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  • 1.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Incorporating Functional Safety in Model-based Development of Product Lines2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Product lines in industry are often based on an engineer’s focus on fast and feasible product instantiation rather than a precise product line development method and process as described in literature. When considering functional safety, we need a precise model that includes evidence for the safety of each variant of the product.Functional safety standards provide guidance to develop safety critical products and require that evidence is collected to prove the safety of the product. But today’s functional safety standards do not provide guidance on how to achieve functional safety in product lines. At the same time arguments need to be collected during development so that each product configuration is safe and is fulfilling the requirements of the standards. Providing these arguments requires tracing safety-related requirements and dependencies through the development process taking the impact of variability in different development artifacts into consideration.

    In this thesis, we study the challenges of developing safety critical products in product lines. We explore industrial practices to achieve functional safety standard compliance in product lines by interviewing practitioners from different companies and by collecting the reported challenges and practices. This information helps us to identify improvement areas and we derive requirements that a product line engineering method needs to fulfill. Based on these findings we analyze variability management methods from the software product line engineering research domain to identify potential candidate solutions that can be adapted to support safety critical products. We provide an approach for capturing functional safety related characteristics in a model-based product line engineering method. We apply our method in an industrial case demonstrating the applicability.

  • 2.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    E&E System Architecture Department, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Functional Safety in Product Lines - A Systematic Mapping Study2016In: 42nd Euromicro Conference series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2016, 2016, p. 313-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software product line engineering is a widely used approach to plan and manage reuse of software. When safety critical products are developed, achieving functional safety standard compliance must be shown. The requirements stated in the functional safety standards also apply when safety critical products are developed in product lines. Managing functional safety in industrial product lines is challenging and work around solutions are applied in practice. The objective of this research is to collect and review reported research publications focusing on achieving safety in product lines and to identify gaps in todays research. We conduct a systematic mapping study of research publications reported until January 2016.We identify 39 research articles to be included in a list of primary studies and analyze how product lines are documented, which safety-related topics are covered and which evaluation method the studies apply. Generally, we find that the area of how to achieve functional safety in product lines needs more attention. Our study provides an overview on which topics have been discussed until now and which safety-related topics need more attention.

  • 3.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE ICT/SICS Västerås, Sweden.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Can STPA be used for a System-of-Systems? Experiences from an Automated Quarry Site2018In: 4th IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering, ISSE 2018 - Proceedings, 2018, no 4, article id 8544433Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation is becoming prevalent in more and more industrial domains due to the potential benefits in cost reduction as well as the new approaches/solutions they enable. When machines are automated and utilized in system-of-systems, a thorough analysis of potential critical scenarios is necessary to derive appropriate design solutions that are safe as well. Hazard analysis methods like PHA, FTA or FMEA help to identify and follow up potential risks for the machine operators or bystanders and are well-established in the development process for safety critical machinery. However, safety certified individual machines can no way guarantee safety in the context of system-of-systems since their integration and interactions could bring forth newer hazards. Hence it is paramount to understand the application sce- narios of the system-of-systems and to apply a structured method to identify all potential hazards. In this paper, we 1) provide an overview of proposed hazard analysis methods for system-of- systems, 2) describe a case from construction equipment domain, and 3) apply the well-known System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA)f to our case. Our experiences during the case study and the analysis of results clearly point out certain inadequacies of STPA in the context of system-of-systems and underlines the need for the development of improved techniques for safety analysis of system-of-systems.

  • 4.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Defining a Method to Perform Effective Hazard Analysis for a Directed SoS Based on STPA2018In: Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems 2018 SWESoS 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    —Automating a quarry site as developed within the electric site research project at Volvo Construction Equipment is an example of a directed system-of-systems (SoS). In our case automated machines and connected smart systems are utilized to improve the work-flow at the site. We currently work on conducting hazard and safety analyses on the SoS level. Performing a hazard analysis on a SoS has been a challenge in terms of complexity and work effort. We elaborate on the suitability of methods, discuss requirements on a feasible method, and propose a tailoring of the STPA method to leverage complexity.

  • 5.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. BIT-Pilani KK Birla Goa Campus, India.
    Enhancing Model-Based Engineering of Product Lines by Adding Functional Safety2015In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 1487, 2015, p. 53-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's industrial product lines in the automotive and construction equipment domain face the challenge to show functional safety standard compliance and argue for the absence of failures for all derived product variants. The product line approaches are not su cient to support practitioners to trace safety-related characteristics through development. We aim to provide aid in creating a safety case for a certain con guration in a product line such that overall less e ort is necessary for each con guration. In this paper we 1) discuss the impact of functional safety on product line development, 2) propose a model-based approach to capture safety-related characteristics during concept phase for product lines and 3) analyze the usefulness of our proposal.

