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  • 1.
    Bagheri, M.
    et al.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Khamespanah, E.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Movaghar, A.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Lee, A. E.
    University of California at Berkeley.
    Runtime compositional analysis of track-based traffic control systems2017Ingår i: ACM SIGBED Review, ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 38-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Bagheri, M.
    et al.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khamespanah, E.
    Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khakpour, N.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö Campus, Sweden.
    Akkaya, I.
    University of California at Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Movaghar, A.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Lee, E. A.
    University of California at Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Coordinated actor model of self-adaptive track-based traffic control systems2018Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 143, s. 116-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptation is a well-known technique to handle growing complexities of software systems, where a system autonomously adapts itself in response to changes in a dynamic and unpredictable environment. With the increasing need for developing self-adaptive systems, providing a model and an implementation platform to facilitate integration of adaptation mechanisms into the systems and assuring their safety and quality is crucial. In this paper, we target Track-based Traffic Control Systems (TTCSs) in which the traffic flows through pre-specified sub-tracks and is coordinated by a traffic controller. We introduce a coordinated actor model to design self-adaptive TTCSs and provide a general mapping between various TTCSs and the coordinated actor model. The coordinated actor model is extended to build large-scale self-adaptive TTCSs in a decentralized setting. We also discuss the benefits of using Ptolemy II as a framework for model-based development of large-scale self-adaptive systems that supports designing multiple hierarchical MAPE-K feedback loops interacting with each other. We propose a template based on the coordinated actor model to design a self-adaptive TTCS in Ptolemy II that can be instantiated for various TTCSs. We enhance the proposed template with a predictive adaptation feature. We illustrate applicability of the coordinated actor model and consequently the proposed template by designing two real-life case studies in the domains of air traffic control systems and railway traffic control systems in Ptolemy II. 

  • 3.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    et al.
    Sharif University of Technology, Iran.
    Akkaya, Ilge
    University of California at Berkley, US.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Movaghar, Ali
    Sharif University of Technology, Iran.
    Lee, Edward
    University of California at Berkley, US.
    Coordinated Actors for Reliable Self-Adaptive Systems2017Ingår i: The 13th International Conference on Formal Aspects of Component Software FACS 2016, 2017, Vol. 10231, s. 241-259Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptive systems are systems that automatically adapt in response to environmental and internal changes, such as possible failures and variations in resource availability. Such systems are often realized by a MAPE-K feedback loop, where Monitor, Analyze, Plan and Execute components have access to a runtime model of the system and environment which is kept in the Knowledge component. In order to provide guarantees on the correctness of a self-adaptive system at runtime, the MAPE-K feedback loop needs to be extended with assurance techniques. To address this issue, we propose a coordinated actor-based approach to build a reusable and scalable model@runtime for self-adaptive systems in the domain of track-based traffic control systems. We demonstrate the approach by implementing an automated Air Traffic Control system (ATC) using Ptolemy tool.We compare different adaptation policies on the ATC model based on performance metrics and analyze combination of policies in different configurations of the model. We enriched our framework with runtime performance analysis such that for any unexpected change, subsequent behavior of the model is predicted and results are used for adaptation at the change-point. Moreover, the developed framework enables checking safety properties at runtime.

  • 4.
    Castagnari, C.
    et al.
    Division of Computer Science, Smart Mobility Lab, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino, MC, Italy.
    de Berardinis, J.
    Division of Computer Science, Smart Mobility Lab, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino, MC, Italy.
    Forcina, G.
    Division of Computer Science, Smart Mobility Lab, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino, MC, Italy.
    Jafari, A.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Lightweight preprocessing for agent-based simulation of smart mobility initiatives2018Ingår i: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2018, s. 541-557Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the impacts of a mobility initiative prior to deployment is a complex task for both urban planners and transport companies. To support this task, Tangramob offers an agent-based simulation framework for assessing the evolution of urban traffic after the introduction of new mobility services. However, Tangramob simulations are computationally expensive due to their iterative nature. Thus, we simplified the Tangramob model into a Timed Rebeca (TRebeca) model and we designed a tool-chain that generates instances of this model starting from the same Tangramob’s inputs. Running TRebeca models allows users to get an idea of how mobility initiatives affect the system performance, in a short time, without resorting to the simulator. To validate this approach, we compared the output of both the simulator and the TRebeca model on a collection of mobility initiatives. Results show a correlation between them, thus demonstrating the usefulness of using TRebeca models for unconventional contexts of application.

