice development process.

  • 9.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    MECHAniSer - A Timing Analysis and Synthesis Tool for Multi-Rate Effect Chains with Job-Level Dependencies2016In: 7th International Workshop on Analysis Tools and Methodologies for Embedded and Real-time Systems WATERS'16, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial embedded systems have timing con- straints on the data propagation through a chain of independent tasks. These tasks can execute at different periods which leads to under and oversampling of data. In such situations, understand- ing and validating the temporal correctness of end-to-end delays is not trivial. Many industrial areas further face distributed development where different functionalities are integrated on the same platform after the development process. The large effect of scheduling decisions on the end-to-end delays can lead to expensive redesigns of software parts due to the lack of analysis at early design stages. Job-level dependencies is one solution for this challenge and means of scheduling such systems are available. In this paper we present MECHAniSer, a tool targeting the early analysis of end-to-end delays in multi-rate cause effect chains with specified job-level dependencies. The tool further provides the possibility to synthesize job-level dependencies for a set of cause-effect chains in a way such that all end-to-end requirements are met. The usability and applicability of the tool to industrial problems is demonstrated via a case study.

  • 10.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Synthesizing Job-Level Dependencies for Automotive Multi-Rate Effect Chains2016In: The 22th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'16, 2016, Vol. sept, p. 159-169, article id 579951Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s automotive embedded systems comprise a multitude of functionalities, many with complex timing re- quirements. Besides task specific timing requirements, such ap- plications often have timing requirements for the propagation of data through a chain of tasks. An important metric for control applications is the data age, which is addressed in this work. The analysis of such systems is non-trivial because tasks involved in the data propagation may execute at different periods, which leads to over and undersampling within one chain. This work presents a novel method to compute worst- and best-case end-to-end latencies for such systems. A second contribution synthesizes job-level dependencies for such task sets in a way that data paths which exceed the age constraint are eliminated. An extensive evaluation is performed on synthetic task sets and the applicability to industrial applications is demonstrated in a case study.

  • 11.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Robert Bosch GmbH, Renningen, Germany.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Timing Analysis and Synthesis of Mixed Multi-Rate Effect Chains in MECHAniSer2016In: Open Demo Session of Real-Time Systems located at Real Time Systems Symposium (RTSS) RTSS@Work 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of embedded control systems are modeled with several chains of independently triggered tasks, also known as multi-rate effect chains. These chains have often stringent end-to-end timing requirements that should be satisfied before running the system. MECHAniSer is one of the tools that supports end-to-end timing analysis of such chains. In addition, the tool provides the possibility to synthesize job-level dependencies for these chains such that all end-to-end timing requirements are satisfied. In this paper we showcase an extension of MECHAniSer that supports the analysis of mixed chains that contain a mix of independent and dependent tasks.

  • 12.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. KTH, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Timing Analysis Driven Design-Space Exploration of Cause-Effect Chains in Automotive Systems2018In: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society IECON'18, Washington DC, United States, 2018, p. 4090-4095, article id 8592842Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based development and component-based software engineering have emerged as a promising approach to deal with enormous software complexity in automotive systems. This approach supports the development of software architectures by interconnecting (and reusing) software components (SWCs) at various abstraction levels. Automotive software architectures are often modeled with chains of SWCs, also called cause-effect chains that are constrained by timing requirements. Based on the variations in activation patterns of SWCs, a single model of a cause-effect chain at a higher abstraction level can conform to several valid refined models of the chain at a lower abstraction level, which is closer to the system implementation. As a consequence, the total number of valid implementation-level models generated by the existing techniques increases exponentially, thereby significantly increasing the runtime of the timing analysis engines and liming the scalability of the existing techniques. This paper computes an upper bound on the activation pattern combinations that may result from a system of cause-effect chains in a given high-level model of the software architecture. An efficient algorithm is presented that traverses only a reduced number of possible combinations of the cause-effect chains, resulting in the timing analysis of significantly lower number of implementation-level models of the software architecture. A proof of concept is provided by conducting a case study that shows significant reduction in the runtime of timing analysis engines, i.e., the timing behavior of the considered system is verified by performing the timing analysis of only 27% of all possible combinations of the cause-effect chains.

  • 13.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Extending Automotive Legacy Systems with Existing End-to-End Timing Constraints2018In: 14th International Conference on Information Technology : New Generations ITNG'17, 2018, Vol. 558, p. 597-605Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing automotive software is becoming in- creasingly challenging due to continuous increase in its size and complexity. The development challenge is amplified when the industrial requirements dictate extensions to the legacy (previously developed) automotive software while requiring to meet the existing timing requirements. To cope with these challenges, sufficient techniques and tooling to support the modeling and timing analysis of such systems at earlier development phases is needed. Within this context, we focus on the extension of software component chains in the software architectures of automotive legacy systems. Selecting the sampling frequency, i.e. period, for newly added software components is crucial to meet the timing requirements of the chains. The challenges in selecting periods are identified. It is further shown how to automatically assign periods to software components, such that the end-to-end timing requirements are met while the runtime overhead is minimized. An industrial case study is presented that demonstrates the applicability of the proposed solution to industrial problems.