  • 6.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construct Equipment, E&E Syst Architecture Dept, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Industrial Challenges to Achieve Functional Safety Compliance in Product Lines2014In: 2014 40TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE SERIES ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND ADVANCED APPLICATIONS (SEAA 2014), 2014, p. 356-360Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing safety critical products demands a clear safety argumentation for each product in spite of whether it has been derived from a product line or not. The functional safety standards do not explain how to develop safety critical products in product lines, and the product line concept is lacking specific approaches to develop safety critical products. Nonetheless, product lines are well-established concepts even in companies developing safety critical products. In this paper we present the results of an exploratory study interviewing 15 practitioners from 6 different companies. We identify typical challenges and approaches from industry and discuss their suitability. The challenges and approaches brought out by this study help us to identify and enhance applicable methods from the product line engineering domain that can meet the challenges in the safety critical domain as well.

  • 7.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Efficient Functional Safety Certification of Construction Machinery using a Component-based Approach2012In: 2012 3rd International Workshop on Product LinE Approaches in Software Engineering, PLEASE 2012 - Proceedings, 2012, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic systems in the automotive domain implement safety critical functionality in vehicles and the safety certification process according to a functional safety standard is time consuming and a big part of the expenses of a development project. We describe the functional safety certification of electronic automotive systems by presenting a use case from the construction equipment industry. In this context, we highlight some of the major challenges we foresee, while using a product-line approach to achieve efficient functional safety certification of vehicle variants. We further elaborate on the impact of functional safety certification when applying the component-based approach on developing safety critical product variants and discuss the implications by cost modeling and analysis.

  • 8.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Susikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Analyzing Hazards in System-of-Systems: Described in a Quarry Site Automation Context2017In: 11th Annual IEEE International Systems conference SysCon, 2017, p. 544-551Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for analyzing hazards related to individual systems are well studied and established in industry today. When system-of-systems are set up to achieve new emergent behavior, hazards specifically caused by malfunctioning behavior of the complex interactions between the involved systems may not be revealed by just analyzing single system hazards. A structured process is required to reduce the complexity to enable identification of hazards when designing system-of-systems. In this paper we first present how hazards are identified and analyzed using hazard and risk assessment (HARA) methodology by the industry in the context of single systems. We describe systems-of-systems and provide a quarry site automation example from the construction equipment domain. We propose a new structured process for identifying potential hazards in systems-of-systems (HISoS), exemplified in the context of the provided example. Our approach helps to streamline the hazard analysis process in an efficient manner thus helping faster certification of system-of-systems.

  • 9.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Parmeza, Ditmar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Predicting the Effort for Functional Safety in Product Lines2015In: The 41st Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA'15, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Chen, Yin
    et al.
    Combitech AB.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kang, Jianfang
    Shanghai Red Seed Info&Tech Co.,Ltd, China.
    The Role of Functional Safety Engineer in Railway, Automotive and Machinery Industry2019In: 2019 International Conference on Quality, Reliability, Risk, Maintenance, and Safety Engineering QR2MSE 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Salikiryaki, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Petrova, Iliana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Graphical Approach for Modeling of Safety and Variability in Product Lines2015In: 41st Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA15, 2015, p. 410-417Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reuse of already developed parts and concepts is a common approach in industry to reduce the time to market and reduce the development efforts. Industrial product lines are often grown over time and structured approaches to support decision-making and manage the complexity are lacking. When developing safety-critical products through product lines, evidence must be provided for all possible product configurations. The lack of a structured product line approach taking the functional safety dimension into consideration makes it challenging for practitioners to provide the required evidence. In this paper we (1) identify requirements that a variability management approach will need to fulfill, (2) discuss existing approaches and their limitations, (3) propose potential extension, (4) apply our approach in an industrial use case and (5) discuss its applicability and future work.

  • 12.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Forcina, Giorgio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Jafari, Ali
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Sedaghatbaf, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Actor-based Design Platform for System of Systems2019In: COMPSAC 2019: Data Driven Intelligence for a Smarter World COMPSAC 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present AdaptiveFlow as a platform for designing system of systems. A model-based development approach is proposed and tools are provided for formal verification and performance evaluation. The actor-based language, Timed Rebeca, is used for modelling, and the model checking tool Afra is used for checking the safety properties and also for performance evaluation. We investigate the efficiency of our approach and the applicability of the developed platform by conducting experiments on a case study based on the Electric Site Research Project of Volvo Construction Equipment. In this project, a fleet of autonomous haulers is utilised to transport materials in a quarry site. We used three adaptive policies as plugins to our platform and examined these policies in different scenarios.

1 - 12 of 12
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