  • 5.
    Causevic, Aida
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards a Framework for Safe and Secure Adaptive Collaborative Systems2019Ingår i: The 9th IEEE International Workshop on Industrial Experience in Embedded Systems Design IEESD 2019, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Cimatti, A.
    et al.
    University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Preface2017Ingår i: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2017, s. V-VIKonferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Dastani, M.
    et al.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Preface2017Ingår i: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Dastani, Mehdi
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Hojjat, Hossein
    Rochester Inst Technol, Rochester, USA..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Fundamentals of Software Engineering (extended versions of selected papers of FSEN 2015) Preface2018Ingår i: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 160, s. 1-2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Dastani, Mehdi
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Fundamentals of Software Engineering (extended versions of selected papers of FSEN 2017) Preface2019Ingår i: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 182, s. 86-87Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    de Berardinis, J.
    et al.
    The University of Manchester, School of Computer Science, United Kingdom.
    Forcina, Giorgio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Jafari, A.
    Reykjavik University, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. University, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Actor-based macroscopic modeling and simulation for smart urban planning2018Ingår i: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 168, s. 142-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the impacts of a mobility initiative prior to deployment is a complex task for both urban planners and transport companies. Computational models like Tangramob offer an agent-based framework for simulating the evolution of urban traffic after the introduction of new mobility services. However, simulations can be computationally expensive to perform due to their iterative nature and the microscopic representation of traffic. To address this issue, we designed a simplified model architecture of Tangramob in Timed Rebeca (TRebeca) and we developed a tool-chain for the generation runnable instances of this model starting from the same input files of Tangramob. Running TRebeca models allows users to get an idea of how the mobility initiatives under study affect the traveling experience of commuters, in a short time and without the need to use the simulator during this first experimental step. Then, once a subset of these initiatives is identified according to user's criteria, it is reasonable to simulate them with Tangramob in order to get more detailed results. To validate this approach, we compared the output of both the simulator and the TRebeca model on a collection of mobility initiatives. The correlation between the results demonstrates the usefulness of using TRebeca models for unconventional contexts of application.

  • 11.
    De Boer, Frank
    et al.
    Ctr Wiskunde & Informat, Kruislaan 413,POB 94079, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Serbanescu, Vlad
    Ctr Wiskunde & Informat, Kruislaan 413,POB 94079, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Haehnle, Reiner
    Tech Univ Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany..
    Henrio, Ludovic
    Univ Cote dAzur, Nice, France..
    Rochas, Justine
    Univ Cote dAzur, Nice, France..
    Din, Crystal Chang
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Johnsen, Einar Broch
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Fernandez-Reyes, Kiko
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Yang, Albert Mingkun
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    A Survey of Active Object Languages2017Ingår i: ACM Computing Surveys, ISSN 0360-0300, E-ISSN 1557-7341, Vol. 50, nr 5, artikel-id 76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To program parallel systems efficiently and easily, a wide range of programming models have been proposed, eachwith different choices concerning synchronization and communication between parallel entities. Among them, the actor model is based on loosely coupled parallel entities that communicate by means of asynchronous messages and mailboxes. Some actor languages provide a strong integration with object-oriented concepts; these are often called active object languages. This article reviews four major actor and active object languages and compares them according to carefully chosen dimensions that cover central aspects of the programming paradigms and their implementation.

  • 12.
    Dehnavi, S.
    et al.
    School of ECE, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran; School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sedaghatbaf, Ali
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Salmani, B.
    Department of Informatik, RWTH-Aachen University, Germany.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Kargahi, M.
    School of ECE, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran.
    Khamespanah, E.
    School of ECE, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran; School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Towards an actor-based approach to design verified ROS-based robotic programs using rebeca2019Ingår i: Procedia Computer Science, Elsevier B.V. , 2019, Vol. 155, s. 59-68Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotic technology helps humans in different areas such as manufacturing, health care and education. Due to the ubiquitous revolution, today's focus is on mobile robots and their applications in a variety of cyber-physical systems. ROS is a wll-known and powerful middleware that facilitates software development for mobile robots. However, this middleware does not support assuring properties such as timeliness and safety of ROS-based software. In this paper we present an integration of Timed Rebeca modeling language with ROS to synthesize verified robotic software. First, a conceptual model of robotic programs is developed using Timed Rebeca. After verifying a set of user-defined correctness properties on this model, it is translated to a ROS program automatically. Experiments on some small-scale case studies illustrates the applicability of the proposed integration method. 

