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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Salzmann-Ericsson, Martin
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Lutzen, Kim
    The core characteristics and nursing care activities in psychiatric intensive care units in Sweden.2008Ingår i: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 98-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, research on psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs) commonly reports results from demographic studies such as criteria for admission, need for involuntary treatment, and the occurrence of violent behaviour. A few international studies describe the caring aspect of the PICUs based specifically on caregivers' experiences. The concept of PICU in Sweden is not clearly defined. The aim of this study is to describe the core characteristics of a PICU in Sweden and to describe the care activities provided for patients admitted to the PICUs. Critical incident technique was used as the research method. Eighteen caregivers at a PICU participated in the study by completing a semistructured questionnaire. In-depth interviews with three nurses and two assistant nurses also constitute the data. An analysis of the content identified four categories that characterize the core of PICU: the dramatic admission, protests and refusal of treatment, escalating behaviours, and temporarily coercive measure. Care activities for PICUs were also analysed and identified as controlling - establishing boundaries, protecting - warding off, supporting - giving intensive assistance, and structuring the environment. Finally, the discussion put focus on determining the intensive aspect of psychiatric care which has not been done in a Swedish perspective before. PICUs were interpreted as a level of care as it is composed by limited structures and closeness in care.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Salzmann-Erikson, M.
    Dalarna University.
    Cyber nursing-Health 'experts' approaches in the post-modern era of virtual performances: A nethnography study2013Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 335-344Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The imperative to gather information online and to become an 'expert' by locating effective advice for oneself and others is a fairly new support phenomenon in relation to health advice. The creation of new positions for health 'experts' within the space of the Internet has been addressed as a cybernursing activity. A focused analysis of communication in health forums might give insight into the new roles that are available for health experts in cyberspace. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe approaches to being an 'expert' in lifestyle health choice forums on the Internet and to elaborate on the communicative performances that take place in the forums. Method: An archival and cross-sectional observational forum study was undertaken using principles for conducting ethnographic research online. 2640 pages of data from two health Internet forums were gathered and analyzed. Findings: The results reveal three distinctive types of experts that emerge in the forums: (1) those that build their expertise by creating a presence in the forum based on lengthy and frequent postings, (2) those who build a presence through reciprocal exchanges with individual posters with questions or concerns, and (3) those who build expertise around a " life long learning" perspective based on logic and reason. Discussion: The results suggest that experts not only co-exist in the forums, but more importantly they reinforce each others' positions. This effect is central; alongside one another, the posts of the three types of experts we identify constitute a whole for those seeking the forum for advice and support. Users are provided with strong opinions and advice, support and Socratic reasoning, and a problem-oriented approach. The Internet is now an integral part of everyday living, not least of which among those who seek and offer support in cyberspace. As such, cyber nursing has become an important activity to monitor, and formal health care professionals and nursing researchers must stay abreast of developments. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Oslo Univ Hosp.
    Supporting a caring fatherhood in cyberspace - an analysis of communication about caring within an online forum for fathers2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 63-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Supporting a caring fatherhood in cyberspace an analysis of communication about caring within an online forum for fathers Background: Today's parents seek out social support on the Internet. A key motivation behind the choice to go online is the need for more experience based information. In recent years, new fathers have increasingly taken on an active parental role. Men's support for their caring activities for infants on the Internet needs attention. Aim: The aim was to describe communication about caring activities for infants among men who visited an Internet-based forum for fathers and elaborate on the dimensions of support available in the forum. Method: An archival and cross-sectional observational forum study was undertaken using principles for conducting ethnographic research online: nethnography. A total of 1203 pages of data from an Internet forum for fathers were gathered and analysed. Result: Support for a caring fatherhood in cyberspace can be understood as fathers' communicating encouragement, confirmation and advice. The findings show that important ways of providing support through the forum included a reciprocal sharing of concerns how to be a better father in relation to caring for an infant. Concerns for their child's well-being and shared feelings of joy and distress in everyday life were recurrent supportive themes in the communication. Information gained from contacting others in similar situations is one important reason for the fathers' use of the Internet. Discussion: Support offered in this kind of forum can be considered as a complement to formal support. Professionals can use it to provide choices for fathers who are developing themselves as caregivers without downplaying the parental support offered by formal health care regimes. Further research: Online support will probably be one of the main supporting strategies for fathers in Scandinavia. Caring and nursing researchers need to closely monitor support activities that develop, and over time, as these ill likely become an important source of support for people.

  • 4.
    Saltzmann-Eriksson, M.
    et al.
    Central Hospital, Västerås.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för vård- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Encountering Touch: a path to affinity in psychiatric care2005Ingår i: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 26, nr 8, s. 843-852Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of physical contact and touching in psychiatric care has, in many instances, been considered inappropriate. Psychiatry is often perceived as a verbal process and it has been generally believed that touching can provoke both aggressiveness and destructive manifestations of sexuality. However, recent research has suggested that touching can play an important role in psychiatric treatment once a caring relationship has been established. The aim of this study is to investigate the meaning of physical contact for patients who have been treated for psychosis. Through four in-depth interviews and a life-world analysis the results show that touching means to be in need, to yearn, and to belong. Furthermore, touching also communicates feelings between bodies and, as such, it can be a path through which one feels acknowledged as a human being. The results indicate that a feeling of affinity can originate through physical contact, which can be regarded as a driving force in the search to feel a sense of belonging to the community.