  • 14.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Generic Framework Facilitating Early Analysis of Data Propagation Delays in Multi-Rate Systems2017In: The 23th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'17, 2017, article id 8046323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of multi-rate real-time systems are constrained by a multitude of timing requirements, in addition to the traditional deadlines on well-studied response times. This means, the timing predictability of these systems not only depends on the schedulability of certain task sets but also on the timely propagation of data through the chains of tasks from sensors to actuators. In the automotive industry, four different timing constraints corresponding to various data propagation delays are commonly specified on the systems. This paper identifies and addresses the source of pessimism as well as optimism in the calculations for one such delay, namely the reaction delay, in the state-of-the-art analysis that is already implemented in several industrial tools. Furthermore, a generic framework is proposed to compute all the four end-to-end data propagation delays, complying with the established delay semantics, in a scheduler and hardware-agnostic manner. This allows analysis of the system models already at early development phases, where limited system information is present. The paper further introduces mechanisms to generate job-level dependencies, a partial ordering of jobs, which need to be satisfied by any execution platform in order to meet the data propagation timing requirements. The job-level dependencies are first added to all task chains of the system and then reduced to its minimum required set such that the job order is not affected. Moreover, a necessary schedulability test is provided, allowing for varying the number of CPUs. The experimental evaluations demonstrate the tightness in the reaction delay with the proposed framework as compared to the existing state-of-the-art and practice solutions.

  • 15.
    Becker, Matthias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dasari, Dakshina
    Research and Technology Centre, Robert Bosch, India.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Scheduling Multi-Rate Real-Time Applications on Clustered Many-Core Architectures with Memory Constraints2018In: 2018 23RD ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC), 2018, p. 560-567Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to shared memory is one of the main chal- lenges for many-core processors. One group of scheduling strategies for such platforms focuses on the division of tasks’ access to shared memory and code execution. This allows to orchestrate the access to shared local and off-chip memory in a way such that access contention between different compute cores is avoided by design. In this work, an execution framework is introduced that leverages local memory by statically allocating a subset of tasks to cores. This reduces the access times to shared memory, as off-chip memory access is avoided, and in turn improves the schedulability of such systems. A Constrained Programming (CP) formulation is presented to selects the statically allocated tasks and generates the complete system schedule. Evaluations show that the pro- posed approach yields an up to 21% higher schedulability ratio than related work, and a case study demonstrates its applicability to industrial problems.

  • 16.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eramo, Romina
    University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy..
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    MoVES: a Model-driven methodology for Vehicular Embedded Systems2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, p. 6424-6445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel model-driven methodology for the software development of real-time distributed vehicular embedded systems on single- and multi-core platforms. The proposed methodology discloses the opportunity of improving the cost-efficiency of the development process by providing automated support to identify viable design solutions with respect to selected non-functional requirements. To this end, it leverages the interplay of modelling languages for the vehicular domain whose integration is achieved by a suite of model transformations. An instantiation of the methodology is discussed for timing requirements, which are among the most critical ones for vehicular systems. To support the design of temporally correct systems, a cooperation between EAST-ADL and the Rubus Component Model is opportunely built-up by means of model transformations, enabling timing-aware design and model-based timing analysis of the system. The applicability of the methodology is demonstrated as proof of concepts on industrial use cases performed in cooperation with our industrial partners.

  • 17.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eramo, Romina
    University of L'Aquila, Italy.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Anticipating Implementation-Level Timing Analysis for Driving Design-Level Decisions in EAST-ADL2015In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 1487, 2015, p. 63-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adoption of model-driven engineering in the automotive domain resulted in the standardization of a layered architectural description language, namely EAST-ADL, which provides means for enforcing abstraction and separation of concerns, but no support for automation among its abstraction levels. This support is particularly helpful when manual transitions among levels are tedious and error-prone. This is the case of design and implementation levels. Certain fundamental analyses (e.g., timing), which have a significant impact on design decisions, give precise results only if performed on implementation level models, which are currently created manually by the developer. Dealing with complex systems, this task becomes soon overwhelming leading to the creation of a subset of models based on the developers experience; relevant implementation level models may therefore be missed. In this work, we describe means for automation between EAST-ADL design and implementation levels to anticipate end-to-end delay analysis at design level for driving design decisions.

  • 18.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pierantonio, Alfonso
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Design-Space Exploration of Component Chains in Vehicle Software2016In: 42nd Euromicro Conference series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, Work In Progress (WiP) SEAA 2016 WiP, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The size, complexity and heterogeneity of vehicular software systems has been constantly increasing. As a result, there is a growing consensus on the need to leverage modelbased techniques for automating, thus taming, error-proneness of tedious engineering tasks. Our methodology employs a one-tomany model transformation for generating a set of implementation models from a single design model. Then, it evaluates the appropriateness of each generated model by means of modelbased timing analysis. In this ongoing work, we discuss an enhancement of our methodology where model-based timing analysis is extended for running on a single model with uncertainty.

  • 19.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Syst, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pierantonio, Alfonso
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Univ Aquila, DISIM, Laquila, Italy.
    Handling Uncertainty in Automatically Generated Implementation Models in the Automotive Domain2016In: 42nd Euromicro Conference series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2016, 2016, p. 173-180Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models and model transformations, the two core constituents of Model-Driven Engineering, aid in software development by automating, thus taming, error-proneness of tedious engineering activities. In most cases, the result of these automated activities is an overwhelming amount of information. This is the case of one-to-many model transformations that, e.g. in designspace exploration, can potentially generate a massive amount of candidate models (i.e., solution space) from one single model. In our scenario, from one design model we generate a set of possible implementation models on which timing analysis is run. The aim is to find the best model from a timing perspective. However, multiple implementation models can have equally good analysis results. Therefore, the engineer is expected to investigate the solution space for making a final decision, using criteria which fall outside the analysis’ criteria themselves. Since candidate models can be many and very similar to each other, manually finding differences and commonalities is an impractical and errorprone task. In order to provide the engineer with an expressive representation of models’ commonalities and differences, we propose the use of modelling with uncertainty. We achieve this by elevating the solution space to a first-class status, adopting a compact notation capable of representing the solution space by means of a single model with uncertainty. Commonalities and differences are thus represented by means of uncertainty points for the engineer to easily grasp them and consistently make her decision without manually inspecting each model individually.

  • 20.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bringing MoVES Towards Consolidated Electrical/Electronic Automotive Architectures2019In: Work in Progress Session of the Euromicro DSD/SEAA 2019 conference WIP-SEAA, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Jarfalla, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Jarfalla, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Exploring Timing Model Extractions at EAST-ADL Design-level Using Model Transformations2015In: Proceedings - 12th International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations, ITNG 2015, 2015, Vol. Article number 7113538, p. 596-600Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the problem of extracting control and data flows from vehicular distributed embedded systems at higher abstraction levels during their development. Unambiguous extraction of control and data flows is vital part of the end-to-end timing model which is used as input by the end-to end timinganalysis engines. The goal is to support end-to-end timing analysis at higher abstraction levels. In order to address the problem, we propose a two-phase methodology that exploits the principles of ModelDriven Engineering and Component Based Software Engineering. Using this methodology, the software architecture at a higher level is automatically transformed to all legal implementation-level models. The end-to-end timing analysis is performed on each generated implementation-level model and the analysis results are fed back to the design-level model. This activity supports design space exploration, modelrefinement and/or remodeling at higher abstraction levels for tuning the timing behavior of the system.

  • 22.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Metamodel for the Rubus Component Model: Extensions for Timing and Model Transformation from EAST-ADL2017In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, ISSN 2169-3536, p. 9005-9020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Model-Driven Engineering paradigm, one of the entry requirements when realising a seamless tool chain for the development of software is the definition of metamodels, to regulate the specification of models, and model transformations, for automating manipulations of models. In this context, we present a metamodel definition for the Rubus Component Model, an industrial solution used for the development of vehicular embedded systems. The metamodel includes the definition of structural elements as well as elements for describing timing information. In order to show how, using Model-Driven Engineering, the integration between different modelling levels can be automated, we present a model-to-model transformation between models conforming to EAST-ADL and models described by means of the Rubus Component Model. To validate our solution, we exploit a set of industrial automotive applications to show the applicability of both the Rubus Component Model metamodel and the model transformation.

  • 23.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Comparative Evaluation of Timing Model Extraction Methodologies at EAST-ADL Design Level2015In: Proceedings - 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security and 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems, HPCC-CSS-ICESS 2015, 2015, p. 1110-1115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are various methodologies that support the extraction of timing models from EAST-ADL design-level models during the development of vehicular embedded software systems. These timing models are used to predict timing behavior of the systems by performing end-to-end timing analysis. This paper presents, for the first time, a comparative evaluation of three methodologies. We present an evaluation framework that consists of several evaluation features. Using the framework, we compare and evaluate the methodologies against each feature. Eventually, the evaluation results can be used as guidelines for the selection of the most suitable methodology with respect to the end-to-end timing behavior of a given vehicular embedded application.

