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  • 1.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Bombardier Transportation, Västerås, Sweden.
    Deriving Reusable Process-based Arguments from Process Models in the Context of Railway Safety Standards2015In: Ada User Journal, ISSN 1381-6551, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 237-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the railway domain, standards such as the EN5012x family prescribe processes to be followed for the management and certification of safety-critical systems. This results in a need to model processes and retrieve process-based arguments to prove that the system achieved the required safety level in order to reduce time and cost spent in the certification process. In this paper, we present the application of the MDSafeCer, i.e. a model-driven safety certification method, for railways. In particular, we model in SPEM 2.0 the safety requirements process according to what described in the safety plan, and we show how it is possible to extract safety evidence to prove the compliance of this process to the EN50128 standard.

  • 2.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    et al.
    Bombardier Transportation, Västerås, Sweden.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Specifying Software Requirements for Safety-Critical Railway Systems: an Experience Report2017In: International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality REFSQ, Essen, Germany, 2017, p. 363-369Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software safety requirements are fundamental in the definition of risk reduction measures for safety critical systems, since they are developed to satisfy the system safety constraints as identified by mandated safety analyses. It is therefore imperative that the requirements are defined clearly and precisely. We describe our experiences in introducing a safety compliant method of writing safety software requirements for railway projects in a distributed organization. Our goal was twofold, to develop requirements specifications that comply with the EN 50128 standard and that are understandable by the persons involved in the software development. We introduced methods to transform natural language requirements to functional requirements described as scenarios, sequence, use-case and state-machine diagrams. Our experience shows that new ways of expressing requirements, even if proper to solve technical issues such as compliance with standards, bring other challenges to the organization like people’s reluctance to changes in working routines and process updates.

  • 3.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Role-based approach as support for safety analysis of collaborative systems2021In: Proceedings - 2021 IEEE International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, International Conference on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, International Conference on Cloud and Big Data Computing and International Conference on Cyber Science and Technology Congress, DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech 2021, 2021, p. 92-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern collaborative and dynamic systems, such as System of Systems (SoS), can be considered as a set of interacting entities where the interactions are seen as the core activity fo rthese systems. The study of interactions is of importance inorder to discover emergent and inter dependent properties that impact the overall system’s behaviour. We introduce a role-based approach together with a taxonomy of roles for safety as a means to deal with emergent behaviours of high-collaborative systems that may impact the safety of the whole system. The aim ofour role-based approach is to discover the interactions that maybe harmful for the system and use them as starting point for common safety analysis techniques.

  • 4.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    et al.
    Bombardier Transportation, Västerås, Sweden.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Zhou, Jiale
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Ontological Approach to Elicit Safety Requirements2017In: 24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference APSEC 2017, 2017, p. 713-718Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety requirements describe risk mitigations against failures that may cause catastrophic consequences on human life, environment and facilities. To be able to implement the correct risk mitigations, it is fundamental that safety requirements are de- fined based on the results issued from the safety analysis. In this paper, we introduce a heuristic approach to elicit safety requirements based on the knowledge about hazard’s causes, hazard’s sources and hazard’s consequences (i.e. hazard’s components) acquired during the safety analysis. The proposed approach is based on a Hazard Ontology that is used to structure the knowledge about the hazards identified during the safety analysis in order to make it available and accessible for requirements elicitation. We describe how this information can be used to elicit safety requirements, and provide a guidance to derive the safety requirements which are appropriate to deal with the hazards they mitigate.

  • 5.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Saadatmand, M.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Towards a Verification-Driven Iterative Development of Software for Safety-Critical Cyber-Physical Systems2021In: Journal of Internet Services and Applications, ISSN 1867-4828, E-ISSN 1869-0238, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software systems are complicated, and the scientific and engineering methodologies for software development are relatively young. Cyber-physical systems are now in every corner of our lives, and we need robust methods for handling the ever-increasing complexity of their software systems. Model-Driven Development is a promising approach to tackle the complexity of systems through the concept of abstraction, enabling analysis at earlier phases of development. In this paper, we propose a model-driven approach with a focus on guaranteeing safety using formal verification. Cyber-physical systems are distributed, concurrent, asynchronous and event-based reactive systems with timing constraints. The actor-based textual modeling language, Rebeca, with model checking support is used for formal verification. Starting from structured requirements and system architecture design the behavioral models, including Rebeca models, are built. Properties of interest are also derived from the structured requirements, and then model checking is used to formally verify the properties. This process can be performed in iterations until satisfaction of desired properties are ensured, and possible ambiguities and inconsistencies in requirements are resolved. The formally verified models can then be used to develop the executable code. The Rebeca models include the details of the signals and messages that are passed at the network level including the timing, and this facilitates the generation of executable code. The natural mappings among the models for requirements, the formal models, and the executable code improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the approach. 

