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  • 1. Claesson, Alexander
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Brandteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Lindström, Johan
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Laboratory fire experiments with a 1/3 train carriage mockup2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of six fire tests were conducted in a mock-up of a subway carriage that is about 1/3 of a full wagon length. They were carried out under a large scale calorimeter in a laboratory environment. The aim of the tests was to investigate the initial fire growth in a corner scenario using different types of ignition sources that could lead to a flashover situation. The ignition sources used were either a wood crib placed on a corner seat or one liter of petrol poured on the corner seat and the neighboring floor together with a backpack. The amount of luggage and wood cribs in the neighborhood of the ignition source was continuously increased in order to identify the limits for flashover in the test-setup. The tests showed that the combustible boards on parts of the walls had a significant effect on the fire spread. In the cases where the initial fire did not exceed a range of 400 – 600 kW no flashover was observed. If the initial fire grew up to 700 – 900 kW a flashover was observed. The maximum heat release rate during a short flashover period for this test set-up was about 3.5 MW. The time to reach flashover was highly dependent on the ignition type, wood cribs or backpack and petrol.

  • 2.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    et al.
    School of Transportation Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Effect of tunnel cross section on gas temperatures and heat fluxes in case of large heat release rate2016In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 93, p. 405-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests with liquid and solid fuels in model tunnels (1:20) were performed and analysed in order to study the effect of tunnel cross section (width and height) together with ventilation velocity on ceiling gas temperatures and heat fluxes. The model tunnel was 10 m long with varying width (0.3 m, 0.45 m and 0.6 m) and height (0.25 m and 0.4 m). Test results show that the maximum temperature under the ceiling is a weak function of heat release rate (HRR) and ventilation velocity for cases with HRR more than 100 MW at full scale. It clearly varies with the tunnel height and is a weak function of the tunnel width. With a lower tunnel height, the ceiling is closer to the base of continuous flame zone and the temperatures become higher. Overall, the gas temperature beneath the ceiling decreases with the increasing tunnel dimensions, and increases with the increasing longitudinal ventilation velocity. The HRR is also an important factor that influences the decay rate of excess gas temperature, and a dimensionless HRR integrating HRR and other two key parameters, tunnel cross-sectional area and distance between fuel centre and tunnel ceiling, was introduced to account for the effect. An equation for the decay rate of excess gas temperature, considering both the tunnel dimensions and HRR, was developed. Moreover, a larger tunnel cross-sectional area will lead to a smaller heat flux.

  • 3.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research.
    Fratzich, Håkan
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Strömgren, Michael
    SP Fire Research.
    Performance-based design of road tunnel fire safety: Proposalof new Swedish framework2014In: Case Studies in Fire Safety, ISSN 2214-398X, Vol. 1, p. 18-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains a proposal of new Swedish framework for performance-based design ofroad tunnel fire safety derived from Swedish and European regulation. The overall purposeof the guideline is to protect life, health, property, environment, and key societal functionsfrom fire. The guideline is structured into five key groups of requirements: #1 Proper managementand organisation, #2 to limit the generation and spread of fire and smoke, #3 toprovide means for safe self-evacuation, #4 to provide means and safety for the rescue service,and #5 to ensure load-bearing capacity of the construction. Each group contains ahybrid of prescriptive requirements, performance-based requirements, and acceptablesolutions. Prescriptive requirements must be fulfilled, however, it is the choice of thedesign team to either adopt the proposed acceptable solutions, or to design alternativesolutions by verifying that performance-based requirements are satisfied. For verificationof performance-based requirements through risk analysis the operational, epistemic, andaleatory uncertainties are considerable. Therefore, a scenario-based risk analysis with severalspecified input variables and methods is recommended for verification of #3 and #5.Indispensable complements are scenario exercises, emergency exercises and similar methodsthat validate the design and highlight organisational aspects. The proposed designguide has been developed by the authors together with the advisory group establishedfor the work.

  • 4.
    Hansen, Rickard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    An Engineering tool to calculate heat release rates of multiple objects in underground structures2011In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 194-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple theoretical calculations of the overall heat release rate (HRR) of multiple objects have been carried out. The results were compared to fire experiments in a model tunnel using wood cribs placed at equal distance from each other. Three different methods are presented which are based on physical relations for fire spread between the wood cribs. The first method uses a critical heat flux as ignition criteria while the other two methods use an ignition temperature. The method using the critical heat flux as ignition criteria shows very good agreement with the corresponding experimental results used. The two methods using the ignition temperature as ignition criteria did not agree well with the corresponding experimental results. The prerequisites, that the methods should be kept relatively simple to be of practical use and that the burning objects should not necessarily have to be of uniform composition, were fulfilled.

  • 5.
    Hansen, Rickard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Full-scale fire experiments with mining vehicles in an underground mine2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report comprises two full scale fire experiments in a mine drift in Sala, Sweden,involving a loader and a drilling rig respectively.

