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  • 1.
    Ehrström, Sophia
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst.
    Daroczy, Katalin
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Rylander, Eva
    Karolinska Inst.
    Samuelsson, Carolina
    Halmstad Cty Hosp.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    Karolinska Inst.
    Anzen, Bo
    Karolinska Inst.
    Påhlson, Carl
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Lactic acid bacteria colonization and clinical outcome after probiotic supplementation in conventionally treated bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis2010In: Microbes and infection, ISSN 1286-4579, E-ISSN 1769-714X, Vol. 12, no 10, p. 691-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This randomized double-blind placebo controlled study assessed the vaginal colonization of lactic acid bacteria and clinical outcome. Vaginal capsules containing L gasseri LN40, Lactobacillus fermentum LN99, L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LN113 and P. acidilactici LN23, or placebos were administered for five days to 95 women after conventional treatment of bacterial vaginosis and/or vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal examinations and vaginal samplings were performed before and after administration, after the first and second menstruation, and after six months. Presence of LN strains was assessed using RAPD analysis. LN strains were present 2-3 days after administration in 89% of the women receiving LN strains (placebo: 0%, p < 0.0001). After one menstruation 53% were colonized by at least one LN strain. Nine percent were still colonized six months after administration. Ninety-three percent of the women receiving LN strains were cured 2-3 days after administration (placebo: 83%), and 78% after one menstruation (placebo: 71%) (ns). The intervention group experienced less malodorous discharge 2-3 days after administration (p = 0.03) and after the second menstruation (p = 0.04), compared with placebo. In summary, five days of vaginal administration of LN strains after conventional treatment of bacterial vaginosis and/or vulvovaginal candidiasis lead to vaginal colonization, somewhat fewer recurrences and less malodorous discharge. 

  • 2.
    Hajem, Nedaa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Weintraub, Andrej
    Nimtz, Manfred
    Romling, Ute
    Pahlson, Carl
    A study of the antigenicity of Rickettsia helvetica proteins using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis2009In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 253-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hajem N, Weintraub A, Nimtz M, Romling U, Pahlson C. A study of the antigenicity of Rickettsia helvetica proteins using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. APMIS 2009; 117: 253-62. Rickettsia helvetica is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative microorganism found in Ixodes ricinus ticks. When R. helvetica was first discovered in 1979, little was known about its physiology and it fell into oblivion until it recently was suspected of being pathogenic to humans. However, all efforts to isolate R. helvetica from patients have been unsuccessful, although serological responses against R. helvetica can be demonstrated. The aim of our study was to investigate the protein profile of R. helvetica and study the antigenicity of its proteins using two-dimensional (2D) immunoblot in order to characterize the immunological response against R. helvetica infection. Our results show that in addition to the known PS120 and OmpB antigenic R. helvetica proteins, three other antigens exist: a 60 kDa GroEL protein, a 10 kDa GroES protein and a hitherto unknown 35 kDa hypothetical protein that has similarities with ORF-RC0799 of Rickettsia conorii. Furthermore, the lipopolysaccharide showed strong antigenicity. In this study, we present the first proteome map and the first 2D immunoblot profile of R. helvetica and finally we present the 35 kDa R. helvetica as an additional antigen to the previously known rickettsial antigens.

  • 3.
    Helena, Stärner
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering.
    Påhlsson, Carl
    Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering.
    Lindén, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering.
    Tandem repeat polymorphism and heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial DNA control region of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2004In: Behaviour: An International Journal of Behavioural Biology, ISSN 0005-7959, Vol. 141, no 11-12, p. 1357-1369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Length polymorphism and heteroplasmy (multiple forms within a single individual) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region have been reported for several species of fish. In this report we demonstrate its existence in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The repeat region, responsible for the length variation and heteroplasmy is located near the 5´ end of the control region and consists of slightly imperfect palindromic sequences. The repeat sequences vary in copy number from 1.5 to 16.5 and are capable of forming secondary structures. All individuals examined were heteroplasmic for 4 or more different copy number of repeats. Our results indicate that the repeats are a result of frequent competitive misalignment in the repeat region prior to replication and support the “illegitimate elongation model” as an explanation of the origin and maintenance of length heteroplasmy in the 5´ end of the control region.

  • 4.
    Neumuller, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Pahlson, Carl
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Trypanosoma spp. in Swedish game animals2012In: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 135-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serum and blood samples from 36 game animals, shot during the hunting seasons 2007-2009, were collected and analyzed for the presence of Trypanosoma spp. by three methods: isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. Only fissiped animals were included, four different ruminants and wild boar. Trypanosomes could be isolated from two of the animals, and eight had detectable parasite DNA. Seven animals had high titers of anti-trