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  • 1.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Eriksson, Pelle
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna Univ, Dalarna, Sweden.
    The Influence of Different Media Instructions on Solving a Procedural Task2015In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, Volume 11, Issue DS 80-11, 2015, p. 173-182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the influence of different forms of media instructions on the process and outcomes of completing a specific procedural task. The experiment was conducted with four student groups having an education in the area of Information Design. In the experiment four media instructions – text only, text plus drawings, a series of pictures and video with narration – were considered. The findings show that the type of media has an influence on the ability to solve a procedural task and on group interaction and the way groups solve a task. Compared with the other instructions, video instruction triggered a different interaction and behavioural pattern during assembly. Participants considered both video and picture instructions as more usable in terms of facilitating the ability to understand, select and apply possible solutions to a given task. However, the video medium showed little influence on dialogue in the group during assembly. The instructions, such as text plus drawings, pictures and video had a similar influence on task performance times, whereas text instructions took three times longer to implement than other instructions.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Pelle
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sverrison, A
    NEW DESIGN PROCESS MODELS FOR THE AUDIO VISUAL INDUSTRY: A DESIGN SCIENCE APPROACH2010In: Proceedings of the 11th International Design Conference DESIGN 2010 / [ed] Stal - Le Cardinal Julie, FSB-The Design Society , 2010, p. 223-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a project that aims to come up with a suggestion for guide-lines and new work- flow models concerning the demand of tailored content that influence every design process of moving images as well as the distribution of creative decisions within contemporary production organizations in the audio-visual industry. In this context we define creativity as the social and psychological process that enable people to generate new ideas and concepts or to come up with new associations between existing ideas and concepts. From a theoretical perspective, the purpose of this paper is to discuss new design processes and workflows in the production of moving images in order to establish a general comprehension describing contemporary digital production chains for moving images. A purpose of the project is to find and analyze the weak and problematic links of the production chain, in order to suggest a solution for the problems, namely a flexible workflow model for the production of moving images. By flexibility we mean an ability to adapt to new challenges and changes, both external and internal. We have recently initiated this unique collaborative research project that focuses on how small and mid-sized audio-visual production enterprises in Sweden have developed and are developing new design processes due to a number of recent socio-economic and technological challenges. For the first time a number of the front-line production companies in Sweden participates in a scientific research project on common issues. Research questions to be addressed: - Has digitalization of film/TV production increased the flexibility and responsiveness of the production system? - Does this lead to more diffuse or better-defined work-roles among individual film/TV-workers? - Do new workflows and the distribution of creativity lead to an actual decentralization of creative decisions and responsibility in the design process of moving images?

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Convergence cameras and the new documentary image2012In: Digital Creativity, ISSN 1462-6268, E-ISSN 1744-3806, Vol. 23, no 3/4, p. 291-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New digital recording technologies pose new creative dilemmas for documentary videographers. The new type high-resolution video camera with 35 mm sized sensors and mounts for real film lenses generate a type of imagery that does not look typically ‘observational’. By testing this imagery's capacity as the guarantor of documentary authenticity and interrelating this with visualisation theories, this paper aims to explain the ontology of the new digital documentary image, its lure for the documentary filmmaker and its ramifications on reception in order to leverage technological production awareness of the documentary videographer and production members. The empirical data presented in this article is based on an explorative reception study in which five different types of moving image sequences were tested on an audience in order to be able to define the level of indexical appeal in shallow depth of field, high resolution, High Production Value, documentary moving images.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Videography as Design Nexus: Critical Inquires into the Affordances and Efficacies of Live-action Video Instructions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about live-action instructional videos (LAVs). By addressing design problems with respect to the how-to video genre, the thesis asks fundamental questions about mediated instructional communication efficacies and the factors that either obstruct or augment them. 

    The analysis presented in this thesis is based on the notion that videography is a design nexus and key focal point of the connections that make live-action video instructional efforts possible. This Design Nexus is explored by defining and illuminating key ontological dimensions, medium specificities and the video users’ cognitive capacities. This is to acknowledge that the users of instructions in this thesis are center stage, both as biological and cultural beings.

    The methods used in this thesis and its associated papers are eye-tracking, video observations, questionnaires, self-reports, focus group interviews and YouTube analytics. Hence, both numerical data and non-numerical data are analyzed in this study.

    The results of the analyses indicate that pre-production planning is key in live-action video instructional endeavors, but not at the expense of the videographer’s status as designer. Moreover, the analyses show that users’ cognitive processing and visual decoding depend on the power of the live-action format to show actual human behavior and action. Other presented evidence seems to infer that LAV-instructions are a little less demanding if users apply a focused decoding style when interacting with them. Nevertheless, physiological engagement of this kind is likely not to fully compensate for users’ psychological engagement.