  • 5.
    Salzmann-Erikson, M.
    et al.
    Dalarna University, sWEDEN.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Fathers sharing about early parental support in health-care: virtual discussions on an Internet forum2013Ingår i: Health and Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 381-390Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming a father is a life changing event and this transition is associated with various emotions. Educational activities aimed at new parents are important in healthcare parental support (HCPS). HCPS has been critiqued for its predominant focus on mothers, while the needs of fathers seem to have been downplayed. As a result, fathers often turn to Internet-based forums for support. As virtual discussions and mutual support among fathers take place in cyberspace, it is important to monitor these forums to observe the ways in which the fathers discuss HCPS. The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which new fathers visiting an Internet-based forum for fathers communicated their experiences of HCPS. A netnographic method consisting of six steps was used to gather and analyse the data. The findings show that fathers shared with one another their experiences of the attitudes expressed by HCPS workers as well as their own attitudes towards HCPS. The attitudes of HCPS workers that were directed towards the fathers were perceived as highly personal and individual, while fathers described their attitudes towards the HCPS in general terms, towards HCPS as a system. Overall, the fathers described HCPS as a valuable confirmatory support that eased their worries concerning sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), colic, weight gain, fever and teething. Although the fathers expressed gratitude towards HCPS, they also shared their negative experiences, such as feeling invisible, disregarded and insulted. In fact, the twofold attitudes that exist in the relationship between the fathers and HCPS can act as a barrier rather than being a confirmatory support. We recommend that HCPS adopts a broader approach using more targeted and strategic didactic methods for supporting fathers in the growth of their own personal awareness, as such an approach would offer a competitive and professional alternative to the support offered in informal experience-based Internet forums. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 6.
    Salzmann-Erikson, M.
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Panoptic power and mental health nursing-space and surveillance in relation to staff, patients, and neutral places2012Ingår i: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 33, nr 8, s. 500-504Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health nurses use manifest and latent approaches for surveillance and observation of patients in the context of mental health care. Patient spaces in mental health organizations are subtly linked to these different means of surveillance. This article investigates these approaches, focusing in particular on the variety of spaces patients occupy and differences in the intensity of observation that can be carried out in them. The aim is to elaborate on space and surveillance in relation to the patients' and nurses' environment in psychiatric nursing care. Places where patients were observed were operationalized and categorized, yielding three spaces: those for patients, those for staff, and neutral areas. We demonstrate that different spaces produce different practices in relation to the exercise of panoptic power and that there is room for maneuvering and engaging in alternatives to "keeping an eye on patients" for nurses in mental health nursing. Some spaces offer asylum from panoptic observations and the viewing eyes of psychiatric nurses, but the majority of spaces in mental health nursing serve as a field of visibility within which the patient is constantly watched.

  • 7. Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Latent or manifest observers:  two dichotomous approaches of surveillance in mental health nursing2011Ingår i: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, nr 254041Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Surveillance is a central activity among mental health nursing, but it is also questioned for its therapeutic value and considered to be custodial. Aim. The aim of this study was to describe how mental health nurses use different approaches to observe patients in relation to the practice of surveillance in psychiatric nursing care. Methods. In this study, Spradley's twelve-step ethnographic method was used. Results. Mental health nurses use their cultural knowing to observe patients in psychiatric care in various ways. Two dichotomous approaches were identified: the latent and the manifest approach. Discussion. Different strategies and techniques for observing patients are structured along two dichotomies. The underlying relationships between these two different dichotomous positions transform the act of observing into surveillance. This is further developed in a theoretical model called the powerful scheme of observation and surveillance (PSOS).

  • 8.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Oslo University.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Torrenting values, feelings, and thoughts: Cyber nursing and virtual self-care in a breast augmentation forum2011Ingår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 6, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research shows that breast augmentation is positively correlated with positive psychological states. The aim of this study was to explore the shared values, feelings, and thoughts within the culture of breast enlargement among women visiting Internet-based forums when considering and/or undergoing esthetic plastic surgery. The study used a netnographic method for gathering and analyzing data. The findings show that the women used the Internet forum to provide emotional support to other women. Through electronic postings, they cared for and nursed each others' anxiety and feelings throughout the whole process. Apart from the process, another central issue was that the women's relationships were frequently discussed; specifically their relationship to themselves, their environment, and with the surgeons. The findings suggest that Internet forums represent a channel through which posters can share values, feelings, and thoughts from the position of an agent of action as well as from a position as the object of action. These dual positions and the medium endow the women with a virtual nursing competence that would otherwise be unavailable. By introducing the concept of torrenting as a means of sharing important self-care information, the authors provide a concept that can be further explored in relation to post modern self-care strategies within contemporary nursing theories and practice

  • 9. Salzmann-Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Lutzen, Kim
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Achieving equilibrium within a culture of stability: Cultural knowing in nursing care on psychiatric intensive care units2011Ingår i: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 255-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents intensive psychiatric nurses' work and nursing care. The aim of the study was to describe expressions of cultural knowing in nursing care in psychiatric intensive care units (PICU). Spradley's ethnographic methodology was applied. Six themes emerged as frames for nursing care in psychiatric intensive care: providing surveillance, soothing, being present, trading information, maintaining security and reducing. These themes are used to strike a balance between turbulence and stability and to achieve equilibrium. As the nursing care intervenes when turbulence emerges, the PICU becomes a sanctuary that offers tranquility, peace and rest

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