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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Network overload avoidance by traffic engineering and content caching2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet traffic volume continues to grow at a great rate, now driven by video and TV distribution. For network operators it is important to avoid congestion in the network, and to meet service level agreements with their customers.  This thesis presents work on two methods operators can use to reduce links loads in their networks: traffic engineering and content caching.

    This thesis studies access patterns for TV and video and the potential for caching.  The investigation is done both using simulation and by analysis of logs from a large TV-on-Demand system over four months.

    The results show that there is a small set of programs that account for a large fraction of the requests and that a comparatively small local cache can be used to significantly reduce the peak link loads during prime time. The investigation also demonstrates how the popularity of programs changes over time and shows that the access pattern in a TV-on-Demand system very much depends on the content type.

    For traffic engineering the objective is to avoid congestion in the network and to make better use of available resources by adapting the routing to the current traffic situation. The main challenge for traffic engineering in IP networks is to cope with the dynamics of Internet traffic demands.

    This thesis proposes L-balanced routings that route the traffic on the shortest paths possible but make sure that no link is utilised to more than a given level L. L-balanced routing gives efficient routing of traffic and controlled spare capacity to handle unpredictable changes in traffic.  We present an L-balanced routing algorithm and a heuristic search method for finding L-balanced weight settings for the legacy routing protocols OSPF and IS-IS. We show that the search and the resulting weight settings work well in real network scenarios.

  • 2.
    Ahmadzadeh, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jederström, Kathrina
    Mälardalen University.
    Plahn, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Olsson, Anna
    Mälardalen University.
    Foyer, Isabell
    Mälardalen University.
    AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS FOR SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT USING EVIDENTIAL REASONING2017In: Numerical Algebra, Control and Optimization, ISSN 2155-3289, E-ISSN 2155-3297, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 435-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Those working in product development need to consider sustain ability, being careful not to compromise the future generations ability to satisfy its needs. Several strategies guide companies towards sustainability. This paper studies six of these strategies: eco-design, green design, cradle-to-cradle, design for environment, zero waste, and life cycle approaches. Based on a literature review and semi-structured interviews, it identifies 22 factors of sustainability from the perspective of manufacturers. The purpose is to determine which are the most important and to use them as a foundation for a new design strategy. A survey based on the 22 factors was given to people working with product development; they graded each factor by importance. The resulting qualitative data were analyzed using evidential reasoning. The analysis found the factors minimize use of toxic substances, increase competitiveness, economic benefits, reduce material usage, material selection, reduce emissions, and increase product functionality are more important and should serve as the foundation for a new approach to sustainable product development.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Carlsson, Eva-Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Structures in Underground Facilities: Analysis of a Concrete Column’s Capacity toWithstand Extraordinary Fire Loads2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a Master of Science in Engineering work, carried out at Mälardalen’sUniversity within the research project METRO. The aim for this work was to determineif a concrete column placed close to the tracks at a subway station can withstand theeffect and temperature of a fire in a burning train comparable to the effects and temperaturesthat showed at the full scale test carried out within the METRO project. A literature review was made before a following case study. The results from thiswork show that the column is negligible affected by the fire.

  • 4. Andersson, Henny
    et al.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jansson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Suhonen, Anssi
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Reijonen, Tero
    Laatikainen, Reino
    Heitto, Anneli
    Hakalehto, Elias
    TECHNICAL REPORT ON PILOT A TESTS IN SWEDEN2015Report (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Andrews, Paul
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Ryve, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Hemmi, Kirsti
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Sayers, J.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    PISA, TIMSS and Finnish mathematics teaching: an enigma in search of an explanation2014In: Educational Studies in Mathematics, ISSN 0013-1954, E-ISSN 1573-0816, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 7-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finnish students' success on all three content domains of each of the four cycles of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has created much international interest. It has also prompted Finnish academics to offer systemic explanations typically linked to the structural qualities of Finnish schooling and teacher education. Less well-known has been the modest mathematics performance of Finnish grade 8 students on the two Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) in which Finland has participated, which, when compared with its PISA successes, has created something of an enigma. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on this enigma through analyses of Finnish mathematics classroom practice that draw on two extant data sets-interviews with Finnish teacher educators and video-recordings of sequences of lessons taught on standard topics. Due to the international interest in Finnish PISA success, the analyses focus primarily on the resonance between classroom practice and the mathematical literacy component of the PISA assessment framework. The analyses indicate that Finnish mathematics didactics are more likely to explain the modest TIMSS achievements than PISA successes and allude to several factors thought to be unique to the Finns, which, unrelated to mathematics teaching practices, may be contributory to the repeated Finnish PISA successes. Some implications for policy-borrowing are discussed. 

  • 6.
    Angantyr, Malin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Hansen, Eric M.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Malm, K.
    Skara, Sweden.
    Reducing Sex Differences in Children’s Empathy for Animals Through a Training Intervention2016In: Journal of Research in Childhood Education, ISSN 0256-8543, E-ISSN 2150-2641, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: Humane education programs designed to increase children’s empathy for animals are becoming more common. A quasi-experiment tested the effectiveness of one such program by comparing 80 children who had completed the program with a control group of 57 children who had not. The children read a story involving an injured dog and rated the degree of empathic concern they felt for him. The results showed that girls tended to express more empathy for a dog than did boys, but this difference was not significant for children who underwent an animal empathy training program. This suggests that humane education programs can reduce sex differences by increasing boys’ empathy. 

  • 7.
    Aravind, Meera
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Wiklander, G.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Palmheden, J.
    Scania AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Event-Based Messaging Architecture for Vehicular Internet of Things (IoT) Platforms2017In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 778, Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 37-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) has revolutionized transportation systems by connecting vehicles consequently enabling their tracking, as well as monitoring of driver activities. Such an IoT platform requires a significant amount of data to be send from the on-board vehicle to the off-board servers, contributing to high network usage. The data can be send at regular intervals or in an event-based manner whenever relevant events occur. In interval-based approach, the data is send even if it is not relevant for reporting leading to a wastage of network resources, e.g., when the data does not change considerably compared to the previously sent value. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using an event-based architecture to send data from the on-board system to the off-board system. The results show that our event-based architecture improves the accuracy of data available at the off-board system, by a careful selection of events. Moreover, we found that our event based architecture significantly decreases the frequency of sending messages, particularly during highway driving, leading to reduced average data transfer rates. Our results enable a customer to perform trade-offs between accuracy and data transfer rates. 