  • 24.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Technology-preserving transition from single-core to multi-core in modelling vehicular systems2017In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10376, Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 285-299Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vehicular industry has exploited model-based engineering for design, analysis, and development of single-core vehicular systems. Next generation of autonomous vehicles will require higher computational power, which can only be provided by parallel computing platforms such as multi-core electronic control units. Current model-based software development solutions and related modelling languages, originally conceived for single-core, cannot effectively deal with multi-core specific challenges, such as core-interdependency and allocation of software to hardware. In this paper, we propose an extension to the Rubus Component Model, central to the Rubus model-based approach, for the modelling, analysis, and development of vehicular systems on multi-core. Our goal is to provide a lightweight transition of a model-based software development approach from single-core to multi-core, without disrupting the current technological assets in the vehicular domain.

  • 25.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Demonstrator for modeling and development of component-based distributed real-time systems with Rubus-ICE2013In: Open Demo Session of Real-Time Systems: Open Demo Session of Real-Time Systems located at Real Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a demonstrator for modeling and development of component-based vehicular distributed real-time systems using the industrial model Rubus Component Model (RCM) and its development environment Rubus-ICE (Integrated Component development Environment). It demonstrates various stages during the development process of these systems such as modeling of software architecture, performing timing analysis, automatic synthesis of code from the software architecture, simulation, testing, and deployment.

  • 26.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    From Modeling to Deployment of Component-Based Vehicular Distributed Real-Time Systems2014In: Proceedings, International Conference on Information Technology: ITNG 2014, IEEE , 2014, p. 649-654Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present complete model-and component based approach for the development of vehiculardistributed real-time systems. Within this context, we model and timing analyze these systems using one of the state-of-the-practice modeling and timing analysis techniques that is implemented in the existing industrial model the Rubus Component Model and accompanying tool suite. As a proof of concept, we conduct a case study by developing an intelligent parking assist system which is adistributed real-time application from the vehicular domain. The case study shows various stages during the development such as modeling of software architecture, performing timing analysis, simulation, testing, automatic synthesis of code from the software architecture, deployment, and execution.

  • 27.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Gålnander, Mattias
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Demonstrating Model- and Component-based Development of Vehicular Real-time Systems2017In: Open Demo Session of Real-Time Systems located at Real Time Systems Symposium (RTSS) RTSS@Work'17, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Campaña, Erik Martín
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Müllner, Nils
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Interfacing a brake-by-wire simulink model with SUMO2019In: 2018 International Conference on Intelligent and Innovative Computing Applications, ICONIC 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, article id 8601239Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an adapter to link the Matlab/Simulink model of a custom braking system into an open-source road traffic simulator, namely SUMO. The traditional braking models in SUMO work on a coarser level, generally modeling the deceleration of the vehicle based on a single equation. Substituting this model with a detailed system allows adjustments on a very low level, including delays between components, the traction of individual tires, and controllers for the anti-locking system by simulating those in Simulink. Besides introducing the novel adapter linked into SUMO and discussing parameter fitting to mimic the behavior of the traditional braking system, this paper discusses the amount of performance deterioration as the price for simulating a more sophisticated braking system.

  • 29.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Séntilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Extending the Rubus Component Model with GPU-Aware Components2016In: Proceedings - 2016 19th International ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Component-Based Software Engineering, CBSE 2016, 2016, p. 59-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To support the complex functionality expected of modern embedded systems, the trend is to supplement CPUs with Graphical Processing Units (GPUs), thus creating heterogeneous embedded systems. However, taking full advantage of GPUs increases the complexity of the development and requires dedicated support, and no such support exists in the component models currently available. The only solution today is to completely encapsulate all GPU-specific information and operations within the components, which increases the communication overhead and reduces component reusability, thus significantly limiting the applicability of component-based development to heterogeneous embedded systems. In this paper, we propose to extend Rubus, an industrial component model for embedded systems, with dedicated support for GPUs. We introduce new constructs, including GPU ports and automatically generated adapters to facilitate seamless component communication over the heterogeneous processing units, regardless of whether the components use the CPU, GPU, or both. A running example is used for the problem description, the proposed extension, and to evaluate our solution.

