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  • 1.
    Bjurling-Sjöberg, P.
    et al.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Mälar Hospital, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, United States.
    Lyckner, S.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Mälar Hospital, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Rydlo, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Intensive care nurses' conceptions of a critical pathway in caring for aortic-surgery patients: A phenomenographic study2013In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 166-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to identify and describe intensive care nurses' different conceptions of a critical pathway in caring for patients that have undergone aortic-surgery. Individual semi-structured interviews with eight specialist registered nurses at a Swedish intensive care unit were conducted and phenomenographically analysed. Three descriptive categories, with a total of five sub-categories, constituted the outcome-space of how the pathway was conceived of in caring: as a guide open to individual patients needs (clinical judgement governs caring and patient autonomy governs caring), as an instrument to promote patient safety (a source of knowledge, a planning tool and a reference standard) and as a source of support for professional confidence. In accordance with current literature, the nurses in the present study identified a number of advantages in applying the pathway in caring even if they were also conscious that the use of a pathway can give rise to unreflective standardisation. The nurses' conceptions indicate that the pathway prescribed for managing patients who have undergone aortic surgery is supportive and facilitates patient safety without jeopardising respect for the patient's individual care needs. This insight may be used to influence a thoughtful dialogue about the practice of pathways in intensive care.

  • 2.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Distress from Lower Urinary Tract Symptom and its Effect on the Quality of Life in Swedish men2009In: Journal of Men's Health, ISSN 1875-6867, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in men and while symptoms have been described as being associated with distress less attention has been paid to Quality of Life (QoL) The aim of this study was to describe how distress from LUTS affects QoL in men Methods The study included 1008 40-80 year-old men living in a municipality in Sweden Participants completed the SF-36 Health Survey and the Danish Prostate Symptom Score (DAN-PSS) The SF-36 questionnaire measures health status in eight general areas and the DAN-PSS questionnaire measures severity frequency and distress resulting from LUTS Results In all 63% of the men reported that they experienced some degree of distress related to LUTS The mean SF-36 scores were significantly lower in all the dimensions evaluated among men who experienced low distress from nocturia daytime frequency straining and post micturition dribbling than among men without distress from these symptoms Furthermore men with low distress from weak stream reported lower SF-36 scores for all evaluated dimensions except for physical functioning (PF) than men without distress from weak stream Men with moderate/major distress from incomplete emptying had a decreased QoL compared to men with low distress from incomplete emptying Conclusions Distress from lower urinary tract symptoms reduced QoL in men Even when low distress is experienced QoL is reduced Identification of the distress impact on QoL is warranted to restore QoL, but also to identify optimal treatment.

  • 3.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Sewdish Male Population.: Prevalence, Distress and Quality of Life.2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 4.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Urinläckage ger försämrad livskvalité hos män.: Poster2004In: Nationella Forskarskolan, Stockholm. Mälardalens Högskola, Västerås., 2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 5.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Fagerberg, Ingegerd
    Ersta högskola.
    Attitudes Towards Older People among Swedish Health Care Students and Health Care Professionals Working in Elder Care2011In: Nursing Reports, ISSN 2039-4403, Vol. 1, no 1, p. e2-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of older people in the general population has increased and will continue to increase during the coming decade. Therefore, a positive attitude towards older people is important. The aim of the study was to gain knowledge about attitudes towards older people among health care students and health care staff in Swedish elder care settings. The study includes a convenience sample of 928 respondents comprised of health care students and three groups of professional caregivers [registered nurses (RNs) with university degrees, certified nursing assistants (CNAs), nurses] in a variety of health care settings in Sweden. The participants completed the Kogan’s Old People (KOPS) Scale with 17 positive (OP+) and 17 negative (OP–) statements. The statements score ranged from 17 to 85 respectively. A significant (P<0.05) difference in both positive and negative scores was observed among the three professional caregiver groups. RNs had the highest positive score (OP+:64) as well as the lowest negative score (OP–:36). Health care students in semester one had the most unfavourable attitude toward older people (OP–:41) while students in semester two had the most favourable attitude toward older people (OP+:62). RNs reported both a higher positive score as well as lower negative score compared to nurses without an academic degree and CNAs. In addition, we found that progression in one’s health care education contributes to reduce unfavourable attitudes toward older people. Health care professionals need to have the right skills to manage a more demanding role in the future in order to offer effective services for older people. A skilled workforce of health professionals is therefore very necessary.