    It was found in the experiment involving the loader that the front part of the vehiclenever ignited. The maximum measured heat fluxes at the front tyres were found tonever exceed the critical heat flux of natural rubber and thus ignition never occurred.Furthermore, the maximum temperature recorded at the hydraulic hoses in the waistwas 381 K, thus the low temperatures did not allow for further fire spread. The maximumheat release rate from the experiment was 15.9 MW and it was attained approximately 11 minutes after ignition. The resulting heat release rate curve of the wheel loaderfire displays a fire that is dominated by initially the sudden increase when primarily the first tyre is engulfed by flames and then by the slowly declining heat release ratesof the large tyres of the vehicle. Still, the stop of fire spread from the waist and forward clearly shortened the duration of the fire considerably.

    It was found in the experiment with the drilling rig that the entire vehicle had participated in the fire and the combustible material had been consumed – except for the hydraulic hoses approximately two meters in front of the cab and forward, some amount of hydraulic oil and most of the low voltage cable on the cable reel. The maximum heatrelease rate from the experiment was 29.4 MW and it was attained after 21 minutes. The resulting heat release rate curve of the drilling rig displays a fire with high heat release rates and relatively short lived.

  • 6.
    Hansen, Rickard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Heat release rate measurements of burning mining vehicles in an underground mine2013In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 61, p. 12-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat release rates from two full-scale fire experiments with mining vehicles in an underground mine are presented. The mining vehicles involved were a wheel loader and a drilling rig typical for mining operations. The calculated peak heat release rate of the loader was 15.9 MW and occurred after approximately 11 min from ignition. The calculated peak heat release rate of the drilling rig was 29.4 MW and occurred after approximately 21 min from ignition. The heat release rate was calculated from measured data of gas concentrations of oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, measured gas velocity and measured gas temperatures. The fuel load of the wheel loader consisted mainly of the tyres, the hydraulic oil and the diesel fuel. The fuel load of the drilling rig consisted mainly of the hydraulic oil and the hydraulic hoses. The calculated heat release rate curves were controlled by comparing the summed up energy contents of the participating components with the integrated heat release rate curves. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 7.
    Hansen, Rickard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Heat Release Rates of Multiple Objects at Varying Distances2012In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 52, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple theoretical calculations of the overall heat release rate (HRR) of multiple objects at both constant and varying distances have been carried out. The results were compared to both fire experiments in a longitudinal ventilated model tunnel (scale 1:15) using piles of wooden pallets placed at varying distance from each other and with model scale fire experiments (scale 1:4) conducted with a freight truck commodity without roof over the piles of wooden pallets. Two different methods are presented which are based on physical relations for fire spread between the piles of wooden pallets. The first method uses a critical heat flux as ignition criteria while the other method uses an ignition temperature. The method using the critical heat flux as ignition criteria shows very good agreement with the corresponding experimental results used. The method using the ignition temperature as ignition criteria did not agree well with the corresponding experimental results. The prerequisite that the burning objects should not necessarily have to be positioned at equal distance was fulfilled.

  • 8.
    Hansen, Rickard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Model scale fire experiments in a model tunnel with wooden pallets at varying distances2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the research project “Concept for fire and smoke spread prevention in mines”, conducted by a research group at Mälardalen University. The project is aimed at improving fire safety in mines in order to obtain a safer working environment for the people working for the mining companies in Sweden or for visitors in mines open to the public.

    This report comprises a number of model scale fire experiments conducted in a model tunnel at SP facilities in Borås, Sweden.

    The main purposes of the report are:

    - Obtain data which can validate models to calculate the total heat release rate of multiple objects

    - To investigate the influence on the heat release rate curve that a varying distance between the fuel objects will have.

    - To investigate the influence on the heat release rate, fire growth rate and time to ignition for adjacent fuel objects. The effects of ventilation are taken into account in the model..

    The work in this report started with describing the theoretical basis of scaling theory and the determination of heat release rate at fire experiments, continuing with describing the experimental setup with the fuel load and instrumentation used. After that the experimental procedure and the experimental results were described and analysed. The results from the experiments were thereafter discussed and finally conclusions were drawn.

    The findings and conclusions of the study were as following:

    It was found that an increasing ventilation rate slightly increases the maximum heat release rate, which is in accordance with earlier research.

    The ventilation rate will have an influence on the fire growth rate. In the tests with the highest ventilation rate, a slower fire growth rate was displayed compared to the other two cases. This could possibly be explained by the fact that the height of the pile of wooden pallets (205 mm) was practically equal to the short side of the pile (200 mm) and the fire was started on the long side, thus as the longitudinal ventilation is increased less fuel area is exposed to the tilted flames resulting in that less parts take place in the combustion during the growth phase and thus the fire growth rate decreases.

    When studying the graphs of the various heat release rates it was found that when the distance between pile #1 and pile #2 increased to a certain level the ignition of pile #2 will be delayed resulting in that not all piles are burned with their maximum heat release rate at the same time.

    The delay in ignition of adjacent pallet can be distinguished by a “hump” before the peak value in the heat release rate curves. In cases with short distances between the piles the ignition of 3 adjacent piles took place almost simultaneously and resulting in a total heat release curve where the pallet piles burn at their maximum at nearly the same time, i.e. the effects of the delay of ignition is not really showing up in the time to reach maximum heat release rate.

