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  • 1.
    Barac, Filip
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Yu, Kan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Reliable and Lightweight Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address the issues of timeliness and transmission reliability of existing industrial communication standards. We combine a Forward Error Correction coding schemeon the Medium Access Control layer with a lightweight routing protocol to form an IEEE 802.15.4-conformable solution, whichcan be implemented into already existing hardware without violating the standard. After laying the theoretical foundations,we conduct a performance evaluation of the proposed solution.The results show a substantial gain in reliability and reducedlatency, compared to the uncoded transmissions, as well ascommon Wireless Sensor Network routing protocols.

  • 2.
    Hagos Yitbarek, Yonas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Yu, Kan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Implementation and Evaluation of Error Control Schemes in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2014In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2014, p. 730-755Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) have been increasingly adopted in process automation due to a number of advantages such as cost reduction and enhanced flexibility. Nevertheless, transmission over wireless channels in industrial environments is prone to interference, resulting in frequent erroneous packet deliveries. Existing IWSN standards based on the IEEE 802.15.4 specification only prescribe Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) for packet retransmission, without providing any means for error recovery, which leads to unexpected transmission delay. Forward Error Correction (FEC) code as an alternative approach is able to effectively improve reliability and reduce the number of retransmissions. However, FEC computation requires extra memory and processing time. In this paper, we discuss the timing constraints of employing FEC codes for IWSNs according to the IWSN standards. Then we benchmark a number of different FEC codes in a typical wireless sensor node in terms of memory consumption and processing time. Our results show that LDPC and Turbo code, as the state of the art FEC codes, fail to fulfill the requirement from the IWSN standards while other FEC candidates, such as RS code, are proven to be suitable for the practical implementation in IWSNs.

  • 3.
    Lennvall, T.
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Akerberg, J.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Hansen, E.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Yu, Kan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A new wireless sensor network TDMA timing synchronization protocol2016In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2016, p. 606-611Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks are gaining momentum and have started to target new and more demanding application scenarios extending pure monitoring scenarios. In this paper we discuss the needs for simple and more accurate TDMA timing synchronization to enable the future applications. We present a novel TDMA timing synchronization protocol which is simple to implement, as well as a performance evaluation using of-the-shelf hardware indicating measured worst case synchronization errors less than 10 microseconds at five hops from the synchronization master. The paper shows that it is possible to realize synchronization on average around 1 microsecond with little effort and negligible computational or network overhead.

  • 4.
    Pang, Z.
    et al.
    Corporate Research, ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Yu, Kan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Corporate Research, ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Gidlund, M.
    Corporate Research, ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    An RTOS-based architecture for industrial wireless sensor network stacks with multi-processor support2013In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2013, p. 1216-1221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of industrial wireless sensor network (IWSN) stacks requires the adoption of real time operation system (RTOS). Challenges exist especially in timing integrity and multi-processor support. As a solution, we propose an RTOS-based architecture for IWSN stacks with multi-processor support. It offers benefits in terms of platform independency, product life cycle, safety and security, system integration complexity, and performance scalability. An implemented WirelessHART stack has proven the feasibility of the proposed architecture in practical product design. And future challenges as well as suggestions to standard improvement are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 5.
    Yu, Kan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    On Reliable and Deadline-Constrained Communication in Wireless Industrial Networks2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Along with the quick development of wireless communication technologies, industrial automation networks are also in unceasing evolution. Industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSAN) have been increasingly adopted in industrial automation systems. Although there are a number of advantages of replacing cables with wireless links, such as cost reduction, enhanced scalability and flexibility, the stringent requirements on communication reliability and meeting firm deadlines from industrial mission-critical applications must still be fulfilled. Also, transmissions over wireless channels in industrial environments are prone to noise and interferences, resulting in frequent erroneous packet deliveries. Although industrial automation systems are usually designed to be tolerant of certain communication errors, successive transmission failures may still cause downtime of industrial applications, which might lead to significant economic losses or even serious accidents. This thesis addresses the problems mentioned above and aims to provide reliable and deadline-constrained communication via IWSANs for industrial automation systems. On the MAC layer, existing IWSAN standards utilize automatic repeat request (ARQ) to improve reliability at the cost of additional transmission latency. An alternative method is to use Forward Error Correction (FEC) schemes to provide reliable communication by recovering erroneous data and avoiding unnecessary retransmissions. On the MAC layer, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is usually applied in current IWSAN standards for collision-free and deterministic communication. An inappropriate scheduling scheme may introduce high transmission jitter and degrade the quality of control. On the network layer, routing protocols play an important role in both communication reliability and latency. Existing solutions are either hardly able to fulfill all stringent requirements from the mission-critical industrial applications, too complicated to be realized, or lack verification in reality. The contributions of this thesis consist of (i) the possibilities of using FEC schemes in IWSANs is explored under the requirements of existing standards on the MAC layer. A compatible and flexible FEC scheme on the MAC layer for IWSANs that does not violate the standard is proposed and evaluated by simulations. (ii) To guarantee an acceptable control quality, a TDMA scheduling scheme is presented aiming for low communication jitter, and it is compared to classic scheduling schemes. (iii) The advantages of exploiting flooding in IWSANs is discussed; a reliable controlled flooding-based routing protocol is proposed and compared to both traditional routing protocols and other flooding-based protocols. (iv) A complete IWSAN platform is built and the whole protocol stack is implemented. Measurements were conducted in a real industrial environment to verify the correctness of the proposed solution.

  • 6.
    Yu, Kan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    On Reliable Real Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the industrial automation, Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) have been increasingly applied due to a great number of benefits such as convenient installation, flexible deployment and cost efficiency. Compared with conventional wireless systems, IWSNs have more stringent requirements communication reliability and real time performance. However, IWSNs are frequently deployed in a hash industrial environment with electromagnetic disturbances, moving objects and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communication. Because of the vulnerability of wireless signal, IWSNs are under high risk oftransmission failures, which may result in missing or delaying of process orcontrol data. For industrial automation, missing the process or control deadlineis intolerable, which may terminate industrial application and finally result in economic loss and safety problems. From hierarchy point of view, the high communication reliability and low communication latency can be achieved from different network layers. OnMAC layer, existing protocols in IWSNs only provide automatic repeat request (ARQ) to improve reliability at the cost of real time performance. Analternative method is to apply Forward Error Correction (FEC) mechanism on MAC layer to provide more reliable transmissions and reduce acknowledgement messages by recovering error data. On network layer, routing protocolplays an important role in both communication reliability and latency. Traditionalrouting protocols in IWSNs are either hardly able to fulfill both of these requirements or overcomplicated.In this thesis, we initially explore the possibilities of introducing FEC intoIWSN under the requirements of the existing standard on MAC layer. Then we propose compatible and flexible FEC schemes on MAC layer for IWSNs without violating the standard format. Routing protocols based on flooding are proved to increase the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) by transmission diversity.We propose reliable and robust routing protocols with respect to high reliability and real time performance for IWSNs.

  • 7.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Barac, Filip
    Mid Sweden University.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Adaptive Forward Error Correction for Best Effort Wireless Sensor Networks2012In: 2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS (ICC), 2012, p. 7104-7109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we propose an Adaptive Forward Error Correction (AFEC) algorithm for best effort Wireless Sensor Networks. The switching model is described in terms of a finite-state Markov model and it is based on the channel behavior,observed via Packet Delivery Ratio in the recent past. We compare the performance of AFEC with static FEC, as well as uncoded transmissions. The results demonstrate a gain in PDR achieved by introducing FEC coding in uncoded IEEE 802.15.4 transmissions, as well as the advantages over static FEC schemes,namely increased throughput and reduced energy consumption.The proposed solution is IEEE 802.15.4-compliant and requires no additional feedback channels.

  • 8.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Filip, Barac
    Mid Sweden University.
    Mikael, Gidlund
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Mats, Björkman
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Flexible Error Correction Scheme for IEEE 802.15.4-based Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2012In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2012, p. 1172-1177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise and interference make a substantial impacton wireless transmissions in industrial environments, resulting infrequent erroneous packet deliveries. Existing industrial communication standards adopt the IEEE 802.15.4 specification, which provides no means to correct the detected errors. We propose an IEEE 802.15.4-compliant Forward Error Correction-basedapproach that can be easily retrofitted into the standard withoutthe need for any kind of interaction with chip manufacturers orstandardization bodies. We evaluate the approach on link- and network-level scenarios. Improvement of reliability by using FEC can yield multiple benefits: a reduced number of retransmissions,and lower average latency, to name a few. With respect to the uncoded system, the proposed solution provides identical codinggain as the traditional FEC method, at a significantly lower computational load of decoding.

  • 9.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, M.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Åkerberg, J.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reliable real-time routing protocol for industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 8th Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, ICIEA 2013, 2013, p. 1895-1901Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The control applications of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) are subject to strict requirements in terms of reliability and end-to-end delay. Transmission failures or deadline misses may seriously degrade the quality of control. In this paper, we propose a reliable real-time routing protocol in IWSANs for industrial control purpose. Node weight values and related node lists are utilized to provide directional information. Packet forwarding is based on a controlled flooding mechanism with several forwarding criteria. Performance evaluations via simulations show that significant improvements of reliability, real-time performance, network recovery time, and resource utilization efficiency can be achieved by our proposed routing protocol, compared with traditional routing protocols.

  • 10.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Low Jitter Scheduling for Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2013In: 39TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY (IECON 2013): 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2013, p. 5594-5599Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) in the industrial automation is a growing trend due to flexibility, mobility and low cost. According to the current standards, such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a, multi-channel TDMA transmission is included for reliable and deterministic communication. In this paper, we clarify the dependence of TDMA scheduling for sensors and actuators and point out the low correlation between the scheduling delay and the overall quality of control, and focus on reducing jitter in scheduling for improving quality of control and system stability. We propose a scheduling algorithm, aiming for lowing jitter and compare it with two traditional real-time scheduling schemes. Our simulation results exhibit significantly lower jitters by applying our scheduling policy than those two traditional scheduling schemes.

  • 11.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Performance Evaluations and Measurements of the REALFLOW Routing Protocol in Wireless Industrial Networks2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, p. 1410-1420, article id 7506102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) offer significant advantages to industrial automation. However, high reliability demands and hard communication deadlines pose challenges to its practical applications. To achieve this goal, flooding is considered as a promising approach due to multipath diversity and simplicity. In this paper, an enhanced version of REALFLOW, a flooding-based routing protocol for IWSANs is presented. Compared to the original REALFLOW, network management and network stability are improved. REALFLOW is compared with four other flooding protocols via simulations. The simulation results show that REALFLOW has better performance in terms of reliability and consecutive transmission errors when considering deadlines. Compared with normal flooding, REALFLOW achieves comparable reliability performance with decreased redundancy. Measurements from a prototype implementation conducted in an industrial manufacturing workshop reveal that high reliability and low application failure rates can be achieved, giving more confidence in providing reliable wireless sensing and actuating for industrial automation

  • 12.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reliable and Low Latency Transmission in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2011In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 5, p. 866-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major advantages with Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) in process automation are cable cost reduction, enhanced flexibility and enabling new emerging applications such as wireless control. However, transmission over the wireless channel is prone to noise and interference which causes packets to be erroneous received at the receiver node. To improve the link reliability in lossy channels, error correcting codes are commonly used. In this paper we discuss the use of forward error correction (FEC) codes in IWSN in order not only to improve the link reliability but also to reduce the number of retransmissions in harsh industrial environments. We propose a FEC scheme suitable for MAC level protection where the packet is divided into groups and encoded using systematic FEC codes. We have implemented different FEC codes in a typical IWSN chip to evaluate memory consumption and to ensure that we are not violating the strict timing rules for acknowledgment. Our results show that some FEC codes are suitable to be implemented in a typical IWSN node while several fails due to large memory footprint or to long encoding and decoding time.

  • 13.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB, Corporate Research.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reliable RSS-based Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2012In: IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society: Proceeding, 2012, p. 3231-3237Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High reliability and real-time performance are main research challenges in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs). Existing routing protocols applied in IWSNs are either overcomplicated or fail to fulfill the stringent requirements. In this paper, we propose a reliable and flexible Received Signal Strength-based routing scheme. Our proposed solution can achieve a seamless transition in the event of topology change and can be applied in different industrial environments. The simulation results show that our solution outperforms conventional routing protocols in both reliability and latency. Furthermore, the result also proves that the changes of the network topology have no impact on data transmissions of other nodes by our scheme, whereas conventional routing protocols are shown to fail to recover the network in a short time. Finally, due to dynamic weighting mechanism, the proposed scheme is verified to achieve significantly higher reliability in scenarios with obstacles and avoid installation troubles, compared to location-based flooding scheme. Thus, our proposed scheme is considered to be more suitable for IWSNs than other routing protocols.