  • 6.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Henningsohn, L.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Steineck, G.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Leppert, J.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Self-assessed health, sadness and happiness in relation to the total burden of symptoms from the lower urinary tract2005In: BJU International, Vol. 95, no 6, p. 810-815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on self-assessed health, sadness and happiness of men. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 504 men (aged 40-80 years) in the rural community of Surahammar, Sweden, who a year earlier had reported stress incontinence, urgency or postvoid dribbling in answer to a postal questionnaire, and 504 age-matched control men from the same community. The occurrence of 12 specific LUTS was rated using the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score. Health, sadness and happiness were measured by three questions from the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 health survey questionnaire. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were returned by 74.2% of men (748/1008). A low score for health was reported by 34% of men with one to four LUTS, by 67% with five to eight, and by 75% with nine or more LUTS. The total LUTS burden correlated with lower scores for happiness and with higher scores for sadness. For each of the 12 specific LUTS, men with the symptom had lower scores for health and happiness, and higher scores for sadness, than men without the symptom. Comparing men with the symptom of 'other incontinence' to men with no 'other incontinence', the relative risk (95% confidence interval) of impaired health was 2.2 (1.8-2.8), while that of a high score for happiness was 0.5 (0.3-0.7) and that of greater sadness was 2.3 (1.7-3.3). Social status, marital status, education, smoking, physical activity and urinary tract infection all affected the impact of LUTS. CONCLUSIONS: The total burden of LUTS is related to self-assessed health, sadness and happiness.

  • 7.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Henningsohn, L.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Walker-Engström, M-L.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden .
    Leppert, J.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden .
    Impact on quality of life of different lower urinary tract symptoms in men measured by means of the SF 36 questionnaire2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 485-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe how different lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) affect the quality of life (QOL) in men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 1008 men aged 40-80 years living in the community of Surahammar, Sweden who had answered a questionnaire concerning stress incontinence, urgency and post-micturition dribbling 12 months earlier. The occurrence and severity/frequency of 12 specific LUTS were assessed using the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score questionnaire. QOL was evaluated using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. RESULTS: Post-micturition dribbling was the most frequently reported symptom (71%) and stress incontinence the least common (11%). Men who experienced urge, stress or "other incontinence" had lower mean scores for all of the eight dimensions measured by the SF-36 than men without such symptoms. Furthermore, men who experienced a moderate/severe degree of weak stream or nocturia reported a poorer QOL for all dimensions compared to men with a mild level of the same symptoms. QOL was found to decrease with increasing age. Men aged 66-80 years with "other incontinence" reported lower mean SF-36 scores for physical functioning, role physical, role emotional, social functioning and body pain than 40-65-year-old men. CONCLUSIONS: LUTS in men affect QOL dimensions differently. Storage symptoms appear to reduce QOL more than voiding and post-micturition symptoms. Urinary incontinence affected all eight of the dimensions evaluated. Elderly men with LUTS reported a lower QOL than younger men.

  • 8.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Leppert, J.
    Var 4:e man i Surahammar har urininkontinens. Urinvägsinfektion hos män kan leda till urininkontinens: Poster2004In: Nationella Forskarskolan, Stockholm Mälardalens Högskola, Västerås., 2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 9.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Lyckner, Sara
    Department for Anesthesiology, Mälarhospital, Eskilstuna.
    Bjurling Sjöberg, Petronella
    Department for Anesthesiology, Mälarhospital, Eskilstuna.
    Critical Pathway for Patients Undergoing Aortic-Surgery: Impact on Postoperative Care at an Intensive Care Unit in Sweden,  Impact on Postoperative Care at the ICU2010In: International Journal of Care Pathways, ISSN 2040-4026, Vol. 10, p. 10-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Humming as a potential tool for facilitating feeding situations between persons with dementia, and their caregiver. A single case study2012In: Music and Medicine, ISSN 1943-8621, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 231-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persons with dementia (PWDs) have a major cognitive decline in the ability to meet universal self-care needs, including self-feeding and maintaining a sufficient intake of fluids and food. The aim was to describe whether caregivers’ humming during lunch situations affected eating and feeding problems in PWDs. An experimental single-case design was used, involving video observation. At baseline, PWDs were fed by their caregivers in the usual way and at intervention the PWDs were fed while a caregiver hummed. Analysis using the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation (EdFED) showed that for Mrs Smith, the EdFED score decreased from a mean score of 14 at baseline to a mean score of 8.5 during the intervention. Mrs Green experienced a decrease in mean score from 12 at baseline to 8.5 during the intervention. This pilot study suggests that humming during lunch situations might enhance eating and feeding abilities for PWD and should be further studied