    It was also found that the peak value of the heat release rate decreases as the distances between the piles are increased – from ~500 kW down to ~450 kW – as the curve is stretched out in time.

    The ignition data indicated that the time to ignition of adjacent piles would decrease as the longitudinal ventilation was increased.

    Further validation work should take place with respect to validating the experimental data with output data from theoretical models.

    Further studies and experiments should take place that vary additional parameters besides the distance between the individual fuel objects. This in order to make further comparisons with calculation models to predict the total heat release rates of complex objects, such as for example a vehicle.

  • 9.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Design fire curves in tunnels2009In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various ways exist to represent a design fire curve for tunnels. These can include different fire growth rates or combinations of fire growth rates with constant levels of Heat Release Rate (HRR) coupled to a decay period. This means that the curve has to be represented with different mathematical expressions for different time periods. A more convenient way is to describe the design fire curve with a single mathematical expression. Such a curve has been presented by the author [1] but it does not include a constant HRR period. This paper presents a new, single exponential, design fire curve with a constant maximum HRR. A presentation of available design curves is given as well. 

  • 10. Ingason, Haukur
    Fire Dynamics in Tunnels2005In: The Handbook of Tunnel Fire Safety / [ed] Beard, A. and Carvel, R., London: Thomas Telford , 2005, p. 233-266Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Fire growth rate is more important than maximum heat release rate in tunnel fires2006In: Tunnel Management International, ISSN 1463-242XArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Magic Numbers in Tunnel Fire Safety2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Modelling of Real World Fire Data2006In: Proceedings from 2nd International Symposium on Tunnel Safety & Security (ISTSS), 7-13, March 15-17, 2006 Madrid, Spain, 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Fire Technology, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    State of the Art of Tunnel Fire Research2008In: Fire Safety Science2008, 2008, p. 33-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of the tunnel fire research, both experimental and theoretical work with the exception of computer modelling. The overview shows that the critical velocity for longitudinal flow in a tunnel is the single most well investigated fire phenomenon found in the tunnel fire research literature. This knowledge has reached a high level but there are still some areas that need to be investigated further. For example, very little work has been done on backlayering of smoke upstream a fire and cross-sectional effects on heat release rates, temperatures, flame lengths, fire spread and toxic conditions.

    Extensive work using model scale tunnels has contributed with new information and clarified many phenomena but the lack of good large scale experimental data is and will be a key issue in near future. This concerns mainly the correlation between heat release rate and maximum ceiling temperatures, the influence of ventilation on maximum heat release rate and fire growth rate and fire spread in and between vehicles. The extensive theoretical work which has been conducted concerning the effects of ventilation on heat release rates needs to be further investigated in large scale tests.

  • 15.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hammarström, Rolf
    SP Brandteknik.
    Fire test with a front wheel loader rubber tire2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The report describes a fire test with a front wheel loader rubber tyre under a large laboratory calorimeter. The aim was to measure the heat release rate when a large vehicle tyre burns. A maximum heat release rate of no less than 3 MW after 90 minutes was recorded. This information will help to assess the process of fire evolution in different types of construction machinery. It is of particular interest in connection with underground fires. It was found that a design value of 0.2 MW/m2 is a good value to employ when one needs to estimate the maximum heat release rate of a large tyre. This value was found to be reasonable when the exposed fuel surface area was definable. Itwas also found that 86 % of the total heat energy was released 2.5 h after ignition.

  • 16.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hansen, Rickard
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nyman, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Koncept för skydd mot brand och brandgasspridning i gruvor: Slutrapport2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målsättningen med projektet var att ta fram information om brandutveckling och rökspridning igruvor. Resultaten skulle användas för att ta fram rekommendationer för de deltagandegruvföretagen. Resultaten skulle också användas som underlag i framtida riskanalyser och i detsystematiska brandskyddsarbetet. Metoder och verktyg för att bestämma brandutveckling ifordon och rökspridning skulle valideras och utvärderas. Kunskapen skulle kunna användas inomgruvindustrin, men även för andra områden så som bränder i tunnlar under byggnation. Projektetska förstärka forskningsprofilen inom högskolan när det gäller brandsäkerhet iundermarksanläggningar och resultaten skall implementeras i grundutbildningen.

    Projektarbetet har varit delvis fokuserat mot gruvföretag och delvis mot konsultföretag somarbetar inom området. Bra samarbete och diskussioner med de företag i projektet som ansvararför gruv- eller besöksdrift har varit viktigt. Gruvföretagens behov av att få ordning på sinbrandskyddsdokumentation, förståelse för säkerhetsutrustning och insatsplanering samt sittsystematiska brandskyddsarbete, har haft stor betydelse för detaljutformningen av projektet ochpå vilket sätt det har slutligen genomförts. Samarbetet med konsultföretagen har haft en annaninriktning, där fokus istället varit erfarenhetsöverföring när det gäller scenariospel, brandtekniskdimensionering och ventilationsteknik. Deras stöd och hjälp har haft stor betydelse förgenomförandet av projektet.

