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  • 1.
    Larsson, David
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Solar Electricity in Swedish District Heating Areas: Effective Energy Measures in Apartment Buildings to Increase the Share of Renewable Energy in Europe2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling / [ed] Anna Land, Stockholm: Svensk Fjärrvärme , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To overcome the climate challenge is one of the greatest tasks of our time. In EU, renovating the existing building stock has been found an effective measure. In Swedish buildings with district heating, lowering heat demand could be questioned, because the energy used is mainly renewable bio energy or waste heat from industries. In addition many district heating systems cogenerate electricity, which could reduce the overall European greenhouse gas emissions.

    The aim of this article is to find effective measures for Swedish apartment buildings, in order to increase the share of renewable energy in European energy consumption. As a basis we use a previous study of energy saving potentials in apartment buildings. Added to this we study the impact of heat savings in 30 of Sweden’s largest district heating systems.

    The results show that on average heat reductions will lead to a decreased share of renewable energy, while electricity reductions will lead to an increased share of renewables. Of the investigated measures, using photovoltaics for local solar electricity generation has the largest potential.

    Our conclusion is that using the potential of solar electricity production should be considered in national energy policy and future building requirements. Heat reduction, on the other hand, could have lower priority in district heating areas, at least for existing buildings.

  • 2.
    Lingfors, D.
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Widén, J.
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marklund, J.
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boork, M.
    SP Technical Research, Institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Photovoltaics in Swedish agriculture: Technical potential, grid integration and profitability2015In: ISES Solar World Congress 2015, Conference Proceedings, International Solar Energy Society , 2015, p. 259-267Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the realizable potential for photovoltaic (PV) systems in Swedish agriculture. Marginal lands and available building areas for PV systems are quantified, and factors limiting the potential are analyzed. It is shown that the potential for PV in Swedish agriculture is high, but what is fully realizable is limited by the capacity of the rural power grid. A case study in the rural municipality of Herrljunga was conducted and scaled to national level. The study shows that the risk of surges in the medium voltage grid (10 kV) in rural areas are small in case where all roof surfaces with an annual solar irradiance of over 950 kWh/m2 are used for solar power. The total electricity production from the Swedish agriculture, if all roof areas with this irradiance level were used, is estimated to 4 TWh annually. With solar power on all roof surfaces with an annual irradiance of at least 900 kWh per m2 problems with voltage rise and overloads in the electricity grid might occur. The electrical grid capacities thus substantially limit how much solar power can be installed. Our results also show that the profitability limits the potential to 0.2 TWh on a national level, but that it could increase if more optimistic economic conditions are assumed.

  • 3.
    Philippe, Macé
    et al.
    Becquerel Institute, Belgium.
    Larsson, David
    Solkompaniet, Sweden.
    Benson, Jessica
    RISE, Sweden.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Inventory on Existing Business Models, Opportunities and Issues for BIPV: IEA PVPS Task 15 Subtask B – Transition towards sound BIPV business models2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) can have a vastly different business model than other PV installations; applied on buildings or ground mounted. Business models for ordinary PV installations generally focus only on revenues from the electricity generated, whereas BIPV has the potential to also reduce costs through the replacement of other building materials.

    This report includes examples of various BIPV installations ranging from simple in-roof installations to innovative facade designs. The timing of introducing BIPV in the design process affects the complexity of the façade. The façade examples cover the use of standard modules to custom-made modules adapted to the design. The BIPV roof examples cover both small, simple in-roof installations and a full roof BIPV solution. Results from the studied cases, show that only one of the involved companies have a BIPV-specific business model in place.

    A basic BIPV-specific business model could be based solely on cost savings from replacing other building materials and revenues from electricity generation. This is viable if the BIPV installation has sufficiently low cost, or if the value of the replaced materials and electricity generated is sufficiently high. A BIPV specific business model is found in the case with a full BIPV roof, an installation that arose from the need for a roof renovation. The other examples are also based on material savings and electricity revenues but many were made with publicly funded incentives like investment subsidies.

    The purpose of the case study is to identify the main drives for choosing BIPV in each example. These drives and values can be used as a basis in the development of new business models. For example, there is a green value, i.e. value of being environmentally friendly and sustainable, attached to PV, which could be significantly higher for a good looking, architecturally integrated BIPV installation than for the average PV system. For example, the green identity attracts high paying customers as tenants in two of the cases, which allows for higher rental fees. Future work is needed to explore ways to fully capture and monetize the green value of a building with BIPV.

    Another business model, shown in one example, could be to build and sell the building at a premium. So far, there is no clear evaluation of the price premium of a building with BIPV. On the other hand, compared to the total cost of a new building, the cost of a BIPV installation is seemingly moderate. In two of the examples with large BIPV facades, the added cost was only 1-2 % of the building cost. A leasing arrangement with the utilty is also described in one example.

    In the future, it is likely that BIPV must cope without investment subsidies and that electricity revenues will be high from self-consumption, but low from excess production. Highlighted in the analysis of regulatory environment is the need for collective self-consumption to be allowed. BIPV can also benefit from regulatory measures imposing a reduced purchased energy demand of new or retrofitted buildings.

  • 4.
    Stridh, Bengt
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Larsson, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Investeringskalkyl för solceller2016Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Stridh, Bengt
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yard, Stefan
    Lunds Universitet.
    Larsson, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Production cost of PV electricity in Sweden2013In: EU PVSEC Proceedings, 2013, p. 4718-4722, article id 6CV.5.13Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The photovoltaic (PV) market in Sweden is small in comparison to most of the other PV markets in the European countries. However, the market is growing and about 8 MW was installed during 2012 that is 1/3 of the totally installed power. It is expected that the market will continue to grow during 2013.The PV levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) in Sweden was studied for grid connected PV systems to understand how competitive PV is on the Swedish market. It is concluded that PV production cost is still too high to be competitive in utility scale on the Nord Pool spot market without subsidies. However, for residential or commercial systems the production cost for PV electricity is today in some cases in the same order of magnitude as, or lower than, the running cost for bought electricity even without investment subsidy or electricity certificates, with the assumed parameters for estimation of LCOE. With investment subsidy the calculation improves substantially resulting in a LCOE lower than the running cost for bought electricity. To a much smaller extent an improvement of LCOE is also seen with electricity certificates.

  • 6.
    Stridh, Bengt
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Yard, Stefan
    Lund Univ, Sweden..
    Larsson, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Solkompaniet, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Profitability of PV electricity in Sweden2014In: 2014 IEEE 40TH PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIALIST CONFERENCE (PVSC), IEEE , 2014, p. 1492-1497Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish PV market is still limited compared to many other countries in Europe. However, the growth is strong. 19 MW was installed in 2013 showing that the market more than doubled during 2013 in comparison to 2012. Hence there is of interest to more in detail study the profitability of PV electricity in Sweden for grid connected PV systems, to understand how competitive PV is on the Swedish market. LCOE and payback period are presented for a PV system that is installed to replace retail electricity with PV electricity. Both the cases of private residential systems and of non-private systems are considered.

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