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  • 1.
    Dersten, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    ARTIST Real-time Summer School 20092010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This summer school was organized by ARTIST2, one of nine projects in embedded systems design founded by the European commission for ICT research. The ARTIST2 objective is to create a European research community on embedded system design. This network of Excellence will build connections between researchers and industry and between different topics in embedded systems. There are three ARTIST Real-time Summer Schools in the world with slightly different contents, one in South America, one in China and one in Europe. Next year, 2010, a summer school is also planned in the U.S. The European summer school always takes place in Autrans near Grenoble in France in September. Below follows short summaries of the given lecturers during the European ARTIST summer school 2009.

  • 2.
    Dersten, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Finding critical architectural decisisons for autonomous vehicle product-lines2014In: The 40th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Dersten, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reusability - A key factor in Product-line Development2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Product-line approach has been shown to be a beneficial process for software development. It offers great paybacks on investment, in reduced time-to-market, development costs and maintenance costs. Here, the utilization and development of reusable components are key factors. To overcome reuse-related problems, component frameworks can be included in the product-line. In this report the product-line is further discussed. Then the industrial component model, Koala, developed for the product-line approach, is presented. The report starts with an overview of component based software development and the software lifecycle.

  • 4.
    Dersten, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards a guideline for refactoring of embedded systems2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronics in automotive systems give great possibilities. It has contributed to environmental improvements through reduced emissions and reduced fuel consumption, safety, driver assistance, and quality through better diagnostic capabilities.

    Automotive systems are today distributed embedded systems that consist of several nodes that communicate with each other. The increasing possibilities have led to a situation where functions that used to be stand-alone, are today dependent on several inter-connected systems which all contribute to the desired functionality. This has increased the costs and the complexity to deal with the systems.

    The automotive industry is adopting a new open software architecture, called AUTOSAR, that is intended to reduce the complexity. AUTOSAR also gives possibilities for coping with large product ranges and for component sharing. The introduction of AUTOSAR is an example of an architecture change without modifying the external functionality. We have chosen to call such changes system refactoring.

    However, if the introduction of AUTOSAR is not successfully performed, there are risks for delayed development projects, which are costly for the automotive companies. Unfortunately, existing engineering standards and literature focus mostly on new product development and less on system re-factoring, and this gap needs to be filled. The goal of this research is to provide guidelines for refactoring, which provides support throughout the complete process of system architects in efforts to refactor the system.

    This thesis identifies the characteristics of refactoring processes. This is done by empirical studies of the drivers behind refactoring, the effects we can expect from refactoring, and the process activities and characteristics. The result can be used to create guidelines for improving the work of refactoring.

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  • 5.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    An analysis of a layered system architecture for autonomous construction vehicles2015In: 9th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2015 - Proceedings, 2015, p. 582-588Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested in the literature to organize software in autonomous vehicles as hierarchical layers where each layer makes its own decisions based on its own world model. This paper presents two alternative designs for autonomous construction vehicles based on the layered framework 4D/RCS. As a first step, the typical use cases for these vehicles were defined. Then one use case for a hauler was traversed through the two alternatives to see how they supported safety, flexibility and the use of a product platform. We found that the coordination between bucket control and motion control must be done at a low level in the hierarchy and that the relationship between the vehicle actuators and the built-in autonomous system is important for how the software is organized. 

  • 6.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    An empirical study of refactoring decisions in embedded software and systems2012In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 8, p. 279-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an empirical study of decision-making when changing the architecture in embedded systems. A refactoring of the system architecture often gives effects on both system properties and functions in the company organization, and there is a lack of efficient analysis methods for decision support in the system architecture process. This study investigates the information needed to make a decision about a system refactoring. Scenario-based interviews have been conducted with managers and system architects from companies developing embedded systems. The results show that the companies investigate similar issues regardless of their industry sector. The most wanted information prior to a decision is also presented.