  • 17.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    LTH.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Claesson, Alexander
    SP.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    SP.
    Fridolf, Karl
    LTH.
    Åkerstedt, Rolf
    SL.
    Nyman, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dittmer, Torkel
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Forsén, Rickard
    FOI.
    Janzon, Bo
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Meyer, Gero
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bryntse, Anders
    FOI.
    Carlberg, Tobias
    FOI.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy
    FHS.
    Palm, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The Metro Project: Final report2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the results from the METRO project. The different parts of theproject – design fires, evacuation, integrated fire control, smoke control, extraordinarystrain onconstructions and fire- and rescue operations – are presented separately.

    The most complicated and expensive part of the project was the performance of thelarge scale fire and explosion tests in the Brunsberg tunnel, where the maximum heatrelease rates measured from the metro wagon was 77 MW.

    The main results from the project are new recommendations regarding design firesin mass transport systems, identification of key factors for fire and smoke spread in tunnelsand at stations as well as regarding the difficulties for disabled persons to evacuatefrom trains in tunnels, new recommended types of way guiding systems, safer design incase of explosions in trains and evaluation of the fire and rescue services’ possibilitiesand limitations in underground mass transport systems.

  • 18. Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, China.
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with longitudinal ventilation2010In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 45, p. 371-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a series of tests in a model tunnel (1:23) are presented. Tests were carried out with longitudinal ventilation under different fire conditions. Wood cribs were used to simulate the fire source, which was designed to correspond to a scaled-down HGV (Heavy Goods Vehicle) fire load. The parameters tested were: the number of wood cribs, type of wood cribs, the longitudinal ventilation rate and the ceiling height. The heat release rate, fire growth rate, maximum gas temperature beneath the ceiling, temperature distribution, total heat flux at floor level, flame length, and back-layering length were investigated. Correlations for these parameters were investigated and proposed for longitudinal flow in tunnels.

  • 19.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research.
    Tunnel Fire Dynamics2015Book (Other academic)
  • 20. Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Brandteknik.
    Brandspridning mellan industrilokaler2008In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 6, p. 57-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Effects of longitudinal ventilation on fire growth and maximum heat release rate2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis, based on two different series of model scale tests, of the effects of ventilation on maximum heat release rate and fire growth rates is presented. In both model scale test series, wood cribs of different porosity, size and numbers were used.   Both ambient free burn tests and tests inside a model-scale tunnel were performed. The tunnels varied from 0.3 m to 0.6 m in width and from 0.2 m to 0.4 m in height. The longitudinal velocity varied between 0.22 m/s and 1.12 m/s.   

    The tests show that for a higher porosity wood crib and higher velocities than 0.45 m/s, an increasing ventilation rate increases the maximum heat release rate in the range of 1.3 to 1.7 times the value measured outside the tunnel under ambient conditions. For the lower porosity wood crib and higher velocities, the corresponding increase in the maximum heat release rates was 1.8 and 2.2, respectively.  For the case with a velocity of 0.67 m/s, the linear fire growth rate increased by a factor of 5–10 times compared to the free burn case, depending on the dimensions of the tunnel cross-section.

  • 22.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Technology, Borås, Sweden .
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Technology, Borås, Sweden .
    Fire Spread between Industrial Premises2011In: Fire Safety Science 2011, 2011, p. 1305-1317Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on investigating models for calculating the risks of fire spread from an industrial building to adjacent buildings. The basic parameters necessary to determine the risk of fire spread are the flame height and the incident heat flux. There is limited information found about flame heights from industrial buildings where the fire breaks through the ceiling. Calculation methods for flame heights and incident heat fluxes are discussed and compared to model-scale data and large-scale data. A series of model-scale tests with flames through openings in a building where flashover has occurred are presented and compared to flame height correlations. This paper provides new data and a better understanding of the necessary input for such calculations. The model-scale tests show a good correspondence between a simple method to calculate heat flux from a point source and experimental data.

  • 23.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik.
    Heat Release Rates in Tunnel Fires: a Summary2011In: The Handbook of Tunnel Fire Safety / [ed] A. Beard and R. Carvel, ICE Publishing , 2011, 2, p. 309-327Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24. Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Brandteknik.
    The large scale test programme in the METRO project2011In: Eurotransport, no 6, p. 62-64Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    LTH Brandteknik.
    Kumm, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Fire incidents during construction work of tunnels2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report summaries guidelines and solutions related to fire safety in underground facilities during the construction phase. Development of different fire scenarios in underground facilities under construction are presented. Based on different design fire scenarios evacuation analysis was carried out. The incident situation of the fire services are discussed and proposals for solutions discussed. Numerous tunnel sites under construction were visited and conclusions obtained from the visits are presented. Test with a large scale tire of a front wheel loader was conducted in order to obtain input for the design fire of construction vehicle. Recommendations for constructors and authorities as well as for fire services are given. These recommendations are based on the work carried out during the project.

