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  • 1.
    Bilic, Damir
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Wallin, Peter
    RISE SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ES (Embedded Systems).
    Amlinger, Christoffer
    Volvo CE, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Model-Based Product Line Engineering in an Industrial Automotive Context: An Exploratory Case Study2018In: 1st Intl. Workshop on Variability and Evolution of Software-intensive Systems VariVolution'18, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product Line Engineering is an approach to reuse assets of complex systems by taking advantage of commonalities between product families. Reuse within complex systems usually means reuse of artifacts from different engineering domains such as mechanical, electronics and software engineering. Model-based systems engineering is becoming a standard for systems engineering and collaboration within different domains. This paper presents an exploratory case study on initial efforts of adopting Product Line Engineering practices within the model-based systems engineering process at Volvo Construction Equipment (Volvo CE), Sweden. We have used SysML to create overloaded models of the engine systems at Volvo CE. The variability within the engine systems was captured by using the Orthogonal Variability Modeling language. The case study has shown us that overloaded SysML models tend to become complex even on small scale systems, which in turn makes scalability of the approach a major challenge. For successful reuse and to, possibly, tackle scalability, it is necessary to have a database of reusable assets from which product variants can be derived.

  • 2.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    What is Performance in Complex Product Development?2008In: Proceedings of the R&D Management Conference. 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of developing new products is one of the key business processes in a company, especially technology intensive ones. In order to continuously improve this capability of developing new products it is important to be able to measure the performance in the product development process. The dilemma though is that there are no good performance measurements available within complex product development. One reason, as argued in presented research may be the lack of a holistic perception of performance within the development process. Data from a five case explorative study including 49 semi-structured open interviews regarding performance within complex product development is presented and analyzed. The results clearly indicate a need for further development of the perception of performance by managers and decision makers within the process of developing complex products. To meet this need, a Product Development Organizational Performance Model (PDOPM) is proposed, consisting of three generic levels of activities: Product strategy, Project management, and Product activities. These generic activities are modelled in accordance with the IDEF0 making it possible to conceptually reason about uncertainty, effectiveness, and efficiency at each activity level. Further, the term product development efficacy is introduced to describe the capability of identifying or creating a market opportunity and being able to develop and deliver a product fulfilling exactly what was identified as the market opportunity. High performance in product development is achieved when there is efficacy throughout the complete product development portfolio.

  • 3.
    Dersten, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Volvo Construction Equipment Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    Volvo Construction Equipment Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Analysis of the Information Needs of an Autonomous Hauler in a Quarry Site2016In: IEEE 11th International Conference on System of Systems Engineering Conference SoSE2016, 2016, article id 7542936Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous and intelligent construction equipment is an emergent area of research, which shares many characteristics with on-road autonomous vehicles, but also have fundamental differences. Construction vehicles usually perform repetitive tasks in confined sites, such as quarries, and cooperate with other vehicles to complete common missions. A quarry can be viewed as a system-of-systems and the vehicles are individual systems within the site system. Therefore it is important to analyze the site system, i.e. included vehicles, surrounding systems, and system context, before the introduction of autonomous vehicles. It is necessary to map the needed infrastructure, and the needed input information from on-board sensors and off-board information suppliers, before designing the vehicle electronics system. This paper describes how we identified sensory and input signal needs for an autonomous articulated hauler in a scenario at a quarry site. Different architectural alternatives are evaluated and a set-up for a quarry site is suggested.

  • 4.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Towards Quality Assessment in Integration of Automotive Software and Electronics: An ATAM approach2006In: Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Software Engineering and Practice in Sweden, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we perform a pilot study of evaluation of integration strategies in an automotive electronics system context. We describe the problem of choosing integration strategy and we outline the use of the Architecture Tradeoff and Analysis Method, ATAM, for evaluating integration strategies.