  • 8.
    Arman, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Alvenäng, Annika
    Alanus University, Stuttgart, Sweden.
    El Madani, Nadia
    Vidarkliniken, Sweden.
    Hammarqvist, Ann- Sofie
    Vidarkliniken, Sweden.
    Ranheim, Albertine
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Caregiving for existential wellbeing: existential literacy. A clinical study in an anthroposophic healthcare context2013In: IPDJ International Practice Development Journal, ISSN 2046-9292, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and context: The occurrence of existential caregiving as a natural element of healthcare is the focus of this research. According to the literature, there is a lack of understanding of this issue, from a theoretical as well as a clinical point of view. In this design ‘existential’ and ‘spiritual’ are seen as synonymous and without religious association. Existential questions are regarded as questions about life, death, meaning, love, vulnerability, responsibility and dependence. The context for the project is an integrated anthroposophic hospital that offers rehabilitation for patients with cancer.

    Aims and objectives

    : With the support of an anthroposophic and caring scientific view of human beings, and by using concrete examples, the aim is to develop and deepen an understanding of existential care for patients in life-decisive phases in the care and rehabilitation of cancer. Clinical application research was used in cooperation with academic researchers and clinically active colleagues. Eleven clinicians from varying professions and two researchers collaborated over the course of two years. The data used came from 65 case reports of significant care situations experienced by the team members. A joint interpretive qualitative analysis led to the formulation of the findings.

    Conclusions

    : Existential caregiving in practice requires an ‘existential literacy’, using the metaphor of human life as a text or a book whose contents are legible only for the one versed in the language. In order to gain a complete understanding of caregiving, an ability to read a suffering human’s language and decipher its meaning is essential. The patient’s narrative might open up a caregiver’s awareness in a single illuminating moment. An authentic and listening attitude together with an active restriction of one’s own suppositions increase the possibility of providing existential care. Compassion and professional judgement function as the caregiving compass and ‘lexica’ for existential care.

    Implications for practice:

    1. An understanding of existential caregiving moments implies a developed insight into and sensitivity for the patient’s signs and needs
    2. Existential caring moments have countless variations, while bodily and intimate situations are sometimes found to be an opening to spontaneous, trustful interactions. Such moments could be learning moments if reflected and shared
    3. For training in the ability to ‘read the patient’, clinical reflections in groups where existential literacy is collectively sought are an option
    4. Clinical application research can allow caring scientific theory and healthcare research to be implemented in practice immediately, which may enhance quality of care and ultimately benefit the patient
  • 9.
    Ask, Lina Schollin
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjern, Anders
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindstrand, Ann
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olen, Ola
    Sjögren, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Blennow, Margareta
    Sachs Children & Youth Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ortqvist, Ake
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Receiving early information and trusting Swedish child health centre nurses increased parents' willingness to vaccinate against rotavirus infections2017In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, no 8, p. 1309-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Rotavirus vaccines are effective against severe infections, but have a modest impact on mortality in high-income countries. Parental knowledge and attitudes towards vaccines are crucial for high vaccination coverage. This study aimed to identify why parents refused to let their infant have the vaccination or were unsure. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on 1,063 questionnaires completed by the parents of newborn children in 2014. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify the main predictors. Results: Most (81%) parents intended to vaccinate their child against the rotavirus, while 19% were unwilling or uncertain. Parents with less education and children up to five weeks of age were more likely to be unwilling or uncertain about vaccinating their child. Factors associated with a refusal or uncertainty about vaccinating were not having enough information about the vaccine, no intention of accepting other vaccines, paying little heed to the child health nurses' recommendations, thinking that the rotavirus was not a serious illness and not believing that the vaccine provided protection against serious forms of gastroenteritis. Conclusion: Early information, extra information for parents with less education and close positive relationships between parents and child health nurses were important factors in high rotavirus vaccination rates.

  • 10.
    Backström, Tomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hagström, Tom
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Göransson, Susanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Communication as a Mechanism for Cultural Integration2013In: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, ISSN 1090-0578, E-ISSN 1573-6652, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 87-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing autonomy for employees ensures innovation competence if balanced by integration into the organization. The aim of this article is to study processes leading to the integration of employees into the company culture. The two research questions are: What makes the culture of a work group similar to the company culture? How is a work group culture constructed? Theories that are employed concern culture as an organizing structure emerging in the interaction, company culture as a way to exert control, and social networks as a way to describe the interaction. Empirical data come from a merchant bank from which 105 respondents from ten work groups answered questions about their communication and their integration into the company culture. The results show that the sub-culture of the group emerges in communication between members of the group. There seems to be a self-reinforcing spiral between collegial talk, especially about goals, plans and changes at the work place, and cultural integration. All members of a group should be included in this communication to create a strong culture. The value system of the supervisor strongly influences the sub-culture of the work group. Appointing supervisors with values that correspond to the company culture and provide for employee communications is thus central for organizations using culture as a tool for control.

  • 11.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Parmeza, Ditmar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Predicting the Effort for Functional Safety in Product Lines2015In: The 41st Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA'15, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Berndtsson, M.
    et al.
    CEMUS Uppsala University, Bromma, Sweden.
    Drake, L.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hellstrand, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. Nolby Ekostrategi, Kil, Sweden.
    Is circular economy a magic bullet?2017In: Natural Resources Available Today and in the Future: How to Perform Change Management for Achieving a Sustainable World, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 281-295Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Björke, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Is there happiness therein?: BM and HRCA for self-employed.2012In: Journal of Human Resource Costing and Accounting, ISSN 1401-338X, E-ISSN 1758-745X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 95-111Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the philosophical baseline of two popular business schemes, the business model and a latter variation of human resource costing and accounting (HRCA). The aim is to identify crucial assumptions inherent in the models that may influence attempts of creating a symbiosis between them.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper provides a conceptual perspective on the two models. Data for the paper were gathered during a case study on the usefulness of HRCA for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) as well as from extensive literature readings. These data have been compiled and analysed under the influence of Weick's method for generating theory.

    Findings – While the business model and HRCA share a common purpose they try to provide different qualities to the organisation. Whereas the former seeks to realise dreams and ambitions, the latter supports displacements of threats towards organisations and managers. This difference is a potential source of friction that may result in a harmful organisational behaviour.

    Practical implications – The paper also expands on the theoretical baseline of two popular business schemes. By identifying crucial differences, amendments and adaptions are possible to make within organisation or among business consultants that could override the problems. Some suggestions are made on this issue.