  • 11.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Florida Atlantic University.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Williams, Christine
    Florida Atlantic University.
    Götell, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Evaluation of communication behavior in persons with dementia during caregivers’ singing2011In: Nursing Reports, ISSN 2039-4403, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 15-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of persons with dementia (PWD) is increasing rapidly worldwide. Cognitive impairments and communication difficulties are common among PWD. Therefore, gaining mutual togetherness in caring relation between PWD and their caregivers is important. This study was to investigate the effects of music therapeutic care (MTC) during morning care situations on improving verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors in people with dementia. An observation study with 10 PWD participating. Videotaped interactions (VIO) between PWD and their caregivers were conducted during eight weekly sessions, four recordings consisted of usual morning care and four recordings were of morning care with MTC intervention. The Verbal and Nonverbal Interaction Scale was used to analyze the recorded interactions at a later time. The unsociable verbal variable Cursing decreased significantly (P=.037) during MTC when compared with the baseline measurement. A significant (P=.000) reduction was observed for the unsociable nonverbal variable Does not respond to question. MTC significantly (P=.01) increased the mean score for the sociable nonverbal variable – Calm – relaxed. For sociable verbal communication, significant differences were observed for the variables Use coherent communication (P=.012), Use relevant communication (P=.009), Responds to questions (P=.000), Humming (P=.004), Singing (P=.000). MTC during morning care situations can be an effective non-pharmacological treatment, as well as nursing intervention in order to improve sociable communication behaviors, as well as reduce unsociable communication behaviors of PWDs

  • 12.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Williams, Christine
    Florida Atlantic University.
    Götell, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    The Impact of Singing in Caring for a Person With Dementia: Single Case Analysis of Video Recorded Sessions2011In: Music and Medicine, ISSN 1943-863X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music Therapeutic Caregiving (MTC), when a caregiver sings for or together with a resident with dementia, has been used to enhance communication between caregivers and residents. This single case study measured communication in a resident with dementia during “usual” and MTC morning care. Video observations of 8 weekly sessions, consisting of 4 recordings of usual morning care and 4 recordings of morning care with MTC intervention provided the data. The Verbal and Nonverbal Interaction scale was used for analysis. Under the MTC condition, the resident’s positive verbal and nonverbal communication increased by 23%. Furthermore, negative verbal and nonverbal communication, decreased by 80%, compared to the “usual” morning care sessions. Under the MTC condition, the resident was able to remember words to songs and singing with the caregiver occurred in 39 of the 40 observed minutes. The findings indicate that MTC could be an effective nursing intervention in dementia care.

  • 13.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Rydlo, Cecilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Bjurling Sjöberg, Petronella
    Lyckner, Sara
    Intensive care nurses conceptions of critical pathway in caring for aortic-surgery patientsManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Walker-Engström, Marie-Louise
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lööf, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Prevalence of Three Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men –a Population-Based Study.2003In: Family Practice, ISSN 0263-2136, E-ISSN 1460-2229, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 7-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Lower urinary tract symptoms are a common and costly public health issue. In earlier studies, the prevalence of urinary symptoms can be seen to fluctuate because there is no consensus about how to define and categorize the severity of the symptoms. Objectives. The study was undertaken in order to investigate the prevalence of three common lower urinary tract symptoms (urgency, stress incontinence and post-micturition dribbling) and analyse health care-seeking behaviour. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was developed to investigate all men aged 40-80 years residing in the community of Surahammar, Sweden. The questionnaire included items on three specific urinary symptoms: urgency, stress incontinence and post-micturition dribbling, and one question about health care-seeking behaviour. Results. A response rate of 86% was obtained in the questionnaire study. The overall prevalence of the lower urinary tract symptoms was 24%. The prevalence increased from 20% in the group aged 40-49 years to 28% in the group aged 70-80 years (P < 0.01). Post-micturition dribbling (21%) was the most frequent symptom, and stress incontinence (2.4%) was the least frequent symptom. The number of participants who sought health care was low (4%) and increased significantly with age (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The present study showed that 24% of the Swedish cohort of men of 40-80 years of age reported at least one of the following symptoms: urgency, stress incontinence or postmicturition dribbling. This study is consistent with other research regarding the low consultation frequency for these symptoms. Moreover, the study is also in accord with those findings indicating that for the majority of men with urinary symptoms, their health care providers are not aware of their problem.

  • 15.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Walker-Engström, M.L.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Henningsohn, L.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lööf, L.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leppert, J.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Prevalence of distress and symptom severity from the lower urinary tract in men: a population-based study with the DAN-PSS questionnaire2004In: Family Practie, ISSN 0263-2136, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 617-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a common and costly public health issue. The prevalence varies greatly in published reports. The distress caused by each symptom is important to assess the primary care required before therapeutic decisions or a referral to an urologist are made. OBJECTIVES: LUTS are highly prevalent in men, but less is known regarding the distress caused by each symptom. The aim of this study was to examine symptom severity and different levels of distress using the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS) questionnaire in men affected by symptoms from the lower urinary tract. METHODS: The study included all men aged 41-81 years (n=504) that, 12 months earlier in a population-based survey, had reported stress incontinence, urgency or post-micturition dribbling in a postal questionnaire. The DAN-PSS questionnaire was used to measure severity and distress from LUTS. RESULTS: In total, 311 (80%) of the 387 responders who reported at least one symptom experienced some level of distress. The most distressing symptom overall was urinary incontinence. Nine of 10 men with storage symptoms (stress, urge and 'other' urinary incontinence) reported distress even if the symptom occurred only seldom. Moreover, two-thirds of the men with the most frequent symptom, post-micturition dribbling, characterized their symptom as moderate or severe; the most distressing voiding symptom was weak stream. In general, LUTS were well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Urge incontinence was the most distressing LUTS even when occurring only seldom. The DAN-PSS questionnaire may be a potentially useful tool for health professionals to identify patients with pronounced distress from LUTS to offer therapeutic and nursing care on the relevant level.