  • 30.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Improving Run-Time Memory Utilization of Component-based Embedded Systems with Non-Critical Functionality2017In: The Twelfth International Conference on Software Engineering Advances ICSEA 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many contemporary embedded systems have to deal with huge amount of data, coming from the interaction with the environment, due to their data-intensive applications. However, due to some inherent properties of these systems, such as limited energy and resources (compute and storage), it is important that the resources should be used in an efficient way. For example, camera sensors of a robot may provide low-resolution frames for positioning itself in an open environment, and high-resolution frames to analyze detected objects. Component-based software development techniques and models have proven to be efficient for the development of these systems. Many component models used in the industry (e.g., Rubus, IEC 61131) allocate, at the system initialization, enough resources to satisfy the demands of the system's critical functionality. These resources are retained by the critical functionality even when they are not fully utilized. In this paper, we introduce a method that, when possible, distributes the unused memory of the critical functionality to the non-critical functionality in order to improve its performance. The method uses a monitoring solution that checks the memory utilization, and triggers the memory distribution whenever possible. As a proof of concept, we realize the proposed method in an industrial component model. As an evaluation, we use an underwater robot case study to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  • 31.
    Campeanu, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Scavenging Run-time Resources to Boost Utilization in Component-based Embedded Systems with GPUs2018In: International Journal On Advances in Software, ISSN 1942-2628, E-ISSN 1942-2628, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 159-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many modern embedded systems with GPUs are required to process huge amount of data that is sensed from their environment. However, due to some inherent properties of these systems such as limited energy, computation and storage resources, it is important that the resources should be used in an efficient way. For example, camera sensors of a robot may provide low-resolution frames for positioning itself in an open environment and high-resolution frames to analyze detected objects. In this paper, we introduce a method that, when possible, scavenges the unused resources (i.e., memory and number of GPU computation threads) from the critical functionality and distributes them to the non-critical functionality. As a result, the overall system performance is improved without compromising the critical functionality. The method uses a monitoring solution that checks the utilization of the system resources and triggers their distribution to the non-critical functionality whenever possible. As a proof of concept, we realize the proposed method in a state-of-the-practice component model for embedded systems. As an evaluation, we use an underwater robot case study to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  • 32.
    Huo, Hongwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Jönköping University.
    Yan, Hairong
    Jönköping University.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Zhang, Hongke
    Beijing Jiaotong University, China.
    An Elderly Health Care System Using Wireless Sensor Networks at Home2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to integrate the technologies of wireless sensor networks and public communication networks to construct a healthcare system for senior citizens at home without interfering their daily activities. This system provides 4 main functionalities, including indoor monitoring, outdoor monitoring, activity and health state decision, emergency decision and alarm. JTH has developed a prototype of wireless sensor networks, an interconnection platform and a service management platform to support large scale data interconnections and real-time activity and health state reports to related persons (e.g. doctors or nurses, elder-self, elders’ relatives) via all popular communication approaches, such as automatic voice telephone call, SMS or Email etc. In this paper, the system functions and implementation approaches are introduced. A series of experiments results shows that the system performs high validity and reliability.

  • 33.
    Khanfar, Husni
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Demand-Driven Static Backward Slicing for Unstructured Programs2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Backward program slicing identifies the program parts that might influence a particular variable at a program point. A program part (e.g., a statement) can be directly influenced by another part due to its data or control dependence on the later. The classical program slicing approaches are designed to find in advance all the data and control dependencies in the program. This design entails a considerable amount of unnecessary computations because not all the dependencies are required for computing the slice. Demand-driven program slicing approaches try to raise the analysis performance by avoiding the unnecessary computations. However, these approaches cannot address unstructured programs in a demand-driven fashion. On the other hand, the existing techniques that compute the control dependencies in unstructured programs are based on fixed-point iterations, which limits their integration to the demand-driven slicing approaches. Program slicing based on Predicate Code Block (PCB) is a new demand-driven slicing approach that can address only structured programs. This paper presents the first demand-driven technique to compute the control dependencies in unstructured programs. In this regard, the technique uses flow information, location-based information and syntactic structure of the source code. Further, the paper shows how the new technique can be integrated to the PCB-based slicing approach to address unstructured programs.

  • 34.
    Lawson, Harold
    et al.
    Lawson Konsult AB, Lidingö, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Gålnander, Mattias
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Provisioning of Deterministic and Non-Deterministic Services for Vehicles: The Rubus Approach2016In: 4th International Workshop on Critical Automotive Applications: Robustness & Safety CARS-2016, Göteborg, Sweden, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing computer-based services for vehicle functions has evolved to the point where a large majority of functions are realized by software. However, the need to provide safety and security in critical functions such as braking, steering, motor control, etc. requires an approach that can guarantee the continuous reliable operation of the functions. At the same time, there are a variety of functions that are less critical from the vehicle operation perspective that can be provided where safety and security are less critical. From a vehicle manufacturers point of view, providing both types of services in an economic and reliable manner is a real challenge. To meet this challenge, we consider the Rubus Tool Suit for the software development and a well-proven (in industrial use for over twenty years) and certified (according to ISO 26262) operating system Kernel for its execution. In addition, a user-friendly approach to model- and component-based development concept called the “software circuits” has provided an approach to meet the demands of both safety-critical deterministic and as well as non-safety critical non-deterministic services. In this paper, a brief history of the evolution of Rubus approach as well as an overview of the driving concepts used in providing the Rubus products are described.