  • 13.
    Jafari, A.
    et al.
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Nair, Jayasoorya Jayanthi Surendran
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Baumgart, S.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Safe and efficient fleet operation for autonomous machines: An actor-based approach2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 2018, s. 423-426Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we formally model and verify run-time requirements of an application consisting of complex electrified machines called HX autonomous haulers, developed by Volvo Construction Equipment. To model the fleet control, we use Timed Rebeca, an actor-based modeling language, and to analyze the system performance, we use Afra, an integrated environment for modeling and verifying distributed systems modeled by Rebeca or Timed Rebeca language. We run a set of experiments to find the improved configuration in which the total time for machines to complete one operating cycle is minimized. 

  • 14.
    Jafari, Ali
    et al.
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Hermanns, Holger
    Univ Saarland, Saarbrucken, Germany..
    Cimini, Matteo
    Indiana Univ, Bloomington, IN, USA..
    PTRebeca: Modeling and analysis of distributed and asynchronous systems2016Ingår i: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 128, s. 22-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed systems exhibit probabilistic and non-deterministic behaviors and may have time constraints. Probabilistic Timed Rebeca (PTRebeca) is introduced as a timed and probabilistic actor-based language for modeling distributed real-time systems with asynchronous message passing. The semantics of PTRebeca is a Timed Markov Decision Process. In this paper, we provide SOS rules for PTRebeca, introduce a new tool-set and describe the corresponding mappings. The tool-set automatically generates a Markov Automaton from a PTRebeca model in the form of the input language of the Interactive Markov Chain Analyzer (IMCA). The IMCA can be used as a back-end model checker for performance analysis of PTRebeca models against expected reachability and probabilistic reachability properties. Comparing to the existing tool-set, proposed in the conference paper, we now have the ability of analyzing significantly larger models, and we also can add different rewards to the model. We show the applicability of our approach and efficiency of our tool by analyzing a Network on Chip architecture as a real-world case study. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Jaghoori, Mohammad Mahdi
    et al.
    AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    de Boer, Frank
    CWI, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Longuet, Delphine
    Université Paris-Sud, Paris, France.
    Chothia, Tom
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Reykjavík University, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Compositional schedulability analysis of real-time actor-based systems2016Ingår i: Acta Informatica, ISSN 0001-5903, E-ISSN 1432-0525, Vol. 1, s. 1-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Jahandideh, I.
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Ghassemi, F.
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Hybrid rebeca: Modeling and analyzing of cyber-physical systems2019Ingår i: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2019, s. 3-27Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In cyber-physical systems like automotive systems, there are components like sensors, actuators, and controllers that communicate asynchronously with each other. The computational model of actor supports modeling distributed asynchronously communicating systems. We propose Hybrid Rebeca language to support modeling of cyber-physical systems. Hybrid Rebeca is an extension of actor-based language Rebeca. In this extension, physical actors are introduced as new computational entities to encapsulate physical behaviors. To support various means of communication among the entities, the network is explicitly modeled as a separate entity from actors. We derive hybrid automata as the basis for analysis of Hybrid Rebeca models. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach through a case study in the domain of automotive systems. We use SpaceEx framework for the analysis of the case study. 

  • 17.
    Khakpour, N.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Kleijn, J.
    LIACS, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik University.
    A Formal Model to Integrate Behavioral and Structural Adaptations in Self-adaptive Systems2019Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer , 2019, s. 3-19Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach for modelling adaptive complex systems should be flexible and scalable to allow a system to grow easily, and should have a formal foundation to guarantee the correctness of the system behavior. In this paper, we present the architecture, and formal syntax and semantics of HPobSAM which is a model for specifying behavioral and structural adaptations to model large-scale systems and address re-usability concerns. Self-adaptive modules are used as the building blocks to structure a system, and policies are used as the mechanism to perform both behavioral and structural adaptations. While a self-adaptive module is autonomous to achieve its local goals by collaborating with other self-adaptive modules, it is controlled by a higher-level entity to prevent undesirable behavior. HPobSAM is formalized using a combination of algebraic, graph transformation-based and actor-based formalisms.