    Originality/value – The paper expands the theoretical and philosophical understanding of popular business schemes. By introducing a theory of happiness a new perspective providing crucial information of the function of the two business schemes is revealed.

  • 14.
    Bruhn, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Brunberg, Kjell
    BAP, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hines, John
    Independent Consultant.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. BAP, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Introducing Radiation Tolerant Heterogeneous Computers for Small Satellites2015In: IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings, vol. 2015, 2015, Vol. 2015, p. Article number 7119158-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results and conclusions from design, manufacturing, and benchmarking of a heterogeneous computing low power fault tolerant computer, realized on an industrial Qseven® small form factor (SFF) platform. A heterogeneous computer in this context features multi-core processors (CPU), a graphical processing unit (GPU), and a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The x86 compatible CPU enables the use of vast amounts of commonly available software and operating systems, which can be used for space and harsh environments. The developed heterogeneous computer shares the same core architecture as game consoles such as Microsoft Xbox One and Sony Playstation 4 and has an aggregated computational performance in the TFLOP range. The processing power can be used for on-board intelligent data processing and higher degrees of autonomy in general. The module feature quad core 1.5 GHz 64 bit CPU (24 GFLOPs), 160 GPU shader cores (127 GFLOPs), and a 12 Mgate equivalent FPGA fabric with a safety critical ARM® Cortex-M3 MCU.

  • 15.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Holmberg, Aksel
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Pettersson, Oscar
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Hangula, A.
    Namibia Energy Institute, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Araoz, F. B.
    School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhang, Y.
    School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An open-source optimization tool for solar home systems: A case study in Namibia2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 130, no 15, p. 106-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar home systems (SHSs) represent a viable technical solution for providing electricity to households and improving standard of living conditions in areas not reached by the national grid or local grids. For this reason, several rural electrification programmes in developing countries, including Namibia, have been relying on SHSs to electrify rural off-grid communities. However, the limited technical know-how of service providers, often resulting in over- or under-sized SHSs, is an issue that has to be solved to avoid dissatisfaction of SHSs’ users. The solution presented here is to develop an open-source software that service providers can use to optimally design SHSs components based on the specific electricity requirements of the end-user. The aim of this study is to develop and validate an optimization model written in MS Excel-VBA which calculates the optimal SHSs components capacities guaranteeing the minimum costs and the maximum system reliability. The results obtained with the developed tool showed good agreement with a commercial software and a computational code used in research activities. When applying the developed optimization tool to existing systems, the results identified that several components were incorrectly sized. The tool has thus the potentials of improving future SHSs installations, contributing to increasing satisfaction of end-users.

  • 16.
    Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    Mälardalen University. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Petersen, K.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Context Model for Architectural Decision Support2016In: Proceedings - 2016 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016, 2016, p. 9-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing efficient and effective decision making support includes identifying means to reduce repeated manual work and providing possibilities to take advantage of the experience gained in previous decision situations. For this to be possible, there is a need to explicitly model the context of a decision case, for example to determine how much the evidence from one decision case can be trusted in another, similar context. In earlier work, context has been recognized as important when transferring and understanding outcomes between cases. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we describe different ways of utilizing context in an envisioned decision support system. Thereby, we distinguish between internal and external context usage, possibilities of context representation, and context inheritance. Second, we present a systematically developed context model comprised of five types of context information, namely organization, product, stakeholder, development method & technology, and market & business. Third, we exemplary illustrate the relation of the context information to architectural decision making using existing literature. 

  • 17.
    Charbachi, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eklund, Linus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Can Pairwise Testing Perform Comparably to Manually Handcrafted Testing Carried Out by Industrial Engineers?2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion, QRS-C 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 92-99Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing is an important activity in engineering of industrial software. For such software, testing is usually performed manually by handcrafting test suites based on specific design techniques and domain-specific experience. To support developers in testing, different approaches for producing good test suites have been proposed. In the last couple of years combinatorial testing has been explored with the goal of automatically combining the input values of the software based on a certain strategy. Pairwise testing is a combinatorial technique used to generate test suites by varying the values of each pair of input parameters to a system until all possible combinations of those parameters are created. There is some evidence suggesting that these kinds of techniques are efficient and relatively good at detecting software faults. Unfortunately, there is little experimental evidence on the comparison of these combinatorial testing techniques with, what is perceived as, rigorous manually handcrafted testing. In this study we compare pairwise test suites with test suites created manually by engineers for 45 industrial programs. The test suites were evaluated in terms of fault detection, code coverage and number of tests. The results of this study show that pairwise testing, while useful for achieving high code coverage and fault detection for the majority of the programs, is almost as effective in terms of fault detection as manual testing. The results also suggest that pairwise testing is just as good as manual testing at fault detection for 64% of the programs.

  • 18.
    Chen, Yao
    et al.
    Ludong Univ, Coll Traff & Transportat, Peoples R China..
    Albin,
    Mälardalen University.
    Jiuchun, Gu
    Ludong Univ, Coll Traff & Transportat, Yantai 264000, Peoples R China..
    Chao, Gao
    Shandong Jiaotong Univ, Dept Traff Engn, Peoples R China.
    RESEARCH ON SUPPLY AND DEMAND NON-EQUILIBRIUM DEPTH OF CITY AGGLOMERATION TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM2016In: JOURNAL OF THE BALKAN TRIBOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, ISSN 1310-4772, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 2795-2802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to construct a new model to measure the supply and demand non-equilibrium of transportation system, which is more accuracy and effect compared to the traditional model. Based on the non-equilibrium problem of supply greater or less than demand, which is common in current city agglomeration transportation system, the supply and demand non-equilibrium depth of city agglomeration transportation system is proposed. From the perspective of the connotation of supply and demand non-equilibrium depth of city agglomeration transportation system, the category is definitely divided, and then the corresponding functions of supply and demand of the city agglomeration transportation system are established. According to the interaction mechanism of the supply and demand of the city agglomeration transportation system, the non equilibrium depth in a narrow and general sense can be calculated respectively, also the total non-equilibrium depth is obtained, containing its three-dimensional structure and the fitting surface. In the case study, it is indicated that the research conclusion meets the actual requirements completely.