  • 35.
    Liu, Meng
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Stochastic Response Time Analysis for CAN Messages with Multiple Probabilistic Factors2015In: The 21st IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, WiP RTCSA-wip'15, Hong Kong, HongKong, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controller Area Network (CAN) is a widely used real-time network in the vehicular domain. In this paper we identify and discuss two practical parameters, namely message copy time and mixed transmission pattern, that can vary randomly during the execution of the system. We propose to leverage on these parameters to extend the existing stochastic Response Time Analysis (RTA) for CAN.

  • 36.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    et al.
    Univ Catania, Catania, Italy..
    Mariani, Riccardo
    Intel Corp, Assago, Italy..
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saponara, Sergio
    Univ Pisa, Pisa, Italy..
    Recent Advances and Trends in On-Board Embedded and Networked Automotive Systems2019In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 1038-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern cars consist of a number of complex embedded and networked systems with steadily increasing requirements in terms of processing and communication resources. Novel automotive applications, such as automated driving, rise new needs and novel design challenges that cover a broad range of hardware/software engineering aspects. In this context, this paper provides an overview of the current technological challenges in on-board and networked automotive systems. This paper encompasses both the state-of-the-art design strategies and the upcoming hardware/software solutions for the next generation of automotive systems, with a special focus on embedded and networked technologies. In particular, this paper surveys current solutions and future trends on models and languages for automotive software development, on-board computational platforms, in-car network architectures and communication protocols, and novel design strategies for cybersecurity and functional safety.

  • 37.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saponara, S.
    Ingegneria della Informazione, Universit di Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Mariani, R.
    Intel Corporation, Italy.
    Bordoloi, U. D.
    General Motors, United States.
    Guest editorial embedded and networked systems for intelligent vehicles and robots2019In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 1035-1037, article id 8633998Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Mahmud, Nesredin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Faragardi, Hamid Reza
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Power-aware Allocation of Fault-tolerant Multi-rate AUTOSAR Applications2018In: 25th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference APSEC'18, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an Integer Linear Programming optimization approach for the allocation of fault-tolerant embedded software applications that are developed using the AUTOSAR standard. The allocation takes into account the timing and reliability requirements of the multi-rate cause-effect chains in these applications and the heterogeneity of their execution platforms. The optimization objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the these applications that are distributed over more than one computing unit. The proposed approach is evaluated using a range of different software applications from the automotive domain, which are generated using the real-world automotive benchmark. The evaluation results indicate that the proposed allocation approach is effective and scalable while meeting the timing, reliability and power requirements in small- and medium-sized automotive software applications.

  • 39.
    Marinescu, Raluca
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pruning Architectural Models of Automotive Embedded Systems via Dependency Analysis2016In: 42nd Euromicro Conference series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2016, 2016, p. 293-302Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Moghaddami Khalilzad, Nima
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sander, Ingo
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Towards Designing Efficient End-to-end Resource Reservations for Distributed Embedded Systems2016In: Forum on specification & Design Languages FDL'16, Bremen, Germany, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden .
    Communications-Oriented development of component-Based vehicular distributed embedded systems - A Ph.D. Research proposal2014In: WCOP - Proc. Int. Doctoral Symp. Components Archit. (Part CompArch), 2014, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The model- and component-Based development approach has emerged as an attractive option for the development of vehicular distributed embedded control systems. Within this context, we target the issues related to modeling of legacy communication; extraction of timing models; and support for End-To-End Response-Time and Delay Analysis (ERDA). We propose a novel approach for modeling legacy network communication to support the state-of-The-Practice development of these systems. Further, we present a method to extract end-To-End timing models to support the ERDA of these systems. We also take a step towards broadening the scope and usability of our techniques by extending the model extraction method at various abstraction levels. As part of the ERDA, we extend the existing response-Time anal- ysis for Controller Area Network (CAN) to support mixed transmission patterns which are implemented by some of its higher-level protocols that are used in the industry. In or- der to show the applicability of our techniques, we provide a proof of concept by extending the Rubus Component Model which is used for the development of software for vehicular embedded systems by several international companies. We also implement the ERDA along with the extended analysis for CAN in the existing industrial tool suite the Rubus-ICE. Moreover, we conduct case studies to validate our methods and techniques.

  • 42.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Communications-Oriented Modeling and Development of Vehicular Distributed Embedded Systems2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The model- and component-based development approach has emerged as an attractive option for the development of vehicular distributed real-time embedded systems. Within this context we target challenges related to modeling of legacy network communication, extraction of end-to-end timing models and support for end-to-end timing analysis.