  • 18.
    Khamespanah, E.
    et al.
    School of Electrical an Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Khosravi, R.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    An efficient TCTL model checking algorithm and a reduction technique for verification of timed actor models2018Ingår i: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 153, s. 1-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    NP-hard time complexity of model checking algorithms for TCTL properties in dense time is one of the obstacles against using model checking for the analysis of real-time systems. Alternatively, a polynomial time algorithm is suggested for model checking of discrete time models against TCTL≤,≥ properties (i.e. TCTL properties without U=c modalities). The algorithm performs model checking against a given formula Φ for a state space with V states and E transitions in O(V(V+E)⋅|Φ|). In this work, we improve the model checking algorithm of TCTL≤,≥ properties, obtaining time complexity of O((Vlg⁡V+E)⋅|Φ|). We tackle the model checking of discrete timed actors as an application of the proposed algorithms. We show how the result of the fine-grained semantics of discrete timed actors can be model checked efficiently against TCTL≤,≥ properties using the proposed algorithm. This is illustrated using the timed actor modeling language Timed Rebeca. In addition to introducing a new efficient model checking algorithm, we propose a reduction technique which safely eliminates instantaneous transitions of transition systems (i.e. transition with zero time duration). We show that the reduction can be applied on-the-fly during the generation of the original timed transition system without a significant cost. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the reduction technique via a set of case studies selected from various application domains. Besides, while TCTL≤,≥ can be model checked in polynomial time, model checking of TCTL properties with U=c modalities is an NP-complete problem. Using the proposed reduction technique, we provide an efficient algorithm for model checking of complete TCTL properties over the reduced transition systems.

  • 19.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    et al.
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Mechitov, Kirill
    University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaign, USA.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Agha, Gul
    University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaign, USA.
    Schedulability Analysis of Distributed Real-Time Sensor Network Applications Using Actor-Based Model Checking2016Ingår i: Model Checking Software - 23rd International Symposium SPIN 2016, 2016, Vol. 9641, s. 165-181Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmers often use informal worst-case analysis and debugging to ensure schedules that satisfy real-time requirements. Not only can this process be tedious and error-prone, it is inherently conservative and thus likely to lead to an inefficient use of resources. We propose to use model checking to find a schedule which optimizes the use of resources while satisfying real-time requirements. Specifically, we represent a Wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN) as a collection of actors whose behavior is specified using a C-based actor language extended with operators for real-time scheduling and delay representation. We show how the abstraction and compositionality properties of the actor model may be used to incrementally build a model of a WSAN’s behavior from node-level and network models. We demonstrate the approach with a case study of a distributed real-time data acquisition system for high frequency sensing using Timed Rebeca modeling language and the Afra model checking tool.

  • 20.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    et al.
    Univ Tehran, Sch ECE, Tehran, Iran.;Reykjavik Univ, Sch Comp Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Reykjavik Univ, CRESS, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik Univ, Sch Comp Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mechitov, Kirill
    Univ Illinois, OSL, Champaign, IL USA..
    Agha, Gul
    Univ Illinois, OSL, Champaign, IL USA..
    Modeling and analyzing real-time wireless sensor and actuator networks using actors and model checking2018Ingår i: International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT), ISSN 1433-2779, E-ISSN 1433-2787, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 547-561Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmers often use informal worst-case analysis and debugging to ensure that schedulers satisfy real-time requirements. Not only can this process be tedious and error-prone, it is inherently conservative and thus likely to lead to an inefficient use of resources. We propose to use model checking to find a schedule which optimizes the use of resources while satisfying real-time requirements. Specifically, we represent a Wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN) as a collection of actors whose behaviors are specified using a Java-based actor language extended with operators for real-time scheduling and delay representation. We show how the abstraction mechanism and the compositionality of actors in the actor model may be used to incrementally build a model of a WSAN's behavior from node-level and network models. We demonstrate the approach with a case study of a distributed real-time data acquisition system for high-frequency sensing using Timed Rebeca modeling language and the Afra model checking tool.

  • 21.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    et al.
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Sabahi-Kaviani, Zeynab
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    Razzazi, Mohamadreza
    Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran.
    State Distribution Policy for Distributed Model Checking of Actor Models2015Ingår i: Electronic Communications of the EASST, ISSN 1863-2122, E-ISSN 1863-2122, Vol. 72, s. 1-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Lee, E. A.
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley, United States.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    What good are models?2018Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 11222, Springer Verlag , 2018, s. 3-31Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Models are central to engineering. They are used for analysis, synthesis, and communication between humans. A given artifact or process may have multiple models with different purposes, modeling different aspects, or modeling at varying levels of abstraction. In this paper, we give a general overview of how models are used, with the goal of making the concepts clearer for different communities. We focus on the domain of track-based flow management of automated systems, and identify two different modeling styles, Eulerian and Lagrangian. Eulerian models focus on regions of space, whereas Lagrangian models focus on entities moving through space. We discuss how the features of the system, like having centralized or decentralized control or the ability to install fixed infrastructure, influence the choice between these styles. Although the choice between modeling styles is rarely made consciously, it affects modeling efficiency, and one style may be far better suited for certain modeling problems than another. For problems with a more global nature concerning the physical space, an Eulerian model is likely to be a better match. For problems that concern the moving objects specifically, where the identity of the individual objects is important, a Lagrangian view is the one to choose. In many cases, combining the two styles is the most effective approach. We illustrate the two styles using an example of an automated quarry. 