  • 16.
    Fagerberg, I.
    et al.
    Department of Health Care Sciences, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Care of the old: A matter of ethics, organization and relationships2012In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 7, article id 9684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world stands on the threshold of a demographic revolution called global ageing. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the population aged 60 and over is expected to increase from today's 650 million to an estimated 2 billion by 2050. Alongside demographic changes, dramatic changes can also be observed in older people's services. The shift has resulted in reduced government spending on caring for ill and frail older people in health care. Today, many governments have developed strategies to keep older people living well in their private home for as long as possible and have replaced long-term care institutions with residential homes. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meaning of caring for older people as experienced by health care students and professionals working in this field. Interviews were carried out with 17 women and one man, aged 21-65 years; six were Registered Nurses (RN), six were Enrolled Nurses (EN) and six were nursing students. The interviews were analyzed with a phenomenological hermeneutical approach and provided three themes and eight sub-themes: Ethical moral self with sub-themes "meeting the needs of the old", "pliability towards the old", and "difficulties in meeting aggressiveness"; Organizational and co-workers ethical moral actions with sub-themes, "co-workers who are offensive", and "supportive and non-supportive leaders": The relation with the old persons and their relatives with sub-themes "fellowship and closeness in the relation", "uncertainty and fear in the relation", and, "demands from the older persons' close relatives".

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Christine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Runkawatt, Viliporn
    Borommarajonnani Nakhon-Ratchasima Nursing College, Thailand.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Different Cultures but Similar Positive Attitudes: A Comparison between Thai and Swedish Nursing Students' Attitudes toward Older People2013In: Educational gerontology, ISSN 0360-1277, E-ISSN 1521-0472, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 92-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of elderly people in the world’s population is growing. Thailand and Sweden have disparate cultural traditions of caring for older people, though both countries are facing a larger population of older people. Sweden and Thailand are involved in several cooperative projects and exchange programs for nursing students in this area, raising the questions of if and how the different cultures of gerontological care influence students’ attitudes in the issue. The aim of the study was to compare Swedish and Thai nursing students’ attitudes towards older people. A convenience sample of 241 Thai nursing students and 299 Swedish nursing students participated in the study. The Kogan’s Old People Scale, a 34-item questionnaire, was used in this research. The questionnaire consists of 17 positive (OP+) statements and 17 negative (OP-) statements and uses a Likert scale. Concerning attitudes towards older people, there was no significant difference in Swedish and Thai students’ positive scores in the distribution across the groups. In contrast, these students did differ on negative scores across countries (p.001). This was understood to  be related to age; the Swedish students’ higher age was positively associated with their positive attitudes; as the age increased, the students’ scores were also higher. Attitudes towards older people are not only influenced by cultural values, norms, and social structures, they also have a foundation in gerontological knowledge and experiences. Education addressing cultural awareness of negative ageism should be incorporated into all aspects of education, not just gerontological courses.

  • 18. Hain, Deb
    et al.
    Touhy, Terri
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    What Matters Most to Carers of People with Mild to Moderate Dementia as Evidence for Transforming Care2010In: Alzheimer's Care Today, ISSN 1936-3001, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 162-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is little evidence on the experience and needs of carers of people with early-stage dementia and few evidence-based interventions to guide them. A qualitative research design was used to explore what matters most to carers of people with mild to moderate dementia to design individualized interventions. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to analyze transcribed interviews. Three themes captured the essence of what matters most to 10 community dwelling carers. The findings reveal the importance of considering the unique and ongoing needs of carers throughout their journey as health care professionals strive to develop appropriate interventions.

  • 19.
    Jöhnemark, Birgitta
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Fagerberg, Ingegerd
    Ersta Sköndal Högskola och Karolinska Institutet.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Swedish nursing students´attitudes towards older people and working in care of older people2012In: Nordisk Sygeplejeforskning, ISSN 1892-2678, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 210-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the number of old people is increasing. Consequently, there will be a shortage of nurses working within the field of care for the old in the future. It can be a challenge to recruit new nurses, and especially clinical nurse specialized in gerontological care. The aim of the study was to gain knowledge about Swedish nursing students´ attitudes towards older people and towards work in the field of care for older people among a group of Swedish nursing students. The study included 490 nursing students at four universities in Sweden. The participants completed the Swedish version of the Kogan´s Old People Scale that measures attitudes towards older people and working within the field of care for older people. The result showed that students 31 years and older had the highest positive median score. Furthermore, significant differences in positive and negative scores were found related to education levels. Progression in the nursing students’ education contributes to more positive attitudes and less negative attitudes toward older people.