  • 19.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Borg, M.
    SICS Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Wnuk, K.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    Mälardalen University.
    Towards Software Assets Origin Selection Supported by a Knowledge Repository2016In: Proceedings - 2016 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016, 2016, p. 22-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software architecture is no more a mere system specification as resulting from the design phase, but it includes the process by which its specification was carried out. In this respect, design decisions in component-based software engineering play an important role: They are used to enhance the quality of the system, keep the current market level, keep partnership relationships, reduce costs, and so forth. For non trivial systems, a recurring situation is the selection of an asset origin, that is if going for in-house, outsourcing, open-source, or COTS, when in the need of a certain missing functionality. Usually, the decision making process follows a case-by-case approach, in which historical information is largely neglected: hence, it is avoided the overhead of keeping detailed documentation about past decisions, but it is hampered consistency among multiple, possibly related, decisions.The ORION project aims at developing a decision support framework in which historical decision information plays a pivotal role: it is used to analyse current decision scenarios, take well-founded decisions, and store the collected data for future exploitation. In this paper, we outline the potentials of such a knowledge repository, including the information it is intended to be stored in it, and when and how to retrieve it within a decision case. 

  • 20.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hellstrand, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    System perspective2017In: Natural Resources Available Today and in the Future: How to Perform Change Management for Achieving a Sustainable World, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 1-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Dardar, Raghad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Industrial Experiences of Building a Safety Case in Compliance with ISO 262622012In: 23RD IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SOFTWARE RELIABILITY ENGINEERING WORKSHOPS (ISSREW 2012), 2012, p. 349-354Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 26262 functional safety standard provides appropriate development processes, requirements and safety integrity levels specific for the automotive domain. One crucial requirement consists of the creation of a safety case, a structured argument, which inter-relates evidence and claims, needed to show that safety-critical systems are acceptably safe. The standard is currently not mandatory to be applied to safety critical systems installed in heavy trucks; however, this is likely to be changed by 2016. This paper describes the experience gathered by applying the standard to the Fuel Level Estimation and Display System, a subsystem that together with other subsystems plays a significant role in terms of global system safety for heavy trucks manufactured by Scania. More specifically, exploratory and laborious work related to the creation of a safety case in compliance with ISO 26262 in an inexperienced industrial setting is described, and the paper ends with presenting some lessons learned together with guidelines to facilitate the adoption of ISO 26262.

  • 22.
    Denzler, Patrick
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Maximising Product Possibilities while Minimising Process Change: A Case of Introducing Light Weight Material in Automotive Manufacturing2016In: Procedia CIRP, 2016, Vol. 50, p. 270-274Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are challenged to achieve maximised benefits in time, money and novelty when introducing new products or technologies into their existing manufacturing systems. This paper set the focus on the introduction of new materials into existing products and if the adverse effects on manufacturing will outweigh the benefits. An automotive case was studied where discrete event simulation was used as tool to evaluate process consequences when introducing new material and process technologies into the production system. The question concerned if discrete event simulation can verify production system capabilities even in early conceptual design stages. The case analysis is concluded by three challenge areas concerning early stages of production system design. The difficulties of evaluating operational key performance indicators early in design processes become evident and needed future research efforts within the area are pointed out. © 2016 The Authors.

  • 23.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Melin, Marika
    Stockholm University,.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Isolated cases or widespread practice?: The occurrence of sharing managers2012In: Economics and Business Letters, ISSN 2254-4380, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 23-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Windahl, Torbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Extending the ERP system: considering the business relationship portfolio2014In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 480-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Research has shown that companies focus their internal processes when they adopt enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. However, the ERP systems need to expand their functionality to include customers and suppliers (with e-commerce functionality) to reach their full potential. The purpose of this paper is to consider business relationships as a resource but also a limitation when companies strive to get an extended ERP system.

    Design/Methodology/approach – The paper presents an illustrative case study of an industrial company’s process of developing an extended ERP and how the company’s portfolio of business relationships has affected the solution. The analysis is supported by the markets-as-networks theory.

    Findings – The process of developing an extended ERP system needs to incorporate the company’s business partners (customers and suppliers). It is a simultaneously bottom-up and top-down process given that the operative frontline staff hold the knowledge about the company’s business relationships while the corporate management has the means of extending the ERP system functionality and align it with the focal company’s strategy.

    Research implications – Companies need to consider the fact that the technological and financial status of their customers and suppliers differ. Thus, an effective and flexible extended ERP system needs to include both a high-end and low-end solution as well as understand that a full interorganizational integration might not be realistic.

    Originality/value – The paper puts forth business relationship portfolios as an important factor to consider when extending the ERP system functionality in the supply chain and towards customers. 

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Pringle, Keith
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    His Helping hands: Adult daughters perceptions of fathers with a caregiving responsibility2013In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 235-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women's position as informal carers has been taken for granted in social policy and social professions, while relatively few discussions have elaborated on caring as a later life activity for men and the impact on family care. This study explores the processes connected to informal caregiving in later life through the position of adult daughters of older fathers engaged with long-term caregiving responsibilities for a partner. A sample of eight daughters, with fathers having primary caregiving responsibility for their ill partners was recruited and in-depth interviews were carried out and analysed according to qualitative procedures. The daughters' descriptions of their relationships with their fathers show that being an older man who engages in caring can have a positive outcome on relations. Even if some of the daughters have doubts about their fathers “masculine authenticity”, all of them appear to cherish “his helping hands” as a carer and closer more intimate relationships with their fathers. Caring for an old and frail spouse may potentially present alternative ways of being a man beyond traditional ‘male activities’ and that caring might also sometimes involve a re-construction of gender identities. It is suggested that social work professionals may use a gendered understanding to assess and work strategically with daughters and other family members who support caring fathers.

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Nadya Travina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Wiklund, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Hermeneutic Inquiry: Researching Lived Experience of Mental Health and Recovery in a Christian Monastery in Contemporary Sweden2018Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this case study, we, the student Nadya and her supervisor Lena, will describe the processand challenges associated with conducting an empirical study for a master’s degree in caringscience in psychiatric nursing. We will describe how the idea for the thesis evolved, theoreticaland practical preparations, as well as methodological procedures in relation to data collectionand analysis. We will also share some reflections we made in relation to challengesencountered during this study. Many of these reflections were directed toward methodologicalaspects of the study. However, along the way, it also became clear that experiences fromconducting the study also yielded important knowledge and understanding about mental healthcare. The reflections about what happened in the encounter between Nadya and theparticipants added depth not only to our understanding of the subject for this study, that is,how mental health, care, and recovery are experienced by people in a Christian monastery incontemporary Sweden, but also shed light on important aspects of mental health nursing inrelation to modern psychiatry.