  • 23.
    Lohstroh, M.
    et al.
    University of California, US.
    Derler, P.
    National Instruments, Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Preface2018Ingår i: Principles of Modeling: Essays Dedicated to Edward A. Lee on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday / [ed] Lohstroh, Marten, Derler, Patricia, Sirjani, Marjan, Springer Verlag , 2018, s. VII-XKapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Lohstroh, M.
    et al.
    C Berkeley, United States.
    Schoeberl, M.
    TU Denmark, Denmark.
    Goens, A.
    TU Dresden, Germany.
    Wasicek, A.
    Avast, United States.
    Gill, C.
    Washington Univ., St. Louis, United States.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lee, E. A.
    C Berkeley, United States.
    Invited: Actors revisited for time-critical systems2019Ingår i: Proceedings - Design Automation Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, artikel-id 152Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Programming time-critical systems is notoriously difficult. In this paper we propose an actor-oriented programming model with a semantic notion of time and a deterministic coordination semantics based on discrete events to exercise precise control over both the computational and timing aspects of the system behavior.

  • 25.
    Moradi, Fereidoun
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sedaghatbaf, Ali
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    On-Off Attack on a Blockchain-based IoT System2019Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 1768-1773Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in using the Blockchain for resolving IoT security and trustworthiness issues existing in today's complex systems. Blockchain concerns trust in peer to peer networks by providing a distributed tamper-resistant ledger. However, the combination of these two emerging technologies might create new problems and vulnerabilities that attackers might abuse.In this paper, we aim to investigate the trust mechanism of Lightweight Scalable BlockChain (LSB), that is a Blockchain specifically designed for Internet of Things networks, to show that a malicious participant in a Blockchain architecture have possibility to pursue an On-Off attack and downgrade the integrity of the distributed ledger. We choose a remote software update process as an instance to represent this violation. Finally, using the actor-based language Rebeca, we provide a model of a system under attack and verify the described attack scenario.

  • 26.
    Salimi, M.
    et al.
    Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
    Majd, A.
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Loni, Mohammad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Troubitsyna, E.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Multi-objective optimization of real-time task scheduling problem for distributed environments2019Ingår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, artikel-id a13Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-world applications are composed of multiple tasks which usually have intricate data dependencies. To exploit distributed processing platforms, task allocation and scheduling, that is assigning tasks to processing units and ordering inter-processing unit data transfers, plays a vital role. However, optimally scheduling tasks on processing units and finding an optimized network topology is an NP-complete problem. The problem becomes more complicated when the tasks have real-time deadlines for termination. Exploring the whole search space in order to find the optimal solution is not feasible in a reasonable amount of time, therefore meta-heuristics are often used to find a near-optimal solution. We propose here a multi-population evolutionary approach for near-optimal scheduling optimization, that guarantees end-to-end deadlines of tasks in distributed processing environments. We analyze two different exploration scenarios including single and multi-objective exploration. The main goal of the single objective exploration algorithm is to achieve the minimal number of processing units for all the tasks, whereas a multi-objective optimization tries to optimize two conflicting objectives simultaneously considering the total number of processing units and end-to-end finishing time for all the jobs. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by experiments based on a use case for mapping a number of jobs covering industrial automation systems, where each of the jobs consists of a number of tasks in a distributed environment.

  • 27.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik University, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Power is Overrated, Go for Friendliness! Expressiveness, Faithfulness, and Usability in Modeling: The Actor Experience2018Ingår i: Principles of Modeling: Essays Dedicated to Edward A. Lee on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday / [ed] Lohstroh, Marten, Derler, Patricia, Sirjani, Marjan, Springer Verlag , 2018, s. 423-448Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Expressive power of a language is generally defined as the breadth of ideas that can be represented and communicated in a language. For formal languages, the expressive power has been evaluated by checking its Turing completeness. In a modeling process, apart from the modeling language, we have two other counterparts: the system being modeled and the modeler. I argue that faithfulness to the system being modeled and usability for the modeler are at least as important as the expressive power of the modeling language, specially because most of the modeling languages used today are highly expressive. I call faithfulness and usability together “friendliness”. I show how we used the actor-based language Rebeca in modeling different applications, where it is friendly, and where it is not. I discuss how the friendliness of Rebeca may help in the analysis of models and allows for system synthesis on the basis of models. 