  • 20.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Edlund, B.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aarts, C.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Association between mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, sense of coherence and perception of their child's temperament in early parenthood in Sweden2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 233-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Aims: To examine whether there was any association between mothers' and fathers' post-partum depressive symptoms and sense of coherence and perception of their child's temperament. The hypotheses were that parents with depressive symptoms: 1) have more often a poor sense of coherence, and 2) perceive their child's temperament to be more difficult than parents without depressive symptoms. Methods: A total of 401 Swedish-speaking couples, who were the parents of children born through the years 2004-2006 in the northern part of the county of Vastmanland, Sweden, were invited to participate in the study. The parents answered 3 questionnaires including: at inclusion of the study: demographic data (n = 393 couples); at 3 months: the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Sense of Coherence Scale (n = 308 couples); and at 18 months: the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire (n = 272 couples). Results: Depressive symptoms measured at 3 months, were reported by 17.7% of mothers and 8.7% of fathers, and correlated significantly between mothers and fathers within couples (rho = 0.165, p = 0.003). Mothers and fathers with depressive symptoms had a poorer sense of coherence (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and perceived their child's temperament as more difficult than mothers and fathers without depressive symptoms at 3 (p = 0.028, p < 0.001) and 18 months (p = 0.145, p = 0.012 respectively). Conclusions: Early parenthood has been studied thoroughly in mothers, but few studies have included fathers. Identifying problems in early parenthood could help predict later problems exhibited by the preschool child, which might be prevented by supportive programmes.

  • 21.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sundquist, Kristina
    Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Widarsson, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rosenblad, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The association between perceived relationship discord at childbirth and parental postpartum depressive symptoms: a comparison of mothers and fathers in Sweden.2012In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, Supplement, ISSN 0300-9726, Vol. 117, p. 430-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. To examine whether mothers' and fathers' levels of perceived relationship discord at childbirth were associated with postpartum depressive symptoms when the child was 3 months old. Another aim was to examine parents' levels of self-reported depressive symptoms. The hypothesis was that parents with high levels of perceived relationship discord have higher levels of postpartum depressive symptoms than parents with low levels of perceived relationship discord. Method. One week after childbirth, 305 couples' perceived level of relationship discord was measured using the Dyadic Consensus Subscale (DCS) of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). At 3 months postpartum, the same couples answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) questionnaire. The relations between perceived level of relationship discord and postpartum depressive symptoms were analysed using standard non-parametric statistical methods. Results. The mothers and fathers partly differed regarding which areas of their relationship they perceived that they disagreed with their partners about. Furthermore, 16.5% of the mothers and 8.7% of the fathers reported postpartum depressive symptoms, and there was a moderate level of correlation between the DCS and EPDS scores. Conclusion. These results may be useful for professionals in antenatal care and child health centres as well as for family caregivers who need to be aware that mothers and fathers may have different views on relationship discord and of the high level of depressive symptoms in recent parents. Further research is needed to examine perceived relationship discord and the development of depressive symptoms postpartum over a longer term.

  • 22.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Emami, Azita
    College of Nursing, University of Seattle, USA.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Götell, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Communicating through caregiver singing during morning care situations in dementia care2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 160-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that persons with dementia (PWD) have problems expressing and interpreting communication, making interaction with others difficult. Interaction between PWD and their caregivers is crucial, and several strategies have been investigated to facilitate communication during caregiving. Music therapeutic caregiving (MTC) - when caregivers sing for or together with PWD during caregiving activities - has been shown to enhance communication for PWD, evoking more vitality and positive emotions. The aim of this study was to describe how PWD and their caregivers express verbal and nonverbal communication and make eye contact during the care activity 'getting dressed', during morning care situations without and with MTC. Findings revealed that during the situations without MTC, the caregivers led the dressing procedure with verbal instructions and body movements and seldom invited the PWD to communicate or participate in getting dressed. Patterns in responses to caregivers' instructions included both active and compliant responses and reactions that were resistant and aggressive, confused, and disruptive. In contrast to the 'ordinary' morning care situation, during MTC, the caregivers seemed interested in communicating with the PWD and solicited their mutual engagement. Although verbal communication consisted of singing about things other than getting dressed, e.g. dancing, love, sailing, God, the PWD mostly responded to caregivers in a composed manner, by being active, compliant, and relaxed, though some were also resistant or incongruent. The authors conclude that MTC could be a way for PWD and their caregivers to successfully interact and co-operate during caring situations, as it seems to evoke enhanced communication for both partners in this context

  • 23.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Emami, Azita
    University of Seattle.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Götell, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Finding the key to communion – Caregivers’ experience of ‘music therapeutic caregiving’ in dementia care: A qualitative analysis2011In: Dementia, ISSN 1471-3012, E-ISSN 1741-2684, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 98-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Music therapeutic caregiving’ (MTC), when caregivers sing for or together with persons with dementia (PWDs) during caring situations, has been suggested as a way to reduce PWDs’ behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). An intervention was designed to elucidate what influences MTC might have on PWDs and their caregivers. The aim was to describe professional caregiverś experiences of caring for PWDs during morning care situations without and with MTC. Group interviews were conducted, and a qualitative content analysis was performed. Two themes were revealed. The first (without MTC), Struggling for care in communion, encompassed four sub-themes: Hampered communication; Physical and mental struggle with aggression; Struggling with ethical demands; and The reward — consolation and love. The second theme (with MTC), Consolidating care in communion, encompassed two sub-themes: awakening cooperation, and feeling of well-being. The authors conclude that MTC could be used to help caregivers provide improved care.