  • 26.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP, Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP, Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Brandsäkerhet i tunnlar under byggtiden2009In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 6, p. 52-54Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27. Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Brandteknik.
    Li, Y. Z.
    Runehamar Tunnel Fire Tests2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Five large-scale fire tests, including one pool fire test and four HGV mock-up fire tests, were carried out in the Runehamar tunnel in Norway in year 2003. Detailed information about these tests is presented. In addition, previous work on these tests and new analyses are presented in this report. Heat release rate, fire growth rate, gas temperature, flame length, radiation, fire spread, gas production, ventilation, backside wall temperature, pulsation and backlayering are investigated thoroughly. Simple theoretical models are developed to estimate and predict these parameters. The correlations developed can be used by engineers working on fire safety in tunnels.

  • 28.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik.
    Li, Y.Z.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Model of ventilation flows during large tunnel fires2012In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 30, p. 64-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to describe the reduction in the longitudinal airflow velocity due to the fire and hot gases resistances in a large tunnel fire, a theoretical model, taking into consideration the pressure losses over the fire source and obstructions, the thermal stack effects, and the hydraulic resistance induced by the tunnel walls, fire protection boards and a HGV trailer mock-up, is developed and validated using the large-scale tests data from the fire tests performed in the Runehamar tunnel with longitudinal ventilation in Norway 2003. Two large mobile fan units were used to create a longitudinal flow within the tunnel and prevent smoke backlayering upstream of the fire. One fan was located outside the entrance of the tunnel and the other inside the tunnel. The fire load consisted of a mock-up simulating a heavy goods vehicle (HGV) trailer creating a maximum heat release rates in the range of 66–202 MW. Two methods of calculating the mean temperature related to the thermal expansion and stack effect are proposed and compared.

  • 29. Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Brandteknik.
    Industrial fires - A literature survey2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the results of an overview of industrial fires in manufacturing plants and warehouses are reported. The overview is based on data reported in international papers, technical reports, magazines and news media.

    Flame heights and other information from real fires have been listed and analysed. Correlations for the calculation of flame heights, effects of cross-winds, heat fluxes and ignition of materials are discussed. This study has focused on an investigation of the risk for fire spread from burning industrial building or warehouse to the other activities in their surroundings. The survey shows that there is very limited information concerning flame heights and methods to calculate fire spread from buildings where the fire has broken through a large hole in the ceiling.

  • 30.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsintitut.
    Vylund, Lotta
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsintitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Fridolf, Karl
    SP Fire Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds universitet.
    Palm, Anders
    Storstockholms Brandförsvar.
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborgs Räddningstjänstförbund.
    Taktik och Metodik vid brand i Undermarksanläggningar (TMU) - Sammanfattningsrapport2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report compiles the results from the TMU-project. The focus is on fire-fighting performance, capability and organization in underground constructions. The emphasis was on large-scale testing with authentic fire conditions and fire-fighting equipment, development of tools for prediction of hazardous conditions and capabilities of  fire-fighting during different conditions, organizational management and tactics, education and development  of recommendations.  The project was divided into different work packages and these are presented in this final summary report. The test fires performed in the project created severe conditions for fire-fighters who moved in smoke for over 180 m before fighting fully developed fires in a range of 18 to 33 MW. The fires consisted of wood pallets placed in a semi-open steel container, simulating a train wagon fire. The walking speed and connection time for hoses and connections were registered and documented by infra-red cameras. The most important results from these tests is that the time taken to approach the fire depends on parameters as type of equipment, preparation, possibilities for use of infra-red (IR) cameras and the capacity of the extinguishing media. The heat radiation from the fire was found to be important to overcome in order to get close enough to fight the fire. Recommendations and tactics for fighting fires in underground constructions are given. 

  • 31.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wickström, Ulf
    SP Brandteknik.
    Tunnel fire safety research in Europe2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Kim, Hak Kuen
    et al.
    Korea National Rescue Services, Korea.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik, Sweden.
    Comparison of Road Tunnel Design Guidelines2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of the recent catastrophic fires intunnels much effort has been put into the work of preventing fires in tunnelsand limiting the consequences of fires when occurring. This study describes thelevel of fire safety of road tunnels at the tunnel design stage, as given inguidelines, standards, regulations, directives, etc. A number of road tunnelguidelines from different countries and organizations have been compared to eachother. The main focus of the comparison is the application criteria ofguidelines and installation spacing. The comparison provides several interestingdiscussion topics, including similarities or differences between detailed requirementsand the popularity type of each fire safety equipment or facility. The work canbe divided into three parts. First, how tunnels are categorized in thedifferent guidelines is described. Secondly, a description and comparison ofdifferent safety measures and how these relate to different tunnel categoriesis given. In the paper, the requirements for hand held extinguishers and the resistanceto fire for different equipment are given as examples. Finally, the work includessome recommendations for specific improvement to Korean guidelines.

  • 33. Kim, Hak Kuen
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Brandteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Effective Firefighting Operations in Road Tunnels2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to develop operational procedures for fire brigades inroad tunnels. Although much progress has been achieved in various fields of fire safety intunnels, very little attention has been paid specifically to fire fighting in tunnels. Thisstudy is focused on obtaining more information concerning how effectively the firebrigade can fight road tunnel fires and what limitations and threats fire brigades may befaced with. This knowledge can help parties involved in tunnel safety to understandsafety issues and enhance the level of fire safety in road tunnels.