  • 28.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Forcina, Giorgio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Jafari, Ali
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Sedaghatbaf, Ali
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    An Actor-based Design Platform for System of Systems2019Ingår i: COMPSAC 2019: Data Driven Intelligence for a Smarter World COMPSAC 2019, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present AdaptiveFlow as a platform for designing system of systems. A model-based development approach is proposed and tools are provided for formal verification and performance evaluation. The actor-based language, Timed Rebeca, is used for modelling, and the model checking tool Afra is used for checking the safety properties and also for performance evaluation. We investigate the efficiency of our approach and the applicability of the developed platform by conducting experiments on a case study based on the Electric Site Research Project of Volvo Construction Equipment. In this project, a fleet of autonomous haulers is utilised to transport materials in a quarry site. We used three adaptive policies as plugins to our platform and examined these policies in different scenarios.

  • 29.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ghassemi, F.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Pourvatan, B.
    Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Reo connectors and components as tagged signal models2018Ingår i: It's All About Coordination: Essays to Celebrate the Lifelong Scientific Achievements of Farhad Arbab, Springer, 2018, s. 160-173Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tagged Signal Model (TSM) is a denotational framework and a meta-model to study certain properties of models of computation. To study the behavior of Reo connectors in a closed system, we propose two denotational semantics for Reo using TSM. TSM is very similar to the coalgebraic model of Timed Data Streams (TDS), the first formal semantics and the basis for most of the other formal semantics of Reo. There is a direct mapping between the time – data pairs of TDS, and tag – value of TSM. This work shows how treating tags to be either totally or partially ordered has a direct consequence on the results. We looked into five primitive connectors of Reo in both these settings and discuss the determinacy of systems. 

  • 30.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    On Time Actors2016Ingår i: Theory and Practice of Formal Methods - Essays Dedicated to Frank de Boer on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday Frank60, 2016, Vol. 9660, s. 373-392Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Actor model is a concurrent object-based computational model in which actors are the units of concurrency and communicate via asynchronous message passing. Timed Rebeca is an actor-based modeling language which is designed for modeling and analyzing of eventbased and asynchronous systems with time constraints. Timed Rebeca is equipped with analysis techniques based on the standard semantics of timed systems, and also an innovative event-based semantics that is tailored for timed actor models. The developed techniques are applied on different applications using Afra toolset, the integrated development environment of Timed Rebeca. This paper is a survey on the published work on Timed Rebeca, its semantics, supporting tools, and applications.

  • 31.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Mechitov, Kirill
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Champaign, United States.
    Agha, Gul
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Champaign, United States.
    A compositional approach for modeling and timing analysis of wireless sensor and actuator networks2017Ingår i: ACM SIGBED Review, ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 49-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Yousefi, F.
    et al.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Gharib, M.
    School of Computer Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Science (IPM), Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Movaghar, A.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    VeriVANca: An Actor-Based Framework for Formal Verification of Warning Message Dissemination Schemes in VANETs2019Ingår i: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer , 2019, s. 244-259Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the applications of Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks, known as VANETs, is warning message dissemination among vehicles in dangerous situations to prevent more damage. The only communication mechanism for message dissemination is multi-hop broadcast; in which, forwarding a received message has to be regulated using a scheme regarding the selection of forwarding nodes. When analyzing these schemes, simulation-based frameworks fail to provide guaranteed analysis results due to the high level of concurrency in this application. Therefore, there is a need to use model checking approaches for achieving reliable results. In this paper, we have developed a framework called VeriVANca, to provide model checking facilities for the analysis of warning message dissemination schemes in VANETs. To this end, an actor-based modeling language, Rebeca, is used which is equipped with a variety of model checking engines. To illustrate the applicability of VeriVANca, modeling and analysis of two warning message dissemination schemes are presented. Some scenarios for these schemes are presented to show that concurrent behaviors of the system components may cause uncertainty in both behavior and performance which may not be detected by simulation-based techniques. Furthermore, the scalability of VeriVANca is examined by analyzing a middle-sized model.

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