  • 24.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Emami, Azita
    College of Nursing, University of Seattle, USA.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Götell, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Reactions of Persons with Dementia to Caregivers Singing in Morning Care Situations2010In: The Open Nursing journal, ISSN 1874-4346, no 4, p. 35-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music therapeutic caregiving', when caregivers sing for or together with persons with severe dementia during care situations, has been suggested as a way to reduce problematic behaviors in dementia care. The present study implemented this technique as an intervention in dementia care. Six caregivers participated in group interviews about their experiences of morning care situations without and with'Music therapeutic caregiving'. Through a qualitative content analysis two themes emerged.'Being in a different reality' was based on'usual' morning care situations. The caregivers' experienced the persons with dementia as absent-minded; communication and cooperation were difficult. The second theme,'Being present', was based on morning care situations with the intervention. The caregivers described communication as enhanced; the persons with dementia expressed themselves more appropriately, making cooperation possible. The results indicate that'Music therapeutic caregiving' might lead to a more positive experience of the person with dementia and seems to increase receptivity to caregiving.

     

  • 25.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Emami, Azita
    Seattle Univ, Coll Nursing.
    Götell, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    The impact of caregivers' singing on expressions of emotion and resistance during morning care situations in persons with dementia: an intervention in dementia care2011In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 20, no 7-8, p. 969-978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe expressions of emotions and resistiveness to care among persons with dementia (PWD), during morning care situations without and with music therapeutic caregiving (MTC). BACKGROUND: Effective caregiving is dependent on the interpersonal relationship between nurse and patient. PWD suffer from major cognitive impairment, making interaction with others problematic. Such patients often react with problematic behaviours such as resistance and anger towards the care activity and the caregiver. Earlier research suggests that MTC - when caregivers sing for or together with PWD during caregiving - can reduce resistance and evoke positive emotions in PWD. DESIGN: This was an intervention study whereby MTC was implemented during morning care situations while PWD were being cared for. METHOD: The study included ten, 66-92-year-old men and women with severe dementia living in a nursing home in Sweden. Video observations of eight weekly sessions, consisting of four recordings of usual morning care and four recordings of morning care with MTC, provided data. The resistiveness to care scale and the observed emotion rating scale were used for analysis. RESULTS: Pull away was the most common resistant behaviour under both conditions. The PWDs' expressions of resistant behaviour, such as pull away, grab object and adduction, were significantly reduced under the intervention situation. Positively expressed emotions, specifically pleasure and general alertness, significantly increased under the MTC intervention compared with the 'usual' morning care sessions. CONCLUSIONS: MTC can be an effective nursing intervention to provide PWD a more pleasant experience of morning care situations as it decreases resistant behaviour and increases positive emotions. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: MTC offers a potential non-pharmacologic treatment that can be used in caring for PWD.

  • 26.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Götell, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Singing while caring for persons with dementia2011In: Arts & Health, ISSN 1753-3015, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 39-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persons with dementia (PWDs) can suffer from major cognitive impairment, but are known to retain an ability to express both negative and positive emotions. Negative expressed emotions and resistance make caregiving problematic. Music Therapeutic Caregiving (MTC) – when caregivers sing for or together with PWDs during care – has been shown to decrease PWDs' negative expressed emotions and resistance, and increase positive expressed emotions. This single case study included two cases, two women with severe dementia, and measures expressed emotions and expressions of resistiveness to care during “usual” morning care situations and morning care situations with MTC. Video observations were conducted resulting in four recordings of usual morning care and four recordings of morning care with MTC. For analysis, the Observed Emotion Rating Scale and Resistiveness to Care Scale were used. Results revealed that in both cases, expressions of resistant behavior and negative emotions decreased, while expressions of positive emotions increased during morning care situations with MTC. The authors conclude that MTC may be an effective method for caregivers to use to facilitate care situations with PWDs, and also a way for PWDs to experience care situations as less unpleasant, and more joyful.