    This thesis contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of humans’ abilities to interpret the actions of others via medial means. By relating this to video medium-specific affordances, this thesis also furthers important efficacy distinctions and boundary conditions. This understanding is considered important for live-action video makers and designers of visual instructions as well as scholars who need to develop better methods to assess users’ behavioral engagement when they interact with digital instructional media.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Videography as Production Nexus: Digital Film Cameras, Media Management and the Distribution of Creativity in TV and Film Production2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about new digital moving image recording technologies and how they augment the distribution of creativity and the flexibility in moving image production systems, but also impose constraints on how images flow through the production system. The central concept developed in this thesis is ‘creative space’ which links quality and efficiency in moving image production to time for creative work, capacity of digital tools, user skills and the constitution of digital moving image material. The empirical evidence of this thesis is primarily based on semi-structured interviews conducted with Swedish film and TV production representatives.This thesis highlights the importance of pre-production technical planning and proposes a design management support tool (MI-FLOW) as a way to leverage functional workflows that is a prerequisite for efficient and cost effective moving image production.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Y
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Dalarna University.
    Design Management Support for the Audiovisual IndustryIn: Journal of Integrated Design & Process Science, ISSN 1092-0617, E-ISSN 1875-8959Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Media instructions and visual behavior: An eye-tracking study investigating visual literacy capacities and assembly efficiency.2014In: Analyzing Cognitive Processes during Design: Proceedings of the HBiD 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study aims at illuminating human visual behavior in the interaction with pictorial instructions. The study is a multi disciplinary effort and is informed by the connection between gaze and attention as well as certain aspects of the Visual Literacy field and reveals a few basic visual behavior tendencies related to certain specific pictorial instruction types. By doing so, it is also an evaluation of the usefulness of a methodological framework consisting of six measures.The analysis of this paper is primarily based on eye-tracking data. In addition, an observed assembly that generated video and sound recordings is also part of the method. In the study 12 Film/TV- production students (out of which there is complete data from 9 informants) interacted with three types of types of visual instructions of the same assembled object, a solar powered toy.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Swenberg, T.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Zhao, X.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    How gaze time on screen impacts the efficacy of visual instructions2018In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 6, article id e00660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores whether GTS (gaze time on screen) can be useful as an engagement measure in the screen mediated learning context. Research that exemplifies ways of measuring engagement in the on-line education context usually does not address engagement metrics and engagement evaluation methods that are unique to the diverse contemporary instructional media landscape. Nevertheless, unambiguous construct definitions of engagement and standardized engagement evaluation methods are needed to leverage instructional media's efficacy. By analyzing the results from a mixed methods eye-tracking study of fifty-seven participants evaluating their visual and assembly performance levels in relation to three visual, procedural instructions that are versions of the same procedural instruction, we found that the mean GTS-values in each group were rather similar. However, the original GTS-values outputted from the ET-computer were not entirely correct and needed to be manually checked and cross validated. Thus, GTS appears not to be a reliable, universally applicable automatic engagement measure in screen-based instructional efforts. Still, we could establish that the overall performance of learners was somewhat negatively impacted by lower than mean GTS-scores, when checking the performance levels of the entire group (N = 57). When checking the stimuli groups individually (N = 17, 20, 20), the structural diagram group's assembly time durations were positively influenced by higher than mean GTS-scores. 

  • 9. Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Creative Space in Contemporary Swedish Moving Image Production2012In: Journal of Integrated Design & Process Science, ISSN 1092-0617, E-ISSN 1875-8959, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 55-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of moving images is turning completely digital. This leads to new possibilities and new constraints for creativity within film and TV production chains.

    This paper describes professionals’ current comprehension of the consequences of the shift from celluloid to digital technologies, within the Swedish Moving Image Industry. New technologies bring new workflows, new design processes and new constraints.

    We aim to illuminate factors that affect design creativity in digital moving image production, by addressing questions about production related responses to the digital turn as well as the affects of such responses on creativity.

    Inspired by Ingar Brinck’s creativity theories (1999, 2007) we view aesthetic problem solving as a cognitive process and suggest creative spaces to be the critical phenomenon to manage. We also use organization theories, particularly the work of Katherine Miller (2011) to explain why creativity ought to be a primary management concern.

    The empirical material used is semi-structured interviews with management personnel in Swedish moving image production companies. Outcomes include that the variety of digital formats available today is hard for crafts people to overview. This has brought costly workflow constraints that largely limit creativity.

    We suggest a pre-production file format check-list as a tool to support design management.

  • 10.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Effects of Continuity or Discontinuity in Actual Film Editing2018In: Empirical Studies of the Arts, ISSN 0276-2374, E-ISSN 1541-4493, p. 222-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The film editor’s task in refining film edits by frame-by-frame matching is an important undertaking in perceptual precision. This article investigates whether the failure of a few frames jeopardizes the perceived continuity of a film. Thirty-three Swedish students were eye-tracked while watching two versions of the same documentary film sequence; one version was completed to continuity satisfaction by a film editor, while the other had some frames altered toward discontinuity. Gaze hits in Areas-of-Interest appointed by the film editor, saccade frequency, and pupil dilation after edit points were measured. No significant difference was found for hits in Areas-of-Interest, whereas saccade frequency and relative pupil size increased after edits in the altered version of the film sequence. Results indicate that the altered film sequence constrained viewers with possible cognitive effects, implying that frame-by-frame matching of film edits achieved by film editors is crucial to film continuity.

  • 11.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Yvonne, Eriksson
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Workflow Management in Design Processes in Professional Audiovisual Production and Design Management Support2012In: / [ed] Dr. Wolfgang Reisig, Dr. Sang Suh, Society for Design and Process Science , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the need for design management support within the Audiovisual Industry, due to the increasing variety of video file formats and codecs available to professionals. The amount of video file formats and codecs are referred to as ‘the file format jungle’ by moving image professionals, and needs to be navigated by managerial staff that are not electronic engineers or technicians, but responsible for audio-visual design work within film and TV production.

    We have evaluated a prototype for a design management support tool that compares file formats and codecs for different production tools, with the help of Swedish moving image industry producers. The core principals of the support tool prototype are found to cohere with the needs for design management support within film and TV production, and the tool is therefore an option for commercial development.

1 - 11 of 11
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