    We exemplify the use of the ATAM by evaluating the integration decisions concerning the physical connection of a theoretic example system; a computer controlled automatic gearbox. A utility tree describing the most important qualities of the product is elicited by interviews with system architects and product specialists at Volvo Construction Equipment. We show how an evaluation score card can be used to aid in integration decisions.

    Also, perform preliminary analysis and provide some discussion points from the result. This early analysis shows that ATAM has weaknesses in that it is sensitive to errors in the elicitation process and that the weighting of the resulting scenarios can be coarse grained. One strength of the ATAM is that design decisions and quality goals become visible to many stakeholders. Our proposed use of ATAM does not include any cost or effort estimates, but only relative quality estimates.

    In our pilot study example we find that the integration of a software component as opposed to integration of a whole ECU, ranks higher with respect to the desired qualities.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    ABB.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Assessing the Influence on Processes when Evolving the Software Architecture2007In: 9th International Workshop on Principles of Software Evolution, IWPSE 2007, Held in Conjunction with the 6th ESEC/FSE Joint Meeting, 2007, p. 59-66Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software intensive products and systems evolve over the life-cycle. Changing business objectives may drive architectural or process changes. Altering either architecture or process mightinfluence the other. Also the organization may influence and be influenced. This paper describes these relationships and proposes a method for assessing the influence on process that a proposed architectural change can have. The method includes the use of scenarios and process reference models. A case study where the method has been used is described, identifying the need for changes in the processes to be able to utilize the advantages made possible due to the architectural evolution. The case study supports our proposal that a structured method to assess the impacts on process when changing the architecture of a system helps to reduce risks and to facilitate the envisioned business benefits. This also identifies the need to devise methods for other types of changes, e.g. how a process change may influence architecture or organization.

  • 6.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mäki-Turja, Jukka
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems.
    Wallin, Peter
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Automated Model Translations for Vehicular Real-Time Embedded Systems with Preserved Semantics2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are investigating how research oriented and/or standardized component models intended for real-time embedded systems in the segment of construction-equipment vehicles can be used together with the component models actually used in the industry today. Our aim is to provide both a functional description of the system as well as an analyzable and a resource-efficient model. We seek to bridge the semantic gap that exists among models like EAST-ADL, AUTOSAR, SysML, Rubus Component Model (RCM), Simulink, TADL and TIMMO.

  • 7.
    Ozkaya, Ipek
    et al.
    SEI, CMU,United States .
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Architecture knowledge management during system evolution: observations from practitioners2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 ICSE Workshop on Sharing and Reusing Architectural Knowledge, 2010, p. 52-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely accepted that awareness of architectural decisions enables better management and planning of system evolution, refactoring, and modernization efforts. In this paper we report data from interviews with software architects about how practitioners utilize architecture during system evolution. Our results show, despite the widely shared view that long-lived systems are better off with strong architectures; basic architecture-centric practices are not followed systematically. The key gap we observe is in correct and timely communication of architectural issues. This overall finding is not surprising. However, our data also contributes to how architecture knowledge management activities can be focused for most benefit throughout a system's lifespan. While the often-referenced problem is lack of time spent on documentation and design practices, our interviews show that lack of quality attribute reasoning early on, and during the lifespan of the system is a key contributor to failing to use architecture knowledge effectively during evolution.

  • 8.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    What Does Research Say About Agile and Architecture?2010In: Proceedings - 5th International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, ICSEA 2010, 2010, p. 32-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile has been used to refer to a software development paradigm that emphasizes rapid and flexible development. In the meanwhile, we have through our practical experiences in scaling up agile methods, noticed that architecture plays an important role. Due to the inter-relationship between agile methods and architecture, as well as divergent perceptions on their correlation stated in numerous sources, we are motivated to find out how these perceptions are supported by findings in the research community in general and in empirical studies in particular. To fully benefit from agile practices and architectural disciplines, we need empirical data on the perceived and experienced impacts of introducing agile methods to existing software development process, as well as correlations between agile and architecture. In this paper, we survey the research literature for statements made regarding the relationship between agile development and software architecture. The main findings are that there is a lack of scientific support for many of the claims that are concerned with agile and architecture, and more empirical studies are needed to fully reveal the benefits and drawbacks implied by an agile software development method.