  • 7.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Characteristics of a System Refactoring Process in Embedded Systems Development2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Effect Analysis of the Introduction of AUTOSAR - a Systematic Literature Review2011In: Proceedings - Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), 2011 37th EUROMICRO, 2011, p. 239-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many complex software-intensive systems have a long life time, and undergo substantial evolution. These evolutions are either additions of functionality or system refactoring, i.e., updating the architecture to improve quality attributes without changing functionality. However, the return of investment for such a system refactoring is not easily measured due to a lack of understanding of its effects. In order to improve our understanding of these effects, we have conducted a systematic literature review of the reported effects of one such refactoring: the introduction of AUTOSAR, an open automotive software architecture standard. The effects include both benefits, like lower complexity and more efficient system development, and costs, like performance risks. We have investigated how the effects depend on different elements in AUTOSAR, and how the reports correspond to the stated objectives of the standard. It is also discussed to what extent these effects can be generalized to other types of refactoring.

  • 9.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. SICS Swedish ICT.
    Dealing with uncertainty in early architectural decisions: Applications for autonomous construction vehicles2016In: 4th International Commercial Vehicle Technology Symposium CVT2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Volvo CE, Eskilstuna.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analysis of the Business Effects of Software Architecture Refactoring in an Automotive Development Organization2010In: Proceedings - 36th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2010, 2010, p. 269-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an exploratory study of an automotive manufacturer, which develops embedded software for over 150 products and has adopted a company-wide software product-line approach. The company is facing the introduction of a new software architecture in all products in near time. This architecture introduces new paradigms more explicitly, such as explicit software components and signal-based communication, newer technologies, and adheres to new standards. Concretely, the architecture consists of common infrastructure and other generic components. Such a fundamental and drastic technology change can be expected to have far-reaching consequences, both of technical and non-technical nature. In this study we systematically investigate the introduction of the new software architecture, by mapping individual elements of the architectural change to system properties and company functions. The study implies that the whole organization is affected, and the new architecture also influences the cooperation with suppliers.

  • 11.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Volvo Construction Equipment Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    Volvo Construction Equipment Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Analysis of the Information Needs of an Autonomous Hauler in a Quarry Site2016In: IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 2016, article id 7542936Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous and intelligent construction equipment is an emergent area of research, which shares many characteristics with on-road autonomous vehicles, but also have fundamental differences. Construction vehicles usually perform repetitive tasks in confined sites, such as quarries, and cooperate with other vehicles to complete common missions. A quarry can be viewed as a system-of-systems and the vehicles are individual systems within the site system. Therefore it is important to analyze the site system, i.e. included vehicles, surrounding systems, and system context, before the introduction of autonomous vehicles. It is necessary to map the needed infrastructure, and the needed input information from on-board sensors and off-board information suppliers, before designing the vehicle electronics system. This paper describes how we identified sensory and input signal needs for an autonomous articulated hauler in a scenario at a quarry site. Different architectural alternatives are evaluated and a set-up for a quarry site is suggested.

  • 12.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dersten, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nordlander, P. -A
    BAE Systems AB, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Defining a method for identifying architectural candidates as part of engineering a system architecture2014In: 8th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, SysCon 2014 - Proceedings, 2014, p. 266-271Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering system architectures for complex systems involves the tasks of analyzing architectural drivers, identifying architectural concerns, identifying valid architecture candidates, and evaluation of alternatives. One problem to overcome when architecting a system is the identification of valid of architectural candidates. We have developed a step-wise method for performing system architecture analysis and tested it on a sub-system in a project developing a drive system for heavy automotive applications. In this paper we present the complete method of nine steps for engineering an architecture and we elaborate in detail on the procedure to identify architectural candidates based on previously identified architectural drivers. We present a diagram depicting the proposed information model, its concepts and their relationships. In addition, the expectations on such a method as expressed by practitioners have been elicited, and we elaborate on the validity by examining how well the method indicate fulfillment. Our conclusion is that the proposed method does not fail to deliver on any of the needs and this gives an indication of usefulness. When identifying architectural candidates it is important to use proper criteria in the process. Our conclusion is that the practitioners should focus on candidates that affect the system at hand (within system boundaries), and on the candidates that address the architecturally significant system use. This is reflected in our method where we prescribe evaluation of the design candidates by validating that they solve only the right problem and by ensuring that they address the system at hand.

1 - 12 of 12
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