  • 6.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Moghadam, Mahshid Helali
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Västerås, Sweden..
    From Requirements to Verifiable Executable Models Using Rebeca2021In: SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND FORMAL METHODS, SEFM 2020 / [ed] Cleophas, L Massink, M, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2021, Vol. 12524, p. 67-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software systems are complicated, and the scientific and engineering methodologies for software development are relatively young. We need robust methods for handling the ever-increasing complexity of software systems that are now in every corner of our lives. In this paper we focus on asynchronous event-based reactive systems and show how we start from the requirements, move to actor-based Rebeca models, and formally verify the models for correctness. The Rebeca models include the details of the signals and messages that are passed at the network level including the timing, and can be mapped to the executable code. We show how we can use the architecture design and structured requirements to build the behavioral models, including Rebeca models, and use the state diagrams to write the properties of interest, and then use model checking to check the properties. The formally verified models can then be used to develop the executable code. The natural mappings among the models for requirements, the formal models, and the executable code improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the approach. It also helps in runtime monitoring and adaptation.

  • 7.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lu, Yue
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    A Hazard Domain Ontology for Preliminary Hazard Analysis in Reuse Scenarios2016Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lu, Yue
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Bombardier Transportation AB, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Kristina
    Saab AB, Sweden.
    An Environment-Driven Ontological Approach to Requirements Elicitation for Safety-Critical Systems2015In: 23rd IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference RE'15, 2015, p. 247-251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment, where a safety critical system (SCS) operates, is an important source from which safety requirements of the SCS can originate. By treating the system under construction as a black box, the environment is typically documented as a number of assumptions, based on which a set of environmental safety requirements will be elicited. However, it is not a trivial task in practice to capture the environmental assumptions to elicit safety requirements. The lack of certain assumptions or too strict assumptions will either result in incomplete environmental safety requirements or waste many efforts on eliciting incorrect requirements. Moreover, the variety of operating environment for an SCS will further complicate the task, since the captured assumptions are at risk of invalidity, and consequently the elicited requirements need to be revisited to ensure safety has not been compromised by the change. This short paper presents an on-going work aiming to 1) systematically organize the knowledge of system operating environment and, 2) facilitate the elicitation of environmental safety requirements. We propose an ontological approach to achieve the objectives. In particular, we utilize conceptual ontologies to organize the environment knowledge in terms of relevant environment concepts, relations among them and axioms. Environmental assumptions are captured by instantiating the environment ontology. An ontological reasoning mechanism is also provided to support elicitation of safety requirements from the captured assumptions.

  • 9.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Ontological Approach to Hazard Identification for Safety-Critical Systems2017In: 2017 2nd International Conference on Reliability Systems Engineering, ICRSE 2017, Beijing, China, 2017, article id 8030746Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazard identification is an essential but very de- manding task for the development of safety-critical systems (SCSs). Current practices suffer from one or several drawbacks listed below: 1) a common hazard conceptualization is missing and thereby ambiguities may arise and, 2) there is still a need to formalize the experience of analysts and lessons learned from previous system development in a structured way to facilitate future reuse. and, 3) some hazard identification techniques require well-known system behaviors represented by models, such as automata and sequence diagrams, to identify hazards, and however such models are typically susceptible to changes or even not available in early stages. In this paper, we propose an ontological approach to support hazard identification in the early stages of the development of SCSs. The approach aims to improve hazard identification results in terms of completeness and unambiguity. A robotic strolling assistant system is used to evaluate the proposed approach.

  • 10.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Ontological Approach to Identify the Causes of Hazards for Safety-Critical Systems2017In: 2017 2nd International Conference on System Reliability and Safety ICSRS'17, 2017, p. 405-413Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) is a key safety-concerned technique, applied in early stages of safety critical systems development, aiming to provide stakeholders with a general understanding of potential hazards together with their causes. Various studies have asserted that most significant flaws in hazard analysis techniques are related to the omission of causes associated with the identified hazards. In addition, identified causes are sometimes described in too generic terms to provide useful guidance for subsequent activities. In this paper, we propose an approach to explore and identify the causes associated with the hazards from a PHA, aiming to improve the results of hazard causes identification in terms of completeness and usefulness. To achieve the goal, the proposed approach utilizes the hazard-related concepts and relations defined in a hazard domain ontology presented in our previous work. Furthermore, an application scenario of a train control system is used to evaluate our approach.

  • 11.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hänninen, Kaj
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Bombardier Transportation, Sweden.
    An Ontological Interpretation of the Hazard Concept for Safety-Critical Systems2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 27TH EUROPEAN SAFETY AND RELIABILITY CONFERENCE (ESREL 2017), PORTOROZ , SLOVENIA, 18–22 JUNE 2017, 2017, p. 183-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hazard concept has been extensively used in the literature and defined in an informal way, which serves as a guidance on identifying the potential hazards during the development of safety-critical systems. Intuitively, the definitions seem to be consistent and easy to understand. However, when we take a closer look at these definitions, ambiguities may arise, and real-world semantics need to be defined. In this work, we propose a hazard domain ontology, i.e., the Hazard Ontology (HO), to provide an ontological interpretation of hazard. To tackle the aforementioned issues, the HO is grounded in the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) to utilize the benefits provided by taking foundational concepts into account. Finally, we show some useful findings when we use the proposed ontology to analyze the hazard descriptions from an industrial passenger train project.

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