  • 14.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pang, ZB
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Gidlund, M
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    REALFLOW: Reliable Real-Time Flooding-Based Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2014In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, p. art. nbr: 936379-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless technologies have been increasingly applied in industrial automation systems due to flexible installation, mobility, and cost reduction. Unlike traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs), industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs), when expanding from wireless monitoring to wireless control, have more stringent requirements on reliability, real-time performance, and robustness in a number of industrial applications. Successive transmission failures or deadline misses in these applications may severely degrade the control quality and result in serious economic losses and safety problems. Therefore, when deploying IWSNs in harsh industrial environments, to achieve reliable and deterministic end-to-end transmissions is critically important. In this paper, we explain the primary challenges of designing appropriate routing protocols and present a reliable real-time flooding-based routing protocol for IWSNs (REALFLOW). Instead of traditional routing tables, related node lists are generated in a simple distributed manner, serving for packet forwarding. A controlled flooding mechanism is applied to improve both reliability and real-time performance. A seamless transition in the event of topology change can be achieved by REALFLOW. Performance evaluations via simulations verify that significant improvements of reliability, real-time performance, and network recovery time can be achieved by REALFLOW, compared with traditional routing protocols.

  • 15.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Yue, Jing
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Lin, Z.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, M.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Achieving reliable and efficient transmission by using network coding solution in industrial wireless sensor networks2016In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2016, p. 1162-1167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When deploying wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for industrial applications, to provide reliable data transmission as a stringent requirement must be fulfilled. However, due to dynamic industrial environments, interferences and node failures, to achieve this goal faces a number of challenges. Moreover, reliable transmission solution should also be resource efficient, so more wireless sensor nodes can be supported in a network especially when network resources are limited. In this paper, we applied network coding techniques based on a controlled flooding transmission scheme for industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs). Network and channel coding are joint designed for data transmission. We analyzed the theoretical performance of the proposed scheme and compared the performance of our method with the original transmission method in terms of reliability and efficiency. Comparison results showed that by using our proposed network coding solution, the reliability gain can be achieved and the network resource efficiency can be improved.

  • 16.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Zheng, T.
    Beijing Jiaotong University.
    Pang, Z.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Gidlund, M.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Åkerberg, J.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reliable flooding-based downlink transmissions for Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2013In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 2013, p. 1377-1384Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable downlink transmissions from the sink to actuators for control data in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) are extremely important for industrial control applications. However, on the network layer, existing routing protocols fail to fully support downlink transmissions for actuators, due to the insufficiency of reliability, robustness and real-time performance. In this paper, we propose a reliable flooding-based routing scheme focusing on downlink transmissions. Packets are forwarded to actuators according to weight values and the related node lists in intermediate nodes. Performance evaluations via simulations show that our protocol significantly outperforms traditional routing protocols in terms of reliability, transmission latency, network recovery time and network resource usage. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 17.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Performance Evaluation and Measurement of REALFLOW Routing Protocol in WirelessIndustrial NetworksIn: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks(IWSAN) offer significant advantages to industrial automationsystems. Requirements on reliability are highly demanding formany industrial applications. Due to multipath diversity andsimplicity, flooding is an promising approach to provide reliabletransmissions.

    In this paper, a flooding-based routing protocol for IWSAN(REALFLOW) is upgraded based on previous research, aimingfor high reliability. To provide efficient and directionaltransmission, a controlled flooding-based mechanism is applied.Network management is further improved for better efficiencyand stability. REALFLOW is first compared with other fourflooding protocols via simulation. The results exhibit that REALFLOWoutperforms other advanced flooding protocols interms of reliability and consecutive transmission errors. Evencompared with pure flooding, REALFLOW achieves comparablereliability performance with decreased forwarding redundancy.To demonstrate the solution promising in reality, a workableIWSAN prototype is built, as well as the full implementation ofthe whole protocol stack including REALFLOW. A measurementconducted in a industrial manufacturing workshop reveals thathigh reliability and low application failure probability can beachieved, which brings more confidence of providing both reliablewireless sensing and actuating for industrial automation systems.

  • 18.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Realization and Measurements of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automation can benefit from applying wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN) on cost reduction, mobility and flexibility. However, wireless solutions are more prone to interferences compared to wired ones. In order to avoid production losses and to keep the revenues at an anticipated level, it is of utmost importance for WSANs to meet the stringent requirements from industrial automation, such as high reliability and real-time performance. A great number of research efforts were taken in this field based on simulations, but simulation results may not show sufficient confidence. Existing implementations and products compatible with the standards may still fail to provide reliable and real-time communication. Therefore, in this paper we built a prototype of industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSAN) and implemented a protocol stack, aiming for providing reliable and real-time communication for mission-critical industrial applications. Afterwards, we deployed our prototype and conducted measurements in real industrial environments. Our measurement results exhibited possibility of applying IWSANs for industrial applications and brought more evidence to our industry.

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