  • 27.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Williamn, Christine
    Florida Atlantic University.
    Swall, Anna
    Sophiahemmet University College.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Humming as a mean of communicating during meal time situations: A Single Case study involving a women with severe dementia and her caregiver2012In: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, ISSN 1925-4040, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    ‘Music Therapeutic Caregiving’, when caregivers sing for or together with persons with dementia during morning care situations, has been shown to increase verbal and nonverbal communication between persons with dementia and their caregivers, as well as enhance positive and decrease negative emotions in persons with dementia. No studies about singing during mealtimes have been conducted, and this pilot project was designed to elucidate this. However, since previous studies have shown that there is a risk that persons with dementia will start to sing along with the caregiver, the caregiver in this study hummed such that the person with dementia did not sing instead of eat. The aim of this pilot project was threefold: to describe expressed emotions in a woman with severe dementia, and describe communication between her and her caregivers without and with the caregiver humming. The aim was also to measure food and liquid intake without and with humming.

    Method: The study was constructed as a Single Case ABA design in which the ordinary mealtime constituted a baseline which comprised a woman with severe dementia being fed by her caregivers in the usual way. The intervention included the same woman being fed by the same caregiver who hummed while feeding her. Data comprised video observations that were collected once per week over 5 consecutive weeks. The Verbal and Nonverbal Interaction Scale and Observed Emotion Rating Scale were used to analyze the recorded interactions.

    Results:

    A slightly positive influence of communication was shown for the woman with dementia, as well as for the caregiver. Further, the women with dementia showed a slight increase in expressions of positive emotions, and she ate more during the intervention.

    Conclusion:

    Based on this pilot study no general conclusions can be drawn. It can be concluded, however, that humming while feeding persons with dementia might slightly enhance communication, and positive expressed emotions in persons with dementia. To confirm this, more studies on group levels are needed. Because previous studies have found that caregiver singing during caring situations influences persons with dementia positively it might be desirable to test the same during mealtime.

  • 28.
    Nordgren, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Uppsala universitet.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Animal-Assisted Intervention in Dementia: Effects on Quality of Life2014In: Clinical Nursing Research, ISSN 1054-7738, E-ISSN 1552-3799, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 7-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to develop nonpharmacological treatments and methods which can serve as alternatives or complements to medications in dementia care. Previous research indicates that animal-assisted intervention (AAI) can be beneficial. The purpose of the present pilot project was to evaluate effects of AAI on quality of life (QoL) in people with dementia in four Swedish nursing homes. A pretest/posttest research design was used. Twenty people (12 women, 8 men; aged 58 to 88) were included. Nine people completed the intervention which comprised 10 training sessions with a certified therapy dog team. QoL improved in the expected direction after the intervention (p = .035). Even though the effects of AAI may not be discernible over longer periods of time, there are still immediate effects which can promote better QoL for people living with dementia diseases.

  • 29.
    Nordgren, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Effects of Animal-Assisted Therapy on Behavioral and/or Psychological Symptoms in Dementia: A Case Report2012In: American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementia, ISSN 1533-3175, E-ISSN 1938-2731, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 625-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recently, interest in nonpharmaceutical interventions in dementia care has increased. Animal-assisted therapy has been shown to be one promising intervention but more knowledge is needed. The present article reports on a pilot study involving an 84-year-old woman with vascular dementia who was systematically trained with a therapy dog team for 8 weeks. Methods: A quasi-experimental longitudinal interventional design with pre-post measures was used. Data were collected on 3 occasions. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: Some effects on the woman’s ability to walk and move were identified. In addition, some effects in the woman’s cognitive state were observed. Conclusions: Physical, psychological, and/or social training with certified therapy dog teams can have effects on behavioral and psychological symptoms in people living with dementia. Further research is needed.

  • 30.
    Nordgren, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Christine E Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, United States.
    Effects of dog-assisted intervention on behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia2014In: Nursing Older People, ISSN 1472-0795, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 31-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Smolar, David E.
    et al.
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Charles E Schmidt Coll Med, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Florida Atlantic Univ, Charles E Schmidt Coll Med, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Diaz, Sanya
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Charles E Schmidt Coll Med, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Tappen, Ruth
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Christine E Lynn Sch Nursing, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Ouslander, Joseph G.
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Charles E Schmidt Coll Med, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Ethnic Differences in Vitamin D Insufficiency in South Florida Community-Dwelling Older Adults2012In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 1990-1991Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Smolar, David E.
    et al.
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Charles E Schmidt Coll Med, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Diaz, Sanya
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Charles E Schmidt Coll Med, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Tappen, Ruth
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Christine E Lynn Sch Nursing, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Ouslander, Joseph G.
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Charles E Schmidt Coll Med, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Gait Speed in Community-Dwelling African-American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults2012In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 60, no 12, p. 2365-2366Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Tappen, Rut
    et al.
    Florida Atlantic University, Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, USA.
    Rosselli, Monica
    Department of Psychology, Charles Schmidt College of Science Florida Atlantic.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Evaluation of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) in Cognitive Screening across Four American Ethnic Groups2010In: Clinical neuropsychologist, ISSN 0920-1637, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 646-661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) in four American ethnic groups (N = 691), evaluate the influence of demographic factors and depressive symptoms on the FAQ and compare its performance with two cognitive screening measures, the Mini-Cog and the MMSE. Half of FAQ items were less frequently done by men than women. FAQ total scores did not differ across the four ethnic groups but regression analyses indicated effects for age, education and depressive symptoms. The Mini-Cog and MMSE evidenced demographic and depressive symptom effects. FAQ performed well across the ethnic groups. Development of age and education corrections for the FAQ is recommended as is a screen for depression in cognitive screening batteries.

