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  • 1.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Elfving, Sofi W
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology.
    A Road Map for Future Research on Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2): A Systematic Review2013In: The Philosopher's Stone for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 185-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing trend to expand traditional offerings of selling goods towards providing value through services to customers. In academia the term Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2) describes this phenomenon. Although many articles have been published on IPS2 a systematic review is lacking. This paper presents a systematic review of the IPS2 domain. Five themes characterizing IPS2 are revealed: delivery, processes, value creation networks, knowledge management, and business models. IPS2 is concluded to be both a young and distributed field of research, with a scope that needs to expand in terms of the themes covered and number of empirical studies.

  • 2.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Elfving, Sofi W
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Analysis of the Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2) Literature: A Systematic Review2012In: The 6th IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology, 2012, p. 733-740Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful industrial goods-delivering companies are always looking for ways to develop and grow their business. A strong present trend is to expand the traditionally tangible offering by integrating intangible offerings i.e. services. In academia the term industrial product-service systems (IPS2) are being used to describe this paradigm shift. However, a systematic review of the IPS2 literature is lacking. In this paper publications regarding IPS2 are systematically reviewed. The result of our review has been categorized under five themes that we found characterizes IPS2: delivery, processes, value creation networks, knowledge management, and business models. Based on our findings a discussion is made and future research directions are identified.

  • 3.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Making the Important Measurable2011In: International Association for Management of Technology IAMOT 2011 Proceedings, Miami Beach, USA, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance measurements related to product development typically focuses on what is easy to quantify and not necessarily what is important to measure. This research uses a case study approach to test a new model for designing performance indicators (DPI) based on what is important for a specific organization developing new products. The foundation for an effective performance measurement system is that the performance measurements are derived from relevant performance criteria and objectives. The proposed DPI method is therefore based on three consecutive steps. The first step is to decide what performance objectives are needed to be fulfilled in order to realize the pursued strategy. This step is followed by the identification of performance criteria / success factors that will contribute to the realization of the performance objectives. Performance criteria are typically related to what needs to be achieved in order to fulfill the objectives while success factors focus more on how they are to be fulfilled. Based on the most important performance criteria /success factors the supporting performance indicators can be derived from the literature or by using the performance measure record sheet. The performance allocation tracker is developed as a result of applying the DPI method in a real case and it is an indicator of the performance of the studied development project. The properties of the indicators resulting from using the DPI method include similar characteristics as leading indicators of performance. It is concluded that by focusing on performance criteria and success factors in the development of performance indicators, leading indicators of performance is derived.

  • 4.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    What is Performance in Complex Product Development?2008In: Proceedings of the R&D Management Conference. 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of developing new products is one of the key business processes in a company, especially technology intensive ones. In order to continuously improve this capability of developing new products it is important to be able to measure the performance in the product development process. The dilemma though is that there are no good performance measurements available within complex product development. One reason, as argued in presented research may be the lack of a holistic perception of performance within the development process. Data from a five case explorative study including 49 semi-structured open interviews regarding performance within complex product development is presented and analyzed. The results clearly indicate a need for further development of the perception of performance by managers and decision makers within the process of developing complex products. To meet this need, a Product Development Organizational Performance Model (PDOPM) is proposed, consisting of three generic levels of activities: Product strategy, Project management, and Product activities. These generic activities are modelled in accordance with the IDEF0 making it possible to conceptually reason about uncertainty, effectiveness, and efficiency at each activity level. Further, the term product development efficacy is introduced to describe the capability of identifying or creating a market opportunity and being able to develop and deliver a product fulfilling exactly what was identified as the market opportunity. High performance in product development is achieved when there is efficacy throughout the complete product development portfolio.