    The report is divided into three main parts. The first part consists of a review of relevantstudies and experiments concerning various key parameters for fire safety and emergencyprocedures. The history of road tunnel fires is then summarised and analyzed. Among allroad tunnel fires, three catastrophic tunnel fires are highlighted, focusing on the activitiesof fire brigades and the operation of technical fire safety facilities. In the second partspecific firefighting operations are developed. This has been based on previousexperience and new findings from experiments performed in the study. In the last part,information is given on how the proposed firefighting operations can be applied to themanagement of fire safety for road tunnels. Two proposals are developed and presented:fire scenarios for firefighting strategies and tunnel classification models for riskmanagement for fire brigades.

  • 34.
    Kumm, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Boras, Sweden.
    Entrainment in a free jet generated by Positive Pressure Ventilator2014In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, no 6, p. 1499-1515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of a simple flow model to describe the entrainment into the air cone created by a positive pressure ventilator (PPV) fan are compared to experimental data. Velocity profiles measured in the air cone of a conventional PPV ventilator are used. The entrainment coefficient and the cone angle were determined for the fan investigated. The correspondence between calculated and measured values is discussed and disparities explained. The findings from the tests are turned into practical guidance for the fire brigade and the advantages and limitations of the simplified model are discussed.

  • 35.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Can combinations of small fans be used for smoke evacuation in tunnels?2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of recent tests performed in the Masthamn and Stadsgard tunnels in Sweden. The aim of the tests was to investigate if combinations of smaller fans could be used for smoke control in tunnels. The systems possibilities and limitations are discussed and improving measures evaluated. The tests show that combinations of ordinary PPV fans can be used in moderate length single track rail tunnels if a tunnel cover to avoid short circuit over the fans is used. In shorter tunnels or with no counteracting wind the fans can be used without the cover.

  • 36.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Kan mobila fläktar användas för brandgasevakuering i tunnlar?2005In: VVS-tidningen Energi & Miljö, no 5, p. 56-58Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Då behovet att minska transportavstånd och att utnyttja mark till bebyggelse i stadsmiljö hela tiden ökar byggs idag fler och fler tunnlar och överbyggda anläggningar. Tunnlar har också en lång livslängd och används ofta under ett hundratal år. Detta innebär att det idag finns en mängd tunnlar som ännu används, men är byggda efter den standard som var aktuell vid tiden för byggnationen. Fasta ventilationssystem är inte heller en självklarhet i alla nybyggda tunnlar.

    Längre vägtunnlar har oftast fasta ventilationssystem inbyggda eftersom de avgaser som bilarna släpper ut också i normalfallet behöver ventileras bort. Sådana ventilationssystem kan också användas för att styra brandgaserna – brandröken - i händelse av en brand. Spårtunnlar, kortare vägtunnlar och distributionstunnlar för kablar eller rör saknar ofta fasta system för ventilation. Spårtunnlarna ventileras genom kolvverkan när tågen kör igenom tunneln och trycker luften framför sig, medan distributionstunnlarna ofta inte behöver ventileras eftersom människor normalt inte befinner sig i tunneln.

  • 37.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Palm, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Storstockholms brandförsvar .
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborgs Räddningstjänstförbund.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Räddningsinsats i tunnelmiljö: Fullskaleförsök i Tistbrottet, Sala2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2013 six full-scale fire tests were performed with combined movement and extinguishing in the Tistbrottet Mine in Sala. Earlier these two parts have not been combined under controlled test conditions, where measurements and observations have been documented as thouroughly, as in the Tistbrottet test series. The BA fire fighters task, in all performed tests, were to advance into the tunnel and extinguish the fire. The six different tests were represented of conventional hose lay-out with hose baskets, conventional hose lay-out with hose harnesses, full hose lay-out with empty system until reaching the scene of the fire, CAFS, cutting extinguisher and conventional hose lay-out with wagon aided movement and depot air supply. The tests showed that conventional hose lay-out with water filled hoses is time consuming, but that bot hose harnesses and later filling of the hoses can shorten the time. It was also shown that systems with lower water flows initially effectively can fight the fire, but that the amount of applied water is cruicial for if re-ignition occurs or not. Thermal image cameras are generally not customized for use in underground constructions and further development of both equipment and education material is needed.

  • 38. Li, Y. Z.
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Brandteknik.
    Correlation between different scales of metro carriage fire tests2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of four series of metro carriage fire tests in different scales was carried out. These metro carriage fire tests including 1:10 model scale tests, 1:3 model scale tests, 1/3 carriage section carriage tests and full scale tunnel tests. The correlation between different scales of carriage fire tests is carefully investigated. The mechanism of fire development is very similar in different scales of tests involving fully developed. A critical fire spread is identified as the key parameter to a fully developed carriage fire and is related to a minimum heat release rate. After the critical fire spread, the fire travels along the carriage at an approximately constant speed. The maximum heat release rate obtained for a fully developed fire is dependent on the ventilation conditions and also the type and configuration of the fuels, and a simple equation has been proposed to estimate the maximum heat release rate. Good agreement has also been found between different scales of maximum gas temperature, gas concentration and extinction coefficient. The heat fluxes from the flames could be slightly overestimated in model scales.