  • 34.
    Tappen, Ruth M
    et al.
    Florida Atlantic University.
    Rosselli, Monica
    Florida Atlantic University.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Use of the MC-FAQ and MMSE-FAQ in Cognitive Screening of Older African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and European Americans.2012In: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, ISSN 1064-7481, E-ISSN 1545-7214, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 955-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: : The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of the Mini-Cog-Functional Activities Questionnaire (MC-FAQ) and the Mini-Mental State Examination-Functional Activities Questionnaire (MMSE-FAQ) in cognitive screening of a multiethnic sample of older adults.

    DESIGN: : This is a descriptive psychometric study.

    SETTING: : Cognitive screening was done in senior centers, at health fairs, and within the nine participating memory disorder centers in the State of Florida.

    PARTICIPANTS: : African American, Hispanic American, and European American older adults who participated in this screening were matched on gender, age within 3 years and education within 3 years yielding a sample of 225.

    MEASUREMENTS: : The MC-FAQ is a combination of the Mini-Cog and Functional Activities Questionnaire. The MMSE-FAQ combines the MMSE with the FAQ. The Geriatric Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms.

    RESULTS: : African Americans reported significantly less depressive symptoms (F[2, 217] = 10.31, p <0.001) and European Americans had significantly higher mean MMSE scores than the other two groups (F[2, 222] = 3.33, p = 0.037). Participants did not differ by ethnic group on the MC-FAQ or MMSE-FAQ classifications of normal, mild cognitive impairment, or dementia. Age, years of education, and depressive symptoms were significant predictors of MC-FAQ and MMSE-FAQ classifications.

    CONCLUSIONS: : The results suggest that these combinations of screening measures may have less culture bias than the MMSE alone. Sensitivity and specificity should be evaluated in these groups with confirmatory neurological and psychiatric diagnosis.

  • 35.
    Touhy, Theris
    et al.
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Christine E Lynn Coll Nursing, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA.
    Kydd, Angela
    Univ W Scotland.
    Fagerberg, Ingegerd
    Ersta Skondal Univ Coll.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    International Collaboration in Gerontological Nursing2011In: Journal of Gerontological Nursing, ISSN 0098-9134, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Widarsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Rosenblad, A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kerstis, B.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Edlund, B.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, P.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Parental stress in early parenthood among mothers and fathers in Sweden2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 839-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Parental stress affects parenting behaviour and the quality of dyadic parent-child interactions. Mothers generally show higher parental stress than fathers. Aims: Our aims were to assess the perceived level of parental stress in early parenthood and examine the differences between mothers and fathers within couples in relation to their levels of education, parental experience, existence of a parental role model and sense of coherence. Methods: In total, 307 mothers and 301 fathers of 18-month-old children answered the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ); and 318 mothers and 311 fathers answered the Sense of Coherence (SOC-3) scale; 283 couples answered both the SPSQ and SOC-3. Results: Mothers perceived higher levels of stress than fathers in the sub-areas incompetence (p < 0.001), role restriction (p < 0.001), spouse relationship problems (p = 0.004) and health problems (p = 0.027), and in total (p = 0.001). In contrast, fathers perceived higher stress than mothers in the sub-area social isolation (p < 0.001). When the data were stratified with respect to education, parental experience, existence of a parental role model and sense of coherence, significant results were observed in some of these sub-areas. Conclusions: Mothers and fathers experience stress in different areas during their early parenthood. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the differences in stress that exist between mothers and fathers, so that parents can be adequately prepared for parenthood and avoid parental stress. 

  • 37. Widarsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    Sundquist, Kristina
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Support Needs of Expectant Mothers and Fathers: A Qualitative Study2012In: The Journal of Perinatal Education,, ISSN 1058-1243, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 36-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe expectant mothers' and fathers' perceived needs of support during pregnancy. Twenty-two women and 10 men were interviewed in four focus groups and 13 individual interviews. Systematic text condensation was performed to analyze the data. Parents described not only a broad spectrum of social support needs but also needs of psychological and physical support. They also requested to share their experiences with others. The foci of care and parents' needs of support are more harmonized with medical support than with psychological and emotional support. Mothers' needs were predominately addressed in the health services, but fathers often felt “invisible.“ Antenatal services may need to offer more customized individual support and emphasize peer support in groups; the challenge is to involve both parents through communication and encouragement so they can support each other. 

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