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  • 1.
    Stoll, Pia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Exploring Sustainable Industrial Software System Development: within the Software Architecture Environment2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes how sustainable development definitions can be transposed to the software architecture environment for the industrial software system domain. In a case study, sustainable development concerns from three companies are investigated for their influence on the dimensions of sustainable development: economical, environmental, and social sustainability. Classifying the case study’s concerns, in the thesis’s Software Engineering taxonomy, shows that the software development concerns are in majority and the software architecture concerns surprisingly few. The economical sustainability concerns dominate followed by social sustainability concerns, including both concerns successfully met and concerns to be met.

    Sustainable industrial software system development is in the thesis defined as: “Sustainable industrial software system development meets current stakeholders’ needs without compromising the software development organization’s ability to meet the needs of future stakeholders”. Understanding current and future stakeholders concerns is necessary for the formulation of sustainability goals and metrics. Clarifying the interrelationships among stakeholders’ concerns’ impact on business goals and software qualities, in the thesis’s Influencing Factors method, proves to help stakeholders understand their future needs.

    Trust is found to be critical for sustainable development. For the establishing of trust between system and system users, the usability quality is vital. To implement usability support in the architecture in the early design phase, reusable architectural responsibilities are created. The reusable architectural responsibilities are integrated into an experience factory and used by the product line system architects, resulting in a return of investment of 25:2.

  • 2.
    Stoll, Pia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reconstructing the Architecture Model for a Sustainable Software Architecture2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable software architecture which has evolved over more than ten years and is to live and change for at least another decade is very difficult to capture in an architecture model. The architecture is often a mixture of old and new tactics and the system use cases which were once valid do not longer capture the essence of all of the system's functionality and business goals.

    The presentation will discuss how an architecture team was to document a sustainable software architecture according to a model so that the architecture could be communicated among its stakeholders. The team started from the SEI books; "Documenting Software Architecture: Views and Beyond" and "Software Architecture in Practice".

    The team vision was to capture all domain specific issues as trends and experiences, quality attribute specific issues and business goals issues which influence the architecture at enterprise-, system- and software level in one model.

    The effects of changing business goals and software quality attributes on system architecture and software design should be made visible in the model. By making the relationships visible the architects would be able to see what effect a changing business goal could have on the architecture or even predict how a shift in technology would affect the system and software architecture. The model would then serve as a decision guiding tool and be used in an active fashion instead of merely being a blueprint of the software architecture construction of today.

    The vision of documenting the different architecture levels in one model was more complex to realize than expected. What the case study ended up in was a conflict between the common approach of dividing the architecture into different views and the need of sustainable systems to accommodate changes in business goals, technology environment, and enterprise constructions affecting the architecture in one adaptive architecture model.

    This presentation aims at open up the discussion on how to document continuously changing architecture at enterprise-, system- and software level in one and the same model.

  • 3.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Fredrik
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lövemark, Sara
    ABB Robotics, Västerås, Sweden.
    Usability Supporting Architecture Pattern for Industry2008In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Volume 358, 2008, p. 593-594Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally software qualities as e.g. performance have

    been considered important to implement early in the

    software system architecture. The usability quality

    implementation has been done late or, if considered early in

    the software architecture, then often as a separation

    between presentation and execution layers. However there

    are usability concerns requiring early implementation in the

    software architecture not solved merely by separation.

    Usability supporting architecture patterns (USAPs) have

    been shown to provide developers with useful guidance for

    producing an architectural design that supports usability for

    these concerns, [1]. This experience report introduces the

    USAPs in an industrial context.

  • 4.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bass, Len
    Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    John, Bonnie E.
    Human-Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Golden, Elspeth
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    A Responsibility-Based Pattern Language forUsability-Supporting Architectural Patterns2009In: EICS 2009, July 14-17, 2009, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Usability-supporting architectural patterns (USAPs) were developed as a way to explicitly connect the needs of architecturally-sensitive usability concerns to the design of software architecture. In laboratory studies, the Cancellation USAP was shown to significantly improve the quality of architecture designs for supporting the ability to cancel a longrunning command, sparking interest from a large industrial organization to develop new USAPs and apply them to their product line architecture design. The challenges of delivering the architectural information contained in USAPs to practicing software architects led to the development of a pattern language for USAPs based on software responsibilities and a web-based tool for evaluating an architecture with respect to those patterns.

  • 5.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Bass, Len
    Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    John, Bonnie E.
    Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Golden, Elspeth
    Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Integrating Usability-Supporting Architecture Patterns in a Product Line System’s Architecture2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation will describe the application of Usability Supporting Architectural Patterns (USAPs) to the architecture design of a product line of systems. The patterns were delivered by a web enabled prototype tool. The tool prompted the designers with architecture responsibilities specific to their chosen usability scenarios, then required the designers to respond to each responsibility and additionally provided the designer with implementation instructions in a textual, rather than a component, form. The designers used the USAP delivery tool in the early design phase and were extremely positive. Two designers using the USAP delivery tool for five hours discovered 14 major issues related to usability support in the core architecture not previously incorporated in the architecture design. Two potential new subsystems were identified during this exercise.