  • 9.
    Rylander, David
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Wallin, Peter
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden .
    Energy savings by wireless control of speed, scheduling and travel times for hauling operation2014In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, 2014, p. 1115-1120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Quarry and Aggregate production site consist of sequential production processes and activities to process and produce the output products. Compared to a fixed manufacturing plant, the quarry processes involve mobile machines such as wheel loaders, trucks and articulated haulers and a highly dynamic road infrastructure. Today, the mobile machines are generally not synchronized or controlled towards the overall throughput of the site in real time. This indicates a general improvement potential in increased productivity at quarry sites, but also unsolved challenges for the same reason. Assuming a wireless control system that controls speed and throughput of the different processes and activities, there would be a fuel reduction potential in controlling the mobile machines. This optimization requires models of machine fuel consumption for different applications, velocities and travel times. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of fuel measurements based on different speeds, site application characteristics and travel times for hauling operation. The fuel measures reveal important aspects regarding how different velocities impact fuel consumption. The results of fuel measurements show a potential in fuel savings of up to 42% and a typical improvement of 20-30% depending on machine speeds, travel times, application and site characteristics. Based on this, some of the applications and challenges in wirelessly controlling machines are discussed.

  • 10.
    Sannö, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Developing a research framework for environmental sustainability within a global automotive business2014In: 1st International EurOMA Sustainable Operations and Supply Chains Forum EurOMA.Sus, Groningen , Netherlands: EurOMA Sustainable Operations Management and Supply Chain , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies have an essential role in the development towards sustainability. Companies are encouraged to take on a wider perspective in reducing carbon dioxide emissions, in order to reduce its impact on the acceleration of climate change. This paper presents a framework for environmental sustainability research through life cycle of the products. A literature review is performed to identify challenges and perspectives to be included in the development of the framework. Based on the empirical data collection performed with 71 respondents, research themes have been identified. These are: Resource efficiency, Enabling sustainable innovation, Circular business models and Emerging sustainable technologies.

  • 11.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Identifying and Managing Key Challenges in Architecting Software-Intensive Systems2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many traditional industry applications, such as automotive, process automation and manufacturing automation, software plays a crucial role as an enabler for the introduction of new functionality and retaining competitiveness. The system and software architecture plays an important part in ensuring the systems’ qualities. However, the design of the architecture may be neglected during system development, whilst development efforts are centered on implementing new functionality. The architecture is supposed to support and enable key quality attributes such as safety, reliability, maintainability and flexibility, and so on. This thesis identifies some of the key issues in architecting these software intensive systems. In total, 21 issues have been identified; examples of these issues are (1) there is a lack of process for architecture development, (2) there is a lack of method or model to evaluate business value when choosing architecture, (3) there is a lack of clear long-term architectural strategy, and (4) processes and methods are less valued than individuals’ knowledge and competence. Through a series of workshops, root causes were identified for a selection of these issues. Based on these root causes, five success factors were identified. The success factors are (1) define an architectural strategy (2) implement a process for architectural work (3) ensure authority for architects (4) clarify the business impact of the architecture and (5) optimize on the project portfolio level instead of optimizing each project. In an attempt to provide a possible solution to some of the issues, a method has been created to evaluate how new functionality is successfully integrated into an existing architecture. The method is a combination of the Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method, ATAM, and the Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP. The method firstly supports a structured way of listing system goals, and secondly, it also supports design decision-making. Since several issues relate to the organization and are affected by management, a comparison was made between the view of management and architects. This study revealed that one cause for the lack of focus on architecture could be that the existing performance measurement systems used by management all focus on the later phases of development when the architecture is already set.