  • 27.
    Eriksson, Susanne
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Hoppe, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Entreprenörskap på HVV: ett pilotprojekt med bestående effekter i entreprenöriellt lärande2016In: Samproduktionens retorik och praktik – inom området hälsa och välfärd / [ed] Inger K. Holmström, Jonas Stier, Per Tillgren, Gunnel Östlund, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 111-128Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet belyses samverkan från dimensionerna uppåt (med Tillväxtverket för att söka nya samverkansformer med högskoleaktörer), utåt (mellan projekt vid andra högskolor/universitet), inåt (mellan olika delar av akademin och olika delar av högskolan) och nedåt (mot studenter, vilket kom att utvecklas under projektets gång).

    Utgångspunkten för detta exempel på samverkan och samproduktion är ett treårigt pilotprojekt för att etablera entreprenörskap inom vård- och omsorgsutbildningar. Projektet startade 2012, pågick till och med 2014 och ingick i ett av Tillväxtverket finansierat pilotprogram tillsammans med fyra andra lärosäten (se Samverkan i projektet nedan). Pilotprojektet har dessutom identifierat tre samverkansinriktningar: explorerande samverkan (bygga ny kunskap tillsammans), expanderande samverkan (engagera fler i värdeskapande aktiviteter) och evolverande samverkan (ömsesidig kontinuerlig anpassning). I analysen och diskussionen återkommer denna kategorisering. Utöver detta diskuteras relationen mellan styrning och koordination samt hur skillnader i målsättningar bör påverka upplägget för samverkan och samproduktion.

  • 28.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Jinghede Nordvall, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Qualitative interviews with adolescents about "Friends-with-Benefits" relationships2013In: Public Health Nursing, ISSN 0737-1209, E-ISSN 1525-1446, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 47-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe the thoughts, reflections, and experiences of friends-with-benefits relationships among a group of Swedish adolescents. Design and Sample: A qualitative study with an explorative and descriptive design. Eight adolescents, aged 16-18, were interviewed. Measures: Individual in-depth interviews were undertaken. Data were analyzed using latent content analysis. Results: The informants involved themselves in Friends-with-benefits (FWB) relationships to find physical and psychological intimacy without any expectations or demands. FWB relationships were perceived to have more advantages when the partner was a close friend with whom an informant felt comfortable. There was ambivalence about the legitimacy of romantic feelings in an FWB relationship, although it was quite common. Sexual concurrency was common and often accepted. Sexual risk-taking behavior involving the use of alcohol and a lack of contraception was considered common in FWB relationships. Informants requested more education and support as regards their sexual behavior. Conclusions: FWB relationships were often initiated to find physical and psychological intimacy with no expectations or demands. Advantages such as sexual concurrency and no demands were central. A deeper understanding of how adolescents think and reason about sexuality and relationships can make a difference when working to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health.

  • 29.
    Farnoush, Alireza
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    POLCA and CONWIP performance in a divergent production line: An automotive case study2013In: Journal of Management Control, ISSN 2191-4761, E-ISSN 2191-477X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 159-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production control mechanisms have been broadly investigated by researchers, where each type of production control mechanism has different performance depending on the situation. However, the situation with high variety products in a divergent production line has been rarely studied. This paper presents a study on the applicability of four different production control mechanism; three different variants of POLCA as well as one type of CONWIP control in an automotive production company with high variety of products and divergent line. ExtendSim simulation software has been used for discrete event simulation in order to analyse the production line and compare strategies. The main criteria for comparing the performance were throughput, shop floor throughput time and level of work in process (WIP). The study shows that m-CONWIP (as a variant of CONWIP) is recommended in this situation, as it leads to more reduction in WIP amount and throughput time, while throughput value does not drop.

  • 30.
    Feldthusen, C.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dean, Elizabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; .
    Forsblad-D'Elia, H.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Mannerkorpi, K.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of person-centered physical therapy on fatigue-related variables in persons with rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized controlled trial2016In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To examine effects of person-centered physical therapy on fatigue and related variables in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Hospital outpatient rheumatology clinic. Participants Persons with RA aged 20 to 65 years (N=70): intervention group (n=36) and reference group (n=34). Interventions The 12-week intervention, with 6-month follow-up, focused on partnership between participant and physical therapist and tailored health-enhancing physical activity and balancing life activities. The reference group continued with regular activities; both groups received usual health care. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome was general fatigue (visual analog scale). Secondary outcomes included multidimensional fatigue (Bristol Rheumatoid Arthritis Fatigue Multi-Dimensional Questionnaire) and fatigue-related variables (ie, disease, health, function). Results At posttest, general fatigue improved more in the intervention group than the reference group (P=.042). Improvement in median general fatigue reached minimal clinically important differences between and within groups at posttest and follow-up. Improvement was also observed for anxiety (P=.0099), and trends toward improvements were observed for most multidimensional aspects of fatigue (P=.023-.048), leg strength/endurance (P=.024), and physical activity (P=.023). Compared with the reference group at follow-up, the intervention group improvement was observed for leg strength/endurance (P=.001), and the trends toward improvements persisted for physical (P=.041) and living-related (P=.031) aspects of fatigue, physical activity (P=.019), anxiety (P=.015), self-rated health (P=.010), and self-efficacy (P=.046). Conclusions Person-centered physical therapy focused on health-enhancing physical activity and balancing life activities showed significant benefits on fatigue in persons with RA. 

  • 31.
    Filipovikj, Predrag
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Jagerfield, Trevor
    Mälardalen University.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Integrating Pattern-based Formal Requirements Specification in an Industrial Tool-chain2016In: PROCEEDINGS 2016 IEEE 40TH ANNUAL COMPUTER SOFTWARE AND APPLICATIONS CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS (COMPSAC), VOL 2, 2016, Vol. 2, p. 167-173, article id 7552198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of formal system specifications is a major obstacle to the widespread adoption of formal verification techniques in industrial settings. Specification patterns represent a promising approach that can fill this gap by enabling non-expert practitioners to write formal specifications based on reusing solutions to commonly occurring problems. Despite the fact that the specification patterns have been proven suitable for specification of industrial systems, there is no engineer-friendly tool support adequate for industrial adoption. In this paper, we present a tool called SESAMM Specifier in which we integrate a subset of the specification patterns for formal requirements specification, called SPS, into an existing industrial tool-chain. The tool provides the necessary means for the formal specification of system requirements and the later validation of the formally expressed behavior.