  • 6.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bass, Len
    Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    John, Bonnie E.
    Human-Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Golden, Elspeth
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Preparing Usability Supporting Patterns for Industrial Use2008In: International Workshop of the Interplay of Usability Evaluation and Software Development (I-USED), Pisa, Italy, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Usability supporting architectural patterns (USAPs) have been shown to provide developers with useful guidance for producing a software architecture design that supports usability in a laboratory setting. In close collaboration between researchers and software developers in the real world, the concepts were proven useful. However, this process does not scale to industrial development efforts. In particular, development teams need to be able to use USAPs while being distributed world-wide. USAPs also must support legacy or already partially-designed architectures, and when using multiple USAPs there could be a potentially overwhelming amount of information given to the software architects. This paper describes the restructuring of USAPs using a pattern language to simplify the development and use of multiple USAPs. A delivery mechanism is also described that is suitable for industrial-scale adoption of USAPs. The delivery mechanism involves organizing responsibilities into a hierarchy, utilizing a checklist to ensure responsibilities have been considered, and grouping responsibilities in a fashion that both supports use of multiple USAPs simultaneously and also points out reuse possibilities to the architect.

  • 7.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bass, Len
    Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    John, Bonnie E.
    Human-Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Golden, Elspeth
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Supporting Usability in Product Line Architectures2009In: Software Product Lines Conference, SPLC 2009, San Francisco, USA, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of supporting usability in the early stages of a product line architecture design. The product line used as an example is intended to support a variety of different products each with a radically different user interface. The development cycles for new products varies between three years and five years and usability is valued as an important quality attribute for each product in the line.

    Traditionally, usability is achieved in a product by designing according to specific usability guidelines, and then performing user tests. User interface design can be performed separately from software architecture design and prototyping, but user tests cannot be performed before detailed UI design and prototyping. If the user tests discover usability problems leading to required architectural changes, the company would not know about this until two years after the architecture design was complete. This problem was addressed by identifying a collection of 19 well known usability scenarios that require architectural support. In our example, the stakeholders for the product line prioritized three of these scenarios as key product-line scenarios for improving usability. For each of these three chosen product-line scenarios we developed an architectural responsibility pattern that provided support for the scenario. The responsibilities are expressed in terms of architectural requirements with implementation details and rationales. The responsibilities were embodied in a web based tool for the architects.

    The two architects for the product line developed a preliminary design and then reviewed their design against the responsibilities supporting the scenarios. The process of review took a day and the architects conservatively estimated that it saved them five weeks of effort later in the project.

     

  • 8.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Business Sustainability for Software Systems2008In: Business Sustainability 2008, Ofir, Portugal, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development of industrial software systems with controllable outcome in terms of cost, schedule and quality despite changes originating from new technology, stakeholders’ concerns, organization, and business goals during long life-times is a challenge. Unruh has argued that numerous barriers to sustainability arise because today’s technological systems were designed and built for permanence and reliability, not change. Sustainability is a characteristic of a process or state that can be maintained at a certain level indefinitely. The implied preference would be for systems to be productive indefinitely, to be “sustainable”. For instance, “sustainable development” would be development of software systems that last indefinitely. Author Michael Pollan has defined an unsustainable system simply as “a practice or process that can’t go on indefinitely because it is destroying the very conditions on which it depends

  • 9.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate research.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Applying the Software Engineering Taxonomy2009Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Guiding Architectural Decisions with the Influencing Factors Method2008In: Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA) 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Influencing Factors (IF) method guides the architect through stakeholders’ concerns to architectural decisions in line with current business goals. The result is a set of requirements on software quality attributes and business goals and highlighted trade-offs among software quality attributes and among business goals. The IF method is suitable for sustainable software systems since it allows new concerns, resulting from changes in business goals, stakeholder concerns, technical environment and organization, to be added to existing concerns.

  • 11.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Software Engineering featuring the Zachman Taxonomy2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering of today must consider organizational- and business issues as well as architectural issues for fast manufacturing of software. The semantics in a taxonomic scheme including organizational-, business- and architecture artifacts would help software engineers define explicit relations between software engineering artifacts at all levels and enable fast and flexible creation of process models for software manufacturing.

    In this paper we present our software engineering taxonomic scheme, featuring the Zachman Enterprise Architecture taxonomy. The taxonomic scheme classifies software engineering artifacts from the IEEE Software Engineering Book Of Knowledge according to Zachman’s relationship rules and our interpretation of the Zachman taxonomy.

    The software engineering taxonomic scheme proved to give useful insights to how customer sites and development sites may interact for fast innovation exemplified with the companies Apple (AppStore) and Google. The scheme also proved to be useful for process analysis which is shown for the Scrum process.

  • 12.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Weiss, Roland
    Identifying and Documenting Primary Concerns in Industrial Software Systems2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABB business relies on sustainable software systems in all divisions. Although the domains differ (power, automation, robotics), these systems share certain characteristics, both in functionality and in quality attributes. The sustainable software systems are tightly coupled with hardware systems, have to provide high reliability, are split into engineering and operations parts, and typically live over a long period of time. Maintaining and extending such systems poses an interesting challenge, as it includes responding to changes in: business goals, technical environment, stakeholders' concerns and organization.

    The presentation deals with the experiences of identifying and prioritizing the primary concerns for two sustainable software systems within the ABB business units. This covers the gathering of use cases and quality attribute scenarios for the existing system and for its planned extensions.

1 - 12 of 12
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  • nn-NO
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