     

  • 12.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Key Challenges in Decision Making for Automotive E/E Architectures2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of electronics in vehicles is growing quickly, thus systems are becoming increasingly complex making the engineering of these software intensive systems more and more difficult. In particular, an architecture supporting the business goals is a prerequisite for successful design.

    In this thesis two case studies have been made including three automotive companies with purpose to investigate the key issues related to real-world decisions when developing Electrical and Electronic (E/E) system architectures in the automotive industry.

    The results show that many of the identified issues relate to non technical areas such as organization, process, methods and tools, and management. Examples of identified issues are the deficient understanding of the electrical system and software at management level, and the lack of a specific process for architecture development. To cope with these issues we suggest the following actions: Educate management, increase the use of structured decision making, improve the architecture development process, clarify responsibilities in the organization and clarify development strategies.

    As a possible solution to one of the suggested actions we have developed a method to evaluate how new functionality is successfully integrated into an existing architecture. Themethod is a combination of the Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method, ATAM, and the Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP. The method firstly supports a structured way of listing system goals, and secondly, it also supports the making of design decisions.

  • 13.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Case Study of Issues Related to Automotive E/E System Architecture Development2008In: FIFTEENTH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE AND WORKSHOPS ON THE ENGINEERING OF COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS, 2008, p. 87-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electronics in vehicles is increasing quickly and the systems are becoming increasingly complex. This makes the engineering of these advanced computer-based systems more and more difficult. In particular finding a good architecture is a prerequisite for successful design. In this study we investigate key issues related to real-world decisions regarding a car's electrical and electronic system architecture. To extract the key issues an exploratory case study was performed at a car manufacturer We used semiformal interviews complemented with a survey to validate the results. The contribution of this paper is twelve issues that reflect the situation at a car manufacturer Also, possible actions to deal with theseissues are provided.

  • 14.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Limiting Practices in Developing and Managing Software-Intensive Systems: A Comparative Study2010In: PICMET 2010: TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT FOR GLOBAL ECONOMIC GROWTH, Phuket, Thailand, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the automotive industry, up to 90 percent of all new features are dependent on electronics and software. Consequently, the amount of software and electronics in vehicles is rapidly increasing. The same trend has been observed in other domains, such as telecom, avionics, trains, and more. An important factor in dealing with this inherent complexity is the use of a system architecture. The architecture is typically an enabler for both efficiency and effectiveness in the development of software-intensive systems but not directly connected to the customer needs. For example, the architecture can increase the agility of upcoming product releases in order to cost effectively satisfy future customer needs. By combining two parallel multiple case studies, one focusing on the architects view, and the other one focusing on the managerial perspective, we have identified six limitations. Our results indicate that the focus is on customer requirements for the current product, on the expense of the internal requirements related to the development of the architecture and long-term profitability. Further, even if the early phases of development are identified as a success criterion, they are still not given enough attention.

  • 15.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Volvo Car Corporation, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Making Decisions in Integration of Automotive Software and Electronics: A Method Based on ATAM and AHP2007In: Proceedings - ICSE 2007 Workshops: Fourth International Workshop on Software Engineering for Automotive Systems, SEAS'07, 2007, p. Article number 4228592--Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a new method for makingdecisions on integration strategy for in-vehicle automotive systems.We describe the problem of choosing integration strategy and wedescribe the method, which is a combination of the ArchitectureTradeoff Analysis Method, ATAM, and the Analytical HierarchyProcess, AHP. We exemplify the use of the proposed method byevaluating the integration decisions concerning the physicalconnection of a realistic example system; a computer controlledautomatic gearbox. We present analysis on the use of the method andconclude that the method has several benefits compared to ATAM orAHP used individually. The method firstly supports a structured wayof listing system goals, and secondly, it also supports the makingof design decisions.