  • 32.
    Forsberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Saab AB, Sweden.
    Mårbring Isaksson, Eva
    Saab AB, Sweden.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Penna, Achille
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Elaboration of Safety Requirements2013In: AIAA/IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference - Proceedings2013, 2013, p. 7C21-7C29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the aircraft standard ARP4754A, requirements should be carefully traced and validated. A systematic methodology for safety requirements elaboration (refinement/decomposition as well as allocation management) is lacking. To overcome this lack, an ARP-aligned and DOORS implementable approach called RAP (Requirements Allocation Process) is proposed. RAP offers a textual as well as graphical means for managing safety requirements. Besides supporting requirements decomposition and allocation, RAP also supports design decisions. The usefulness of RAP is illustrated by an example, applying the approach to a High Lift System.

  • 33.
    Frank, Catharina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Takman, Christina
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Uppsala universitet.
    Social insurance administrative officers’ perceptions of their assignment and problematic issues in their work with heart failure clients in the sick-leave and rehabilitation process2015In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 173-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores social insurance administrative officers’ (AOs’) perceptions of the sick-leave process for heart failure clients. The work situation and the sick-leave process for people with heart failure tend to be complex and problematic. The problems are often caused by a lack of understanding from professionals, such as social insurance AOs. The study draws on two focus group interviews with social insurance AOs from two different social insurance agencies. The interviews were guided by an open approach, and analysis was performed on the interviews’ manifest content through a qualitative content analysis. The findings demonstrate that the AOs were concerned about the clients’ ability to return to work, but they were hindered in fulfilling their duties through insufficient collaboration with physicians and unclear sickness certificates. There seems to be a gap between the AOs’ assignment and their ability to make well-founded decisions about their clients’ ability to work. This can have consequences for the individual who lives with heart failure. In the sociopolitical agenda of Sweden, this can have consequences for the development of collaboration between AOs and the medical experts who provide the foundations for decisions about work ability of the client with heart failure.

  • 34.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Atif Javed, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ul Muram, Faiz
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Model-driven Dependability Analysis Method for Component-based Architectures2012In: Proceedings - 38th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2012, 2012, p. 233-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical distributed real-time embedded component-based systems must be dependable and thus be able to avoid unacceptable failures. To efficiently evaluate the dependability of the assembly obtained by selecting and composing components, well-integrated and tool-supported techniques are needed. Currently, no satisfying tool-supported technique fully integrated in the development life-cycle exists. To overcome this limitation, we propose CHESS-FLA, which is a model-driven failure logic analysis method. CHESS-FLA allows designers to: model the nominal as well as the failure behaviour of their architectures, automatically perform dependability analysis through a model transformation, and, finally, ease the interpretation of the analysis results through back-propagation onto the original architectural model. CHESS-FLA is part of an industrial quality tool-set for the functional and extra-functional development of high integrity embedded component-based systems, developed within the EU-ARTEMIS funded CHESS project. Finally, we present a case study taken from the telecommunication domain to illustrate and assess the proposed method.

  • 35.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallucci, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania, Sweden.
    VROOM & cC: a Method to Build Safety Cases for ISO 26262-compliant Product Lines2013In: Proceedings of SASSUR@SAFECOMP. 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kashiyarandi, Shaghayegh
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Zugsbratl, Karlheinz
    Geven, Arjan
    Enabling Cross-Domain Reuse of Tool Qualification Certification Artefacts2014In: COMPUTER SAFETY, RELIABILITY, AND SECURITY, 2014, p. 255-266Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and verification of safety-critical systems increasingly relies on the use of tools which automate/replace/supplement complex verification and/or development tasks. The safety of such systems risks to be compromised, if the tools fail. To mitigate this risk, safety standards (e.g. DO-178C/DO330, IEC 61508) define prescriptive tool qualification processes. Compliance with these processes can be required for (re-)certification purposes. To enable reuse and thus reduce time and cost related to certification, cross-domain tool manufacturers need to understand what varies and what remains in common when transiting from one domain to another. To ease reuse, in this paper we focus on verification tools and model a cross-domain tool qualification process line. Finally, we discuss how reusable cross-domain process-based arguments can be obtained.

  • 37.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pitchai, K. R.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    S-TunExSPEM: Towards an extension of SPEM 2.0 to model and exchange tunable safety-oriented processes2014In: Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications, Springer, 2014, p. 215-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prescriptive process-based safety standards (e.g. EN 50128, DO-178B, etc.) incorporate best practices to be adopted to develop safety-critical systems or software. In some domains, compliance with the standards is required to get the certificate from the certification authorities. Thus, a well-defined interpretation of the processes to be adopted is essential for certification purposes. Currently, no satisfying means allows process engineers and safety managers to model and exchange safety-oriented processes. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes S-TunExSPEM, an extension of Software & Systems Process Engineering Meta-Model 2.0 (SPEM 2.0) to allow users to specify safety-oriented processes for the development of safety-critical systems in the context of safety standards according to the required safety level. Moreover, to enable exchange for simulation, monitoring, execution purposes, S-TunExSPEM concepts are mapped onto XML Process Definition Language 2.2 (XPDL 2.2) concepts. Finally, a case-study from the avionics domain illustrates the usage and effectiveness of the proposed extension.

  • 38.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sefer, Edin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Refsdal, A.
    SINTEF ICT, Oslo, Norway.
    Towards safety risk assessment of socio-technical systems via failure logic analysis2014In: Proceedings - IEEE 25th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2014, 2014, p. 287-292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thorough understanding of the safety risks of a system requires an understanding of its human and organizational factors, as well as its technical components. Analysis approaches that focus only on the latter without considering, for example, how human decision makers may respond to a technical failure, are not able to adequately capture the wide variety of safety risk scenarios that need to be considered. In this paper, we propose a model-based analysis approach that allows analysts to interpret humans and organizations in terms of components and their behavior in terms of failure logic. Our approach builds on top of CHESS-FLA, which is a tool-supported failure logic analysis technique that supports analysis of component-based system architectures to understand what can go wrong at the system level and to identify the causes (i.e. Faulty components). However, CHESS-FLA currently deals only with hardware and software components and thus it is not adequate to reason about socio-technical systems. We therefore provide an extension based on a pre-existing classification of socio-failures and combine it with the one used in CHESS-FLA for technical failures, thereby giving birth to a novel approach to analysis of socio-technical systems. We demonstrate our approach on an example from the petroleum domain.