  • 39.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    P Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Research, Sweden.
    Fan, Ghuan Gang
    Hefei University of Technology, China.
    Ingason, Haukur
    P Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Research, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    P Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Research, Sweden.
    Ji, Jie
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Effect of cross section and ventilation on heat release rates in tunnel fires2016In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 51, p. 414-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale fire tests were performed in tunnels with varying tunnel widths and heights in order to study the effect of tunnel cross-section and ventilation velocity on the heat release rate (HRR) for both liquid pool fires and solid fuel fires. The results showed that for well ventilated heptane pool fires, the tunnel width nearly has no influence on the HRR whilst a lower tunnel height clearly increases the HRR. For well ventilated solid fuel fires, the HRR increases by approximately 25% relative to a free burn test but the HRR is not sensitive to either tunnel width, tunnel height or ventilation velocity. For solid fuel fires that were not well ventilated, the HRRs could be less than those in free burn laboratory tests. In the case of ventilation controlled fires the HRRs approximately lie at the same level as for cases with natural ventilation.

  • 40.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Correlations in different scales of metro carriage fire tests2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of four series of metro carriage fire tests in different scales was carried out. These metro carriage fire tests including 1:10 model scale tests, 1:3 model scale tests, 1/3 carriage section carriage tests and full scale tunnel tests. The correlation between different scales of carriage fire tests is carefully investigated. The mechanism of fire development is very similar in different scales of tests involving fully developed. A critical fire spread is identified as the key parameter to a fully developed carriage fire and is related to a minimum heat release rate. After the critical fire spread, the fire travels along the carriage at an approximately constant speed. The maximum heat release rate obtained for a fully developed fire is dependent on the ventilation conditions and also the type and configuration of the fuels, and a simple equation has been proposed to estimate the maximum heat release rate. Good agreement has also been found between different scales of maximum gas temperature, gas concentration and extinction coefficient. The heat fluxes from the flames could be slightly overestimated in model scales.

  • 41.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Fire development in different scales of metro carriages2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fire development analysis of three series of metro carriage fire tests in different scales was carried out. These metro carriages fire tests included 1:10 model scale tests, 1:3 model scale tests and 1:1 full scale tunnel tests. The heat release rate (HRR) correlations between different scales of carriage fire tests were carefully investigated. The mechanism of fire development is very similar in different scales of tests involving fully developed fires. After the critical fire spread, the fire travels along the carriage at an approximately constant speed. The maximum heat release rate obtained for a fully developed fire is dependent on the ventilation conditions and also the type and configuration of the fuels, and a simple equation has been proposed to estimate the maximum heat release rate. A global correction factor of the maximum heat release rate is presented and examined. 

  • 42.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, China.
    Lei, Bo
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, China.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Study of critical velocity and backlayering length in longitudinally ventilated tunnel fires2010In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, no 45, p. 361-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental tests and theoretical analyses were conducted to investigate the critical velocity together with the backlayering length in tunnel fires. The experiments were performed in two longitudinally ventilated model tunnels. The proposed correlations for critical velocity are found to comply well with experimental data in both tunnels. The critical Froude Number and the critical Richardson Number were analyzed using the experimental data. The backlayering length was related to the ratio of longitudinal ventilation velocity to critical velocity. Experimental data shows that the relation between the ratio of ventilation velocity to critical velocity and the dimensionless backlayering length follows an exponential relation. A correlation based on experimental data to predict the backlayering length is proposed. Further, comparison of experimental data of critical velocity and backlayering length with results from large-scale tests shows that there is a good agreement in both scales. The effect of accident vehicle obstruction on critical velocity and backlayering length was also analyzed. Experimental data shows that the decrease rate of critical velocity due to obstruction is slightly greater than the ratio of cross-section area of the model vehicle to tunnel cross-section area, and the backlayering length with an accident vehicle set inside the tunnel gets smaller.

  • 43.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, China.
    Lei, Bo
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, China.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Fire Technology, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Theoretical and Experimental Study of Critical Velocity for Smoke Control in a Tunnel Cross-Passage2013In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 435-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical analyses and model-scale experiments have been conducted to investigate the critical velocity in a tunnel cross-passage which is defined as the minimum ventilation velocity through the fireproof door to prevent smoke from flowing into a cross-passage. The effect of the fireproof door geometry, heat release rate, ventilation velocity and fire source location were taken into account. The critical velocity in a tunnel cross-passage varies approximately as three-second power of the fireproof door height, as one-third power of the heat release rate and as exponential law of the ventilation velocity, almost independent of the fireproof door width. The critical Froude Number range varies mainly between 5 to 10 and consequently as it is not a constant value it is not very suitable to predict the critical velocity in a tunnel cross-passage. A dimensionless correlation that can correlate well with the experimental data was proposed

  • 44.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Claesson, Alexander
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Lindström, Johan
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Gas composition during a fire in a train carriage2014In: Proceedings from the sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security ISTSS 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the interdisciplinary research project METRO, two full-scale fire tests were performed with ignition inside commuter train carriages in a tunnel. Both tests developed to fully flashover conditions. The fire development was very different in the two tests. The main reason was the difference in initial combustion behaviour between the case with combustible wall and ceiling lining, and the case with a refurbished carriage using aluminium sheet covering the combustible lining as the exposed interior surface. In the case with combustible lining a ceiling flame was developed, radiating towards the seats and the luggage spreading the fire more quickly than in the case without exposed combustible lining. Also in the gas concentrations, significant differences could be observed between the two tests. During the tests, concentrations of O2, CO and CO2 were sampled and analysed at three different heights. The paper focuses on the time resolved results of the gas concentration. The development in gas concentration at different levels is presented and discussed in relation to the fire development in the carriage. Results from calculations of time to incapacitation and fractions of an incapacitating does are also included.