  • 5.
    Dunkels, Adam
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden .
    Finne, Niclas
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden .
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden .
    Run-Time Dynamic Linking for Reprogramming Wireless Sensor Networks2006In: SenSys'06: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 2006, p. 15-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From experience with wireless sensor networks it has become apparent that dynamic reprogramming of the sensor nodes is a useful feature. The resource constraints in terms of energy, memory, and processing power make sensor network reprogramming a challenging task. Many different mechanisms for reprogramming sensor nodes have been developed ranging from full image replacement to virtual machines.We have implemented an in-situ run-time dynamic linker and loader that use the standard ELF object file format. We show that run-time dynamic linking is an effective method for reprogramming even resource constrained wireless sensor nodes. To evaluate our dynamic linking mechanism we have implemented an application-specific virtual machine and a Java virtual machine and compare the energy cost of the different linking and execution models. We measure the energy consumption and execution time overhead on real hardware to quantify the energy costs for dynamic linkin.Our results suggest that while in general the overhead of a virtual machine is high, a combination of native code and virtual machine code provide good energy efficiency. Dynamic run-time linking can be used to update the native code, even in heterogeneous networks.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Collaborative Product Development: A collaborative decision-making approach2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Coping with decisions on deviations in complex product development projects2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A strong need for resource efficiency within manufacturing companies have been driven extensively through pro-active planning and methods which have naturally resulted in an increased amount of strong couplings between product development projects, their activities, and resources. These strong couplings mean a high level of complexity where deviations are likely to occur on a regular basis which can spread quickly and have far reaching consequences. Praxis related to treatment of such deviations in product development projects has not been widely discussed. The subsequent question is therefore How are decisions on managing deviations made in practice?

    A Practice approach has been adopted in this research and led on to the use of context sensitive research methods in order to collect relevant data. The main amount of data has been gathered through one year of participant observations and document retrieval in a product development project. Also, a large amount of interviews have been used as a method for collecting data.

    38 deviations have been analysed through the identification of praxis which has been primarily analysed by three theories. The first theory, decision roles, has been used to clarify the different types of uncertainties people within complex product development projects need to manage in practice. The second theory, loosely coupled systems, shows how temporary organizing by loose couplings enables parallel management of both planned and unplanned activities when deviations occur. The third theory, Sensemaking, have been used to characterise processes related to different types of uncertainties.

    Conclusions are drawn regarding how people acts related to deviations are directly dependent on the types of uncertainties of the context as well as the situation itself. Uncertainties regarding choices, responsibilities, mobilization, and legitimization combined with the temporary organization leads to certain praxis patterns. The patterns can be used by project managers and other decision makers as a way of discussing temporary organization and how process emerge within the organization today, and how they would like resulting processes to be managed when deviations occur.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Managing the Unexpected in a Multi-project Environment2011In: The R&D Management Conference 2011: R&D, Sustainability & Innovation - the need for new ideas, initiatives and alliances. / [ed] Berggren, C. & Magnusson, T., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to present the results from a case study aimed at answering the following research question: How are decisions on managing deviations in a highly interrelated project made in practice?

    The results are based on analysis of a single case study of a complex system development project, interrelated with eight other projects. It reveals the development team’s efforts to make sense of, and decisions on, deviating situations. The analysis reveals the characteristics of the sensemaking processes related to the consequences of the decision processes. This research contributes enhanced knowledge of how project managers cope with deviation in order to reach informed decisions involving four different types of sensemaking and four types of decision consequences. The results of this research can be used by project managers or other decision makers within product development to reflect upon how to manage unexpected deviations, proactively as well as reactively.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Brannemo, Anette
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Coping with deviation and decision-making2011In: 18th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, ICED11: Impacting society through engineering design / [ed] Culley S.J., Copenhagen: Design Society , 2011, p. 429-440Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structured models, such as gated models, are used in order to manage the complexity of the multiproject environment. The aim in following these prescriptive models creates strong interrelationships of activities in the projects. The project system becomes sensitive to unexpected events that can influence the system negatively. When managing a project in a highly-interrelated project environment, it is not possible to anticipate every possible external influence on the project.

    Deviations from the planned operations are inevitable but teams rarely get credited for the skilled way in which they manage to cope with these unexpected events.

    The research in this paper investigates how decisions are made in practice regarding managing these deviations. A project-as-practice approach has been used for studying praxis on a micro-level in a project and to capture contextual circumstances.

    Results show how these praxes correspond to four different consequences of decisions and reveal the decision strategy used to manage the deviation. The characteristic of the decision-making process is described using the Garbage-Can model in order to highlight distinctive features of managing deviations.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Brannemo, Anette
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Decision-Focused Product Development Process Improvements2009In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED'09), Vol. 1: Design Processes / [ed] Norell Bergendahl, M.; Grimheden, M.; Leifer, L.; Skogstad, P.; Lindemann, U., 2009, p. 37-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there is little or no methodology or methods available to "process improvers" in product development which focus on decision-making fundamentals in order to improve the performance of decision-making within the product development process. In order to support product development process improvements, it is important to develop knowledge about how the collaborative decisionmaking process can be viewed holistically and include its relation to performance aspects. The objective of this research is to investigate what elements characterize a collaborative decisionmaking system and what enables the management of the system. The research investigates these two aspects through a literature review and a case study at a large Swedish company. A Rich Picture is developed in order to clarify the relationship between fundamental decision-making aspects, performance, the process levels, and the product development organization. The descriptive case study identifies what actors consider to affect collaborative decision-making and exposes the competencies needed in order to manage the collaborative decision-making process.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fagerström, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    MANAGING DEVIATIONS IN EARLY PHASES2011In: IAMOT 2011 Proceedings, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fagerström, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Elfving, Sofi
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Efficient Decision-Making in Product Development2007In: International Conference of Engineering Design. 2007, ICED, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    Product development projects need to be managed in a timely and efficient manner in the present competitive business environment. The authors of this work argue that the commonly used product development models do not fully meet this demand, and the decision-making process needs to be made explicit. This work mainly focuses on the product development process. Two companies were studied using case study research. The aim of the case study was to identify key factors affecting the decision-making process in product development. The type of collaboration used in these two companies was also investigated in order to identify the influence it had on the decision-making process of each. The two companies had different views of the decision-making process which were related to their level of development process knowledge. Common factors affecting the decision-making process in product development were divided into ten categories: (1) Handling of requirements, (2) Experience of projects, (3) Organizational aspects, (4) Project management, (5) Top management, (6) Knowledge, (7) Risk management, (8) Information systems, (9) Communication, and (10) Change management.
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Fagerström, Björn
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Elfving, Sofie
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    EFFICIENT DECISION-MAKING IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT2007In: Proceedings of ICED 2007, the 16th International Conference on Engineering Design, vol DS 42, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development projects need to be managed in a timely and efficient manner in the present competitive business environment. The authors of this work argue that the commonly used product development models do not fully meet this demand, and the decision-making process needs to be made explicit. This work mainly focuses on the product development process. Two companies were studied using case study research. The aim of the case study was to identify key factors affecting the decision-making process in product development. The type of collaboration used in these two companies was also investigated in order to identify the influence it had on the decision-making process of each. The two companies had different views of the decision-making process which were related to their level of development process knowledge. Common factors affecting the decision-making process in product development were divided into ten categories: (1) Handling of requirements, (2) Experience of projects, (3) Organizational aspects, (4) Project management, (5) Top management, (6) Knowledge, (7) Risk management, (8) Information systems, (9) Communication, and (10) Change management.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fagerström, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Decisions on managing project deviations in practiceIn: International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, ISSN 1740-2891, E-ISSN 1740-2905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a case study aimed at investigating how decisions are made on managing deviations in complex product development projects. The results are based on the analysis of data collected from participant observations, as well as interviews with project managers from seven large manufacturing companies. The data is analysed according to four types of sensemaking processes. This research examines why these processes are used in different situations and further explore their characteristics and at their relationship with the different roles decisions play in organizations. The factors driving controlled and uncontrolled sensemaking are also examined. This research contributes to knowledge of how project managers use different praxes to manage deviations in complex, socially and politically sensitive environments. The results can be used by decision makers within complex product development in order to assist them in managing deviations, proactively as well as reactively.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hansen, C. T.
    Technical University of Denmark.
    A Proposal for a Mindset of a Project Manager2008In: Proceedings of NordDesign 2008 / [ed] Roosimölder, Lembit, 2008, p. 120-130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A company's product strategy and its management of the product development process have been found to be key factors for a product's success on the market. Project managers of development projects need support to make process decisions and defining goals that are consistent with the business's goals while bearing in mind the ability of the development team to deliver a product to the market that satisfies the customer’s expectations and needs. Uncertainty is a part of the product development project’s nature, which according to Simon is ill-structured, explorative and pragmatic. In product development projects it is desirable to reduce the level of uncertainty in order to make decisions without having to redo them later in the project resulting in longer lead time and higher costs. It is the project manager’s responsibility to manage this uncertainty in a complex ever-changing project environment. However, this research shows that there is unnecessary uncertainty in planning and controlling decisions when project changes occur. The uncertainty is manifested in not considering performance aspects of the project and the product in a wider organisational context. Visualization and clarification of decision situations and consequences is rarely used in practice and structured reasoning about project and product performance when making decisions is also rare. In order to enhance the project managers’ understanding of decision-making in product development projects, the objective of this paper is to propose a mindset for clarification of decision situations when changes has occurred. The proposed mindset is supposed to aid project managers when handling project changes by reducing complexity in project planning and supporting the articulation of uncertainties.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Olsson, Rolf
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    MODELLING DECISION-MAKING IN COMPLEX PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT2008In: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2008, 10th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Marjanovic D., Storga M., Pavkovic N., Bojcetic N., Dubrovnik, 2008, p. 1129-1138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One challenge today for companies lies in finding the right approach to measuring and continuously improving the current state of a company’s product development process. The task of continuously improving the performance demands the successful management of information, communication, cooperation and decision-making in a context of uncertainty, which is a highly complex task in itself. To be able to manage a complex product development system in an appropriate way, the authors have identified three important interdependent aspects of product development. The aspects are decision-making, uncertainty and performance. These aspects form the foundation for the suggested model which is intended to be used by engineering design researchers.