    We propose a novel approach for modeling legacy network communication in these systems. By introducing special-purpose components to encapsulate and abstract the communication protocols, we allow the use of legacy nodes and legacy protocols in a component- and model-based software engineering environment. Because an end-to-end timing model should be available to perform the end-to-end response-time and delay analyses, we present a method to extract the timing models from these systems. We also extend the method to various abstraction levels and parts of the development process for the systems. During the models extraction, we identify that the existing worst-case response-time analysis for Controller Area Network (CAN), a widely used real-time network protocol in the vehicular domain, does not support mixed messages. These messages are partly periodic and partly sporadic. They are implemented by some higher-level protocols for CAN used in the industry. We extend the existing analysis which is now applicable to any higher-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic and/or mixed transmission.

    In order to show the application of our modeling techniques, timing model extraction method and extended analyses; we provide a proof of concept by extending the Rubus Component Model, which is used for the development of software for vehicular embedded real-time systems by several international companies. We also implement the end-to-end response-time and delay analyses along with the extended analysis for CAN in the existing industrial tool suite the Rubus-ICE. Moreover, we implement the extended analysis for CAN in a free tool MPS-CAN analyzer. Further, we conduct automotive-application case studies to validate our methods and techniques.

  • 43.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Developing predictable embedded systems in the vehicle industry: Results and lessons learned2019In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 1063-1065Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the results achieved in a technology-transfer project in the vehicle domain. The results extend the state-of-the art and practice in the area of model-driven development and execution of predictable vehicular embedded systems by developing new techniques, implementing them in the existing industrial tools and validating them using industrial use cases and prototype demonstrators. In this context, the paper also discusses some important lessons learned and open challenges. 

  • 44.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Modeling and Timing Analysis of Industrial Component-Based Distributed Real-time Embedded Systems2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The model- and component-based development approach has emerged as an attractive option for the development of Distributed Real-time Embedded (DRE) systems. In this thesis we target several issues such as modeling of legacy communication, extraction of end-to-end timing models and support for holistic response-time analysis of industrial component-based DRE systems.

    We introduce a new approach for modeling legacy network communication in component-based DRE systems. By introducing special-purpose components to encapsulate and abstract the communication protocols in DRE systems, we allow the use of legacy nodes and legacy protocols in a component- and model-based software engineering environment. The proposed approach also supports the state-of-the-practice development of component-based DRE systems.

    The Controller Area Network (CAN) is one of the widely used real-time networks in DRE systems especially in automotive domain. We identify that the existing analysis of CAN does not support common message transmission patterns which are implemented by some high-level protocols used in the industry. Consequently, we extend the existing analysis to facilitate the worst-case response-time computation of these transmission patterns. The extended analysis is generally applicable to any high-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic, or both periodic and sporadic transmission of messages.

    Because an end-to-end timing model should be available to perform the holistic response-time analysis, we present a method to extract the end-to-end timing models from component-based DRE systems. In order to show the applicability of our modeling techniques and extended analysis, we provide a proof of concept by extending the existing industrial component model (Rubus Component Model), implementing the holistic response-time analysis along with the extended analysis of CAN in the industrial tool suite (Rubus-ICE), and conducting an automotive case study.

  • 45.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Communications-Oriented Development of Component-Based Vehicular Distributed Embedded Systems -- a Ph.D. Research Proposal2014In: 19th International Doctoral Symposium on Components and Architecture (WCOP) WCOP 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The model- and component-based development approach has emerged as an attractive option for the development of vehicular distributed embedded control systems. Within this context, we target the issues related to modeling of legacy communication; extraction of timing models; support for End-to-end Response-time and Delay Analysis (ERDA); and inter-operability of functional and execution models. We propose a novel approach for modeling legacy network communication to support the state-of-the-practice development of these systems. Further, we present a method to extract timing models to support the ERDA of these systems. As part of this analysis, we extend the existing response-time analysis for Controller Area Network (CAN) to support mixed transmission patterns which are implemented by some of its higher-level protocols that are used in the industry. We also take a step towards broadening the scope and usability of our techniques by developing methods to support inter-operability of research-oriented functional models and the component and execution models that implement our techniques. In order to show the applicability of our techniques, we provide a proof of concept by extending the Rubus Component Model which is used for the development of software for vehicular embedded systems by several international companies. We also implement the ERDA along with the extended analysis for CAN in the existing industrial tool suite the Rubus-ICE. Moreover, we conduct case studies to validate our methods and techniques.