  • 16.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Issues Related to Development of E/E Product Line Architectures in Heavy Vehicles2009In: 42nd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Computer Society, Hawaii, USA, IEEE Computer Society , 2009, p. Article number: 4755804-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of electronics in vehicles is growing quickly, thus systems are becoming increasingly complex which makes the engineering of these software intensive systems more and more difficult. In the automotive industry the use of product line architectures enables a set of vehicles to share architecture to decrease cost and increase quality. In this study we investigate key issues related to real-world decisions regarding electrical and electronic product line architecture for heavy vehicles. To extract key issues a multiple exploratory case study at two heavy vehicle manufacturers was performed. We used semi-formal interviews complemented with a survey to validate the results. The contribution of this study is 14 issues that reflect the situation at the two companies. Many of the identified issues relate to non technical areas such as organization, process, methods and tools, and management. Moreover, possible actions to deal with these issues are discussed.

  • 17.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Practitioners’ views of Key Issues and their Solutions in the Development of System and Software ArchitectureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: In many traditional industry applications, including automotive, process automation and manufacturing automation, software plays a crucial role as an enabler in the introduction of new functionality and to stay competitive. System and software architecture plays an important part in ensuring the qualities of the systems. However, the design of the architecture may be neglected during system development, whilst development efforts are centered on implementing new functionality.

    Objective: We present the challenges, problems, and success factors that are central to the architectural development of software intensive systems as judged by practitioners.

    Method: The method used consisted of three steps. First, we used semi-structured interviews to collect data in an exploratory manner. In a second step, a survey based on issues extracted from the structured interview data was used to investigate the occurrence of these issues in a wide range of organizations. In order to identify and suggest solutions to the issues that were considered important, we finally performed root cause analysis workshops.

    Results: A total of 21 issues have been identified, and examples of these issues are (1) there is a lack of process in architecture development, (2) there is a lack of methodology or models for evaluating business value when choosing architecture, (3) there is a lack of clear long-term architectural strategy, and (4) processes and methods are of less value than the knowledge and competence of individuals.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, we are convinced that the following success factors are crucial components in developing software intensive systems: (1) defining an architectural strategy, (2) implementing a process for architectural work, (3) ensuring authority for architects, (4) clarifying the business impact of the architecture, and (5) optimization at the project portfolio level, instead of optimizing each project.

     

  • 18.
    Wallin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Problems and their mitigation in system and software architecting2012In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 686-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Today, software and embedded systems act as enablers for developing new functionality in traditional industries such as the automotive, process automation, and manufacturing automation domains. This differs from 25–30 years ago when these systems where based on electronics and electro-mechanical solutions. The architecture of the embedded system and of the software is important to ensure the qualities of these applications. However, the effort of designing and evolving the architecture is in practice often neglected during system development, whilst development efforts are centered on implementing new functionality. Objective: We present problems and success factors that are central to the architectural development of software intensive systems in the domain of automotive and automation products as judged by practitioners. Method: The method consisted of three steps. First, we used semi-structured interviews to collect data in an exploratory manner. As a second step, a survey based on problems extracted from the interview data was used to investigate the occurrence of these problems at a wider range of organizations. In order to identify and suggest how to mitigate the problems that were considered important, we finally performed root cause analysis workshops, and from these a number of success factors were elicited. Results: A total of 21 problems have been identified based on the interview data, and these are related to the technical, organizational, project, and agreement processes. Based on the survey results, the following four problems were selected for a root cause analysis: (1) there is a lack of process for architecture development, (2) there is a lack of method or model to evaluate the business value when choosing the architecture, (3) there is a lack of clear long-term architectural strategy, and (4) processes and methods are less valued than knowledge and competence of individuals. Conclusion: In conclusion, the following identified success factors are crucial components to be successful in developing software intensive systems: (1) define an architectural strategy, (2) implement a process for architectural work, (3) ensure authority for architects, (4) clarify the business impact of the architecture, and (5) optimize on the project portfolio level instead of optimizing each project.

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