  • 17.
    Gutiérrez, E.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kihlander, I.
    KTH.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    What's a good idea?: Understanding evaluation and selection of new product ideas2009In: DS 58-3: Proceedings of ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, vol 3, 2009, 2009, p. 121-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how ideas for new products are evaluated and selected in industrial companies. It is based on an empirical and explorative study in three companies, using qualitative interviews. The findings indicate that a good idea is the result of a process in which at the same time the idea is generated, evaluated and selected. This process determines which ideas are further developed, which of them reach a formal decision-making forum and, to some extent, the decisions made in these official forums. This process is characterized by a social and a cognitive aspect, overlooked in normative literature. The social aspect is about interaction between people that makes possible to combine formal and informal processes, and rational and non-rational approaches for developing and evaluating ideas with different grades of ambiguity and uncertainty. The cognitive aspect refers to how ideas and company's context are interpreted, in individual and collective levels, for making evaluations on ideas. Implications of these findings for designing supporting methods for evaluation and selection of ideas are discussed; and general descriptions of a practical method suggested.

  • 18.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Olsson, Rolf
    Level Twentyone Management, Sweden.
    Modeling Performance in Complex Product Development: A Product Development Organisational Performance Model2008In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Management of Technology. 2008, IAMOT, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of this research is the Product Development Organizational Performance Model (PDOPM). The model consists of three generic levels of activities: product strategy, project management and product activities. Each level of activity uses resources to transform input to output under the direction of goals and constraints. This view of an activity is based on the IDEF0 concept. The goal of the product strategy activity is related to the business strategy and the output of the activity is the goal for the project management activity. Project management translates the goal into outputs that become goals for the product activities. This way of modeling the product development (PD) process with three generic levels of activities makes it possible to analyze performance from the three perspectives. Effectiveness, efficiency and uncertainty are defined for the three generic levels of activities. Effectiveness can be expressed as how the output relates to the goal of the activities whereas efficiency can be defined as the difference between output and input divided by the used resources. The uncertainty can be viewed as the difference between the goal and the input. A first verification of the PDOPM has been performed by a root cause analysis of three problem areas selected from the result of a previously conducted case study. Furthermore, the PDOPM can be used as a way of discussing the effect which these three levels of activities have on PD as a whole (i.e. from a holistic view, aligning product strategy, project management, and product activities).

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