  • 45.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik.
    Hedekvist, Per-Olov
    SP Mätteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik.
    Gas temperature measurements using fibre Bragg grating during fire experiments in a tunnel2008In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas temperature measurements with thermocouples are affected by radiation.  This effect means the temperature measured by a thermocouple can be far from the actual gas temperature. To study this effect and to compare the thermocouple readings with the readings of a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor, fire experiments were performed in a model-scale tunnel. In this paper the results from two such fire experiments are presented. The temperatures measured using thermocouples with different diameters and the FBG sensor are compared and discussed. The “true” gas temperature, corrected for radiation effects from the thermocouples, was calculated from the results from the thermocouples with different diameters. The results show that the temperature measured by the FBG sensor is closer to the “true” gas temperature than is the case for any of the thermocouples used in these tests.

  • 46.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Brandteknik.
    Hugosson, Jonatan
    Ingason, Haukur
    Fire incidents during contruction work of tunnels - Model-scale experiments2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes a series of model scale tests (1:40 scale) describing the situation before breakthrough in a tunnel during construction. In such a situation this means that there is only one access tunnel, the rest is a system of tunnels with no connection to the surface other than through the inlet tunnel. The tests were carried out in order to investigate the effects of smoke spread and ventilation in a tunnel during construction. The tunnel was tested during different ventilation conditions, lengths and slope. The tunnel consisted of an access part which simulated the access tunnel to the main tunnel. The access tunnel was sloped and the main tunnel was horizontal, directed in two equal distances from the access tunnel. The main tunnel had two dead ends, and a ventilation system that was provided through an air duct in the ceiling. The air duct outlet length and location was varied in the tests. A total of 36 tests were performed. The fire source was a propane burner, delivering a heat release rate equivalent to a full-scale fire of 10 MW. Fibreboard blocks, of different sizes, drenched with heptane were also used to represent the heat release rate of a construction machine.

    The main findings concerned the effect of the ventilation on the fire development. If the fire occurs before the breakthrough and the fire is too small it will be difficult to obtain fresh air from the access entrance and the fire will decreases in intensity and finally extinguish due to lack of oxygen caused by consumption of oxygen and recirculation of vitiated products back to the fire.

  • 47.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Brandteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Fire Spread between Industry Premises2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents results and analysis from model scale tests carried out to validate calculation methods for estimation of the risk for fire spread between buildings. The basic parameters necessary to determine the risk for fire spread are: flame height and the incident thermal radiation. Knowledge about both these parameters is vital in order to estimate the risks properly. There is a lack of experimental information that considers the following important aspects influencing the propensity of a fire to jump from one industrial premise to another: heat release rate, size of an opening in a flashed over building, flame height and incident thermal radiation at different distances from the burning building. This report provides new data and better understanding of necessary input for such calculations. The model scale tests show good correspondence between a simple method to calculate heat radiation from a point source and experimental data obtained. Further, a simple and robust method to measure incident heat radiation is examined and evaluated.

  • 48.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Brandteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik.
    In response to the letter: On the measurement of gas temperatures in a simulated tunnel fire2009In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 923-923Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, HaukurSP Fire Research.
    Proceedings from the Sixth InternationalSymposium on Tunnel Safety and Security,Marseille, France, March 12-14, 20142014Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report includes the Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Marseille, France, 12-14th of March, 2014. The Proceedings include 59 papers given by session speakers and 10 papers presenting posters exhibited at the Symposium. The papers were presented in 17 different sessions. Among them are Security, Explosions, Risk Analysis, Evacuation, Fixed Firefighting Systems, Passive Fire Protection, Fire Safety Engineering, Emergency Management, Ventilation, and Fire Dynamics.Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total five) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Magnus Arvidson, SP, Sweden, Kees Both, Promat International NV, Belgium, Peter Sturm, Graz University of Technology, Austria, Jaap Weerheijm, TNO, The Netherlands, and Daniel Nilsson, Lund University, Sweden.

  • 50.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Recent Achievements Regarding Heat Release and Temperatures during Fires in Tunnels2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an overview of the latest available information about heat release rate (HRR) and gas temperature development in tunnels.  Results from major fire test series in tunnels are presented, as well as fire tests with vehicles in other type of applications. The HRR and temperature development from the large-scale fire tests performed in the Runehamar tunnel in 2003 is presented. These tests included four tests with different HGV trailer fire loads. Heat release rate over 200 MW and gas temperatures over 1300 oC were measured.

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