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  • 1.
    Bergblomma, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ekström, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gerdtman, Christer
    Motion Control AB, Västerås, Sweden .
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A wireless low latency control system for harsh environments2012In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline): Vol. 11, PART 1, 2012, p. 17-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wireless communication technologies in the industry offer severaladvantages. One advantage is the ability to deploy sensors where they previously could noteasily be deployed, for instance on parts that rotate. To use wireless communication in industrialcontrol loops, demands on reliability and latency requirements has to be met. This in anenvironment that may be harsh for radio communication. This work presents a reliable, lowlatency wireless communication system. The system is used in a wireless thyristor control loopin a hydro power plant generator. The wireless communication is based on Bluetooth radiomodules. The work shows a latency analysis together with empirical hardware based latencyand packet error rate measurements. The background noise of a hydro power plant station isalso investigated. The average latency between the Bluetooth modules for the proposed systemis 5.09 ms. The packet error rate is 0.00288 for the wireless low latency control system deployedin a hydro power plant.

  • 2.
    Bergblomma, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ekström, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Garcia Castaño, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wireless ECG network2009In: WORLD CONGRESS ON MEDICAL PHYSICS AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL 25, PT 5, 2009, p. 244-247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a time synchronized wireless ECG sensor network with reliable data communication. Wireless ECG systems are a popular research area where several research groups have presented point-to-point solutions. Alongside the wireless ECG research, the wireless sensor network research has created an increasing interest for secure, low power and predictable network applications. Combining these research areas is a natural step for the evolution of secure wireless monitoring of physiological parameters. In this study the Bluetooth radio standard has been chosen for its versatility. This paper focuses on both the hardware and the software development for a functional multihop ECG network using Bluetooth. The presented wireless ECG network is reliable up to link loss and is easily configured to send more or different types of signals. The system has been tested and verified for secure multihop communication.

  • 3.
    Ekström, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bergblomma, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Edith Cowan University, Bunbury, Australia.
    A Bluetooth Radio Energy Consumption Model for Low Duty-Cycle Applications2012In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 609-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a realistic model of the radio energy consumption for Bluetooth-equipped sensor nodes used in a low-duty-cycle network. The model is based on empirical energy consumption measurements of Bluetooth modules. This model will give users the possibility to optimize their radio communication with respect to energy consumption while sustaining the data rate. This paper shows that transmission power cannot always be directly related to energy consumption. Measurements indicate that, when the transmission power ranges from $-$5 to $+$10 dBm, the difference in consumed energy can be detected for each transmission peak in the sniff peak. However, the change is negligible for the overall energy consumption. The nonlinear behavior of the idle state for both master and slave when increasing the interval and number of attempts is presented. The energy consumption for a master node is in direct relation to the number of slaves and will increase by approximately 50% of the consumption of one slave per additional slave, regardless of the radio setting.

  • 4.
    Ekström, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bergblomma, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Comparison study of ZigBee and Bluetooth with regards to power consumption, packet-error-rate and distanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper present a empirical measurement comparison study of ZigBee and Bluetooth. The parameters investigated are power consumption, packet-error-rate or retransmissions and distance in different environments. This study shows the differences and similarities for the two different short range radio technologies. A measurement set-up and procedure that makes it possible to investigate power consumption of the radio module, retransmissions and packet-error-rate as well as ambient noise is presented. For both the Bluetooth and the ZigBee modules used in this study the distance itself have no influence of the power consumption. However the retransmission rate and packet-error-rate have a large influence on the power consumption. This study have show that the environment has a great impact on the range of the radio modules and the behaviour concerning the retransmission rate and packet-error-rate.

  • 5.
    Ekström, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bergblomma, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Development of Programmable Micro Power Meter Testbed for Radio ModulesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the POMPOM testbed for high precision power consumption \textit{in situ} measurements for interchangeable radio modules.The main requirements for the development have been;

    Interchangeable radio modules to enable the same hardware testbed to be used independently of the radio standard used make comparison studies possible.

    The testbed should be programmable so that the need for hardware development should be minimized. The testbed must be able to act as a controller for the communication and simultaneously make accurate \textit{in situ} measurements of the energy consumption of the radio.

    The required sample rate must be at least 50 kSamples per second. The range of the current measurement should cover at least 0.2~$\mu$Ampere to 60~mAmpere with at least 14-bit resolution.

    Mobility, low cost and small size are vital for the testbed. It must be possible to deploy several measurement testbeds to act as sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network to capture the behavior of the entire network.

    The results for test measurement setup for POMPOM is presented to illustrate a typical usage of the testbed. The results presented show how the testbed can be used to investigate the correlation between distance, packet-error-rate and current consumption for a Zigbee radio.

  • 6.
    Ekström, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Berglomma, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reliable Wireless ECG Sensor Network2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Gerdtman, Christer
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bergblomma, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Tradlost I/O i en tuff industrimiljo2010In: Scandinavian Electronic Event, Stockholm, Sweden, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seminariet handlade om hur det ar att bedriva ett samverkansprojekt mellan akademi och foretag med ett for bada parter lyckat resultat. Har har ett tradlost I/O tagits fram. I/O-kortet har designats for att kunna verka i en kravande industrimiljo med magnetfalt, extremt hoga g-krafter och krav pa korta svarstider. Bakgrunden ar ett behov fran industrin dar man onskar en tradlos losning som ar robust och tillforlitlig samt gar att producera till en modest kostnad. Darfor onskar man anvanda standardkomponenter samt etablerade industristandarder sa langt som mojligt. I detta fall har en egen hognivastack tagits fram for att anvandas med en Bluetooth-kontrollerkrets.

  • 8.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bergblomma, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Štimac, Barbara
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Design of Channel Measurement Guidelines for Characterization of Wireless Industrial Environments2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing reliable and timely communication in wireless industrial systems requires careful design of error control schemes able to tackle the bit error patterns typically occurring in these environments. As most error control schemes target some specific characteristics of a wireless channel, the selection of channel model is crucial for proper performance assessment. There are a number of widely used channel models, but the question of the most appropriate choice of model for industrial environments still remains largely open. Not many indoor measurement campaigns have focused on industrial environments with their own specific characteristics. In this paper we present a set of measurement guidelines aiming to characterize industrial environments such that suitable channel models can be selected to properly evaluate error control schemes targeting reliable and timely wireless communications in industrial environments. 

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