  • 46.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Management of Service Level Agreements for Cloud Services in IoT: A Systematic Mapping Study2017In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, no 99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) are computing technologies that provide services to consumers and businesses, allowing organizations to become more agile and flexible. Therefore, ensuring Quality of Service (QoS) through Service Level Agreements (SLAs) for such cloud-based services is crucial for both the service providers and service consumers. As SLAs are critical for cloud deployments and wider adoption of cloud services, the management of SLAs in cloud and IoT has thus become an important and essential aspect. This paper investigates the existing research on the management of SLAs in IoT applications that are based on cloud services. For this purpose, a Systematic Mapping study (a well-defined method) is conducted to identify the published research results that are relevant to SLAs. The paper identifies 328 primary studies and categorizes them into seven main technical classifications: SLA management, SLA definition, SLA modeling, SLA negotiation, SLA monitoring, SLA violation and trustworthiness, and SLA evolution. The paper also summarizes the research types, research contributions, and demographic information in these studies. The evaluation of the results show that most of the approaches for managing SLAs are applied in academic or controlled experiments with limited industrial settings rather than in real industrial environments. Many studies focus on proposal models and methods to manage SLAs, and there is a lack of focus on the evolution perspective and a lack of adequate tool support to facilitate practitioners in their SLA management activities. Moreover, the scarce number of studies focusing on concrete metrics for qualitative or quantitative assessment of QoS in SLAs urges the need for in-depth research on metrics definition and measurements for SLAs.

  • 47.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Integrating Response-Time Analyses for Heterogeneous Automotive Networks in MPS-CAN Analyzer2015In: 6th International Workshop on Analysis Tools and Methodologies for Embedded and Real-time Systems WATERS 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MPS-CAN analyzer is a research tool that supports the Response Time Analysis (RTA) for Controller Area Network (CAN). It takes into account various queueing policies; buffer limitations in the CAN controllers; and mixed transmission patterns supported by the higher-level protocols. In this paper, we extend the MPS-CAN analyzer to support RTA of heterogeneous automotive networks. Within this context, first we implement RTA for Ethernet Audio/Video Bridging (AVB) messages in a single-switch architecture. We then integrate the analyses for CAN and Ethernet AVB by exploiting the analysis for CAN to Ethernet AVB gateway. With this integration, the MPS-CAN analyzer supports the analysis for heterogeneous messages that traverse through heterogeneous networks consisting of CAN and Ethernet AVB. We also evaluate the newly implemented analyses by conducting an automotive-application case study.

  • 48.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, J.
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden .
    Lundbäck, K-L
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden .
    Integrating Response-time Analysis for Heterogeneous Networks with Rubus Analysis Framework: Challenges and Preliminary Solutions2015In: 2015 IEEE 20th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Proceedings of a meeting held 8-11 September 2015, Luxembourg., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss the challenges that are faced when the state-of-the-art research results are transferred to a model-based tool chain for the industrial use. These challenges are often overlooked when the research results are implemented in an academic environment. In particular, we discuss various challenges regarding the implementation and integration of the response-time analysis for heterogeneous networks, comprising of CAN and Ethernet AVB, as a plug-in for the Rubus Analysis Framework. Rubus tool suite is used for the model- and component-based development of software for vehicular real-time systems by several international companies. We also discuss preliminary solutions to deal with the challenges.

  • 49.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Gålnander, Mattias
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Modeling of End-to-end Resource Reservations in Component-based Vehicular Embedded Systems2016In: Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), 2016 42th Euromicro Conference on, 2016, p. 283-292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a plethora of models, techniques and toolsthat support model- and component-based software developmentof vehicular distributed embedded systems. However, a large ma-jority of them have a limited or no support to model and specifyend-to-end resource reservations on the software architecturesof these systems. Resource reservations allow flexibility duringthe development and execution of such complex systems withoutjeopardizing their predictable behavior. As a result, severalapplications in the system that share the same hardware platformcan be developed independently. In this paper we identify severalrequirements that any existing component model should fulfill inorder to support the modeling of end-to-end resource reservationson the software architectures of such systems. As a proof ofconcept, we extend the Rubus Component Model (RCM) byfulfilling these requirements. RCM is used for the development ofcontrol functionality in vehicular embedded systems by severalinternational companies. We also provide a technique to extractexecution models from the software architectures of these systemswith resource reservations. In order to show the usability of ourtechnique, we model a vehicular distributed embedded systemwith the extended component model and extract the executionmodel from the software architecture augmented with end-to-endresource reservations.

  • 50.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Holistic Modeling of Time Sensitive Networking in Component-based Vehicular Embedded SystemsIn: Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2019, Kallithea, Chalkidiki, GreeceConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first holistic modeling approach for Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) communication that integrates into a model- and component-based software development framework for distributed embedded systems. Based on these new models, we also present an end-to-end timing model for TSN-interconnected distributed embedded systems. Our approach is expressive enough to model the timing information of TSN and the timing behaviour of software that communicates over TSN, hence allowing end-to-end timing analysis. A proof of concept for the proposed approach is provided by implementing it for a component model and tool suite used in the vehicle industry. Moreover, a use case from the vehicle industry is modeled and analyzed with the proposed approach to demonstrate its usability.

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