  • 39.
    Ghaviha, Nima
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bohlin, M.
    RISE SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    Holmberg, C.
    Bombardier Transportation, Västerås, Swede.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Skoglund, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jonasson, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A driver advisory system with dynamic losses for passenger electric multiple units2017In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 85, p. 111-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver advisory systems, instructing the driver how to control the train in an energy efficient manner, is one the main tools for minimizing energy consumption in the railway sector. There are many driver advisory systems already available in the market, together with significant literature on the mathematical formulation of the problem. However, much less is published on the development of such mathematical formulations, their implementation in real systems, and on the empirical data from their deployment. Moreover, nearly all the designed driver advisory systems are designed as an additional hardware to be added in drivers’ cabin. This paper discusses the design of a mathematical formulation and optimization approach for such a system, together with its implementation into an Android-based prototype, the results from on-board practical experiments, and experiences from the implementation. The system is based on a more realistic train model where energy calculations take into account dynamic losses in different components of the propulsion system, contrary to previous approaches. The experimental evaluation shows a significant increase in accuracy, as compared to a previous approach. Tests on a double-track section of the Mälaren line in Sweden demonstrates a significant potential for energy saving.

  • 40.
    Gholinejad, Hassan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Mousavi Takami, Kourosh
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Mousavi Takami, Amin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    To promote electricity smart grid performances by numerical modeling applications2014In: Proceedings of the 55th Conference on Simulation and Modelling(SIMS 55): “Modelling, Simulation and Optimization” / [ed] Alireza Rezania Kolai, Kim Sørensen & Mads Pagh Nielsen, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014, p. 347-355Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide world’s utilities are generating, transmitting and distributing of electricity throughout the country andare responsible to its quality.Distributed automated distribution system has been proposed for planning to reduce losses, optimize capacityand load balancing in electricity networks. The world electricity average loss is about and outage percustomer time is about min/ year. The indices are needed to optimize in developing countries.This paper deals on a modeled distribution system in Sari distribution region and evaluates three mentionedparameters on network quality. Restoration, maneuvers to achieve the minimum loss, reactive powercontrolling, load balancing etc are investigated.Modeling performs by MATLAB software, EMTP for transient modeling and Digsilent with real data bySari Distribution Company. In this paper, a new approach by rearrangement aimed at reducing losses andimproving of load balancing in distribution networks was presented.

    Keywords: Modelling, smart grid, electricity network

  • 41.
    Haag, Ingemar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Kjär, Uwe
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Päplow, Thorsten
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Schröter, Thorsten
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Molander Danielsson, Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Jansson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Sundgren, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Öhman, Marie
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Bockgård, Gustav
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Blom, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Billing, AnnaCarin
    Nelson, Marie
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lundkvist, Hannes
    Mälardalen University.
    Vokabeltest im FSU; Narrative Vampirism; English for Young Learners; Eva Lindströms poetik; Linguistic accommodation; Astrid Lindgrens barnboksvärldar; Traditionell västgötska; Didaktiska reflektioner kring grammatiska strukturer; Anna Höglunds Om detta talar man endast med kaniner; Språksituationen på Åland; Ett radikalt demokratisk svenskämne; Rainer Maria Rilkes Malte Laurids Brigges anteckningar2016Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Hallmans, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB Ludvika, Sweden .
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB Corporate Research Västerås, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB Corporate Research Västerås, Sweden.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    GPGPU for Industrial Control Systems2013In: 18th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation ETFA'13, 2013, p. Article number 6648166-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work in progress paper we present parts of our ongoing work on using the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in the context of Embedded Systems. As a first step we are investigating the possibility to move functions from a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) to a GPU. If it is possible to make such a migration then it would simplify the hardware designs for some embedded systems by removing external hardware and also remove a potential life cycle issue with obsolete components. We are currently designing a test system to be able to compare performance between a legacy control system used today in industry, based on a CPU/DSP combination, to a new design with a CPU/GPU combination. In this setting the pre-filtering of sampled data, previously done in the DSP, is moved to the GPU.

  • 43.
    Hansen, Jeffery
    et al.
    Carnegie Mellon University.
    Hissam, Scott
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Meyers, B. Craig
    Carnegie Mellon.
    Moreno, Gabriel
    Carnegie Mellon.
    Plakosh, Daniel
    Carnegie Mellon University.
    Seibel, Joseph
    Carnegie Mellon University.
    Wrage, Lutz
    Carnegie Mellon University.
    Resource Allocation in Dynamic Environments: TECHNICAL REPORT, CMU/SEI-2012-TR-011, ESC-TR-2012-0112012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report examines two challenges related to resource allocation that can negatively affect system operation in a dynamic environment, where warfighter needs for resources, resource availability, environmental effects, and mission conditions can change from moment to moment. The first challenge occurs when warfighters overstate their individual needs of a shared resource, leading to inefficient allocation. Overstatement may bring local optimization; however, it can cause global inefficiencies that result in a detriment to overall mission success. This challenge is addressed by using computational mechanism design, more specifically, the dynamic VickreyClark-Groves allocation mechanism. The second challenge involves resource availability that may change frequently. Such is the case in a wireless mesh network where routes and bandwidth may vary over even small intervals of time. In such a case, an adaptive quality of service (AQoS) approach is used, and the available resource is allocated using the Dynamic QoS-based Resource Allocation Model (DQ-RAM). Computational mechanism design is used to allocate sensors, and the AQoS approach allocates the available network bandwidth in a way consistent with the sensor allocation, providing an approach for dealing with resource allocation and adaptation in a dynamic environment. Initial experimental results of applying the approach are reported.

  • 44.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    et al.
    Mälardalen University. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hinkkanen, M.
    Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland.
    Wallmark, O.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Guest Editorial2016In: IET Electric Power Applications, ISSN 1751-8660, E-ISSN 1751-8679, Vol. 10, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Hellstrand, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Animal production in a sustainable agriculture2013In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 999-1036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the role of animal production systems in a sustainable society; sustainability problems within animal production systems; and four measures for the improvement of the contribution to societal sustainability from animal production. Substantial potentials for improvements are identified that were not previously known. The methodological basis is multi-criteria multi-level analysis within integrated assessment where elements in Impredicative Loop Analysis are integrated with management tools in Swedish agriculture and forestry developed during thousands of years, during which the well-being of the Swedish society and its economic and military power were functions of the land-use skill. The issue-the sustainability footprint of global animal production-is complex and available data are limited. The Swedish case is used as a starting point for an analysis of international relevance. Data from FAO and OECD support the relevance of extrapolating results from the Swedish case to level. The four measures are (i) decrease the consumption of chicken meat in developed nations with 2.6 kg per capita and year; (ii) develop the capacity of ruminants to produce high-quality food from otherwise marginal agroecosystems; (iii) improve milk production per cow with a factor four on global level; and (iv) increase feeding efficiency in milk production globally would substantially improve the societal contribution in terms of increased food supply and decreased pressure on land. The impact of measures (i), (iii) and (iv) on increased global food security was estimated to in total 1.8 billion people in terms of protein supply and a decreased pressure on agricultural land of 217 million ha, of which 41 relate to tropical forests. The 41 million ha of tropical land are due to a decreased demand on soymeal, where this represents more than a halving of total area now used for the production of soymeal. These impacts are of the character either or. The quality of the measures is as first-time estimates, supporting choices of where to direct further efforts in analysis. Two areas were identified as critical for achieving this potential: Feeding strategies to dairy cows as well as methods commonly used to evaluate the sustainability contribution of animal production needs adjustment, so that they comply with the "laws" of diminishing returns, Liebig's "law" of the minimum and Shelford's "law" of tolerance, that is, in agreement with well-known principles for efficient natural resource management and the priorities of UN Millennium Development Goals. If not, global food security is at risk. 

  • 46.
    Hellstrand, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    On the value of land2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of sustainable development is once again moving the production factor land into the focus of economic theory and practise. There are three production factors, capital, labour and land. Land is a synonym to ecosystems. During the major part of the 20th century land in economic theory has been handled as a peripheral issue. The sustainability context implies a challenge to take land in proper consideration. That means to in an adequate way consider system characteristics that result in complex systems, such as thresholds, resilience, irreversibilities, and interdependencies between systems and system levels.

     The thesis examines

    • how land can be understood and handled in the context of a sustainable development,
    • the relations between land and society on a conceptual level and in operative terms,
    • the relations between system levels and between the three sustainability dimensions ecological, economic and social,
    • the importance of agriculture and animal production in a sustainable development. 

    The major findings are that in contexts such as economically profitable and natural resource-efficient milk production; methods to measure sustainability performance of production systems generally; and societal strategies for management of natural resources that support economic and social development within ecological sustainability limits, three “laws” need to be handled appropriate: Liebig’s “Law” of the minimum, Shelford´s “Law” of tolerance, and the “Law” of diminishing return in biological-ecological productions systems.

    The thesis identifies examples within dairy sciences, systems ecology, and engineering sciences that affect or may affect policies in real world systems from local to global level that can be substantially improved. In order to suggest relevant measures a tool-kit supporting a sustainable development have been generated, integrating contributions from agricultural sciences, systems ecology, economic theory, economic geography, applied environmental sciences and theories of complex systems. The thesis summarises around 30 years of professional experiences mainly within advanced consultancy, during which this tool-kit has been developed and applied. Evaluation of some applications afterwards shows relevance. For some of the examples analysed in the thesis, found weaknesses are such that global food security literally is threatened within one to twenty years.

  • 47.
    Hellstrand, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The challenges of measuring sustainability performance2017In: Natural Resources Available Today and in the Future: How to Perform Change Management for Achieving a Sustainable World, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 57-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Hellstrand, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. Nolby Ekostrategi, Kil, Sweden.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Biologic resources2017In: Natural Resources Available Today and in the Future: How to Perform Change Management for Achieving a Sustainable World, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 93-156Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Hellstrand, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Skånberg, K.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Drake, R.
    Swedish Chemicals Agency, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
    The Relevance of Ecological and Economic Policies for Sustainable Development2009In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 11, no 4 ., p. 853-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable development can be understood as social and economic development within ecological sustainability limits. The operationalisation of a sustainable development presupposes integration of resource concepts covering relevant disciplines and systems levels. In this paper descriptive domains within physical resource theory (PRT), nutrition theory (NT), economic theory (ET) and emergy theory (EmT) are joined in what we call a "sustainability map." The sustainability map represents a conceptual model of the economic production system in its ecological and social contexts. It is a contribution within the field integrated assessment. The relevance domain of each resource concept is analysed by comparison with the sustainability map. It is concluded that resource concepts that well supports a sustainable development should recognise the process restrictions that defines ecological, economic and social sustainability limits; thus recognise and in a relevant way treat threshold-and resilience phenomena; and capture the use-value of resources for human well-being. We suggest that the integration of NT, ET and EmT may contribute, while we find the value of PRT limited, as physics, thus PRT, is indifferent to life as a system characteristic, while life of microbes, plants, animals and humans is central in the sustainability context. The paper contributes to a theoretical foundation supporting a bridging of the implementation gap of a sustainable development, e.g. through its proposal of how to develop more accurate natural resource concepts.

  • 50.
    Hellstrand, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Skånberg, Kristian
    SLU.
    Drake, Lars
    Swedish Chemical Agency.
    A biophysically anchored production function2010In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 573-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part presents a conceptual model of the economic system in its ecological and social context. It is developed via an integration of basic concepts in physical resource theory, animal and human physiology, economic theory and systems ecology. The capacity of the model to support analysis of such complex systems where life is a key system characteristic is high. The conceptual model shows the dependency of the human economy on support by non-renewable and renewable resources from Nature (i. e. ecological source restrictions), as well as the capacity of ecosystems to assimilate wastes (ecological sink restrictions). The analysis focuses general principles; thus, the high level of abstraction results in an apparent simplicity. In the second part, we integrate traditional economic production functions and the conceptual model, which results in the formulation of a biophysically anchored production function (BAPF). The BAPF by itself, and through the system of ecological economic accounts that can be derived from it, represent a toolbox that supports the operationalisation of a sustainable development from micro to macro level. It is coherent with Impredicative Loop Analysis, existing management systems within agricultural sciences, OECD's principles for sustainable development and the approach of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Compared to analytical approaches used in the formulation of sustainability policies in the private and public sphere, based on conceptual models ignoring the complexity when life (bios) is a defining system characteristic, its relevance for the operationalisation of sustainable development approaches infinity. The third part presents results from statistical analysis of relations between gross domestic product and energy supply and some emissions, respectively, for different nations and time periods, delivering values on levels and trends for parameters in the BAPF as well as a first test of the relevance of the BAPF proposed. The paper is ended by a theoretical analysis of the costs of provoking an economic system working under ecological source and sink restrictions to follow exponential growth: The need to decouple economic growth from natural resource use and emissions is highlighted. Otherwise, the erosion of the ecological foundation of the economy with regard to source as well as sink aspects will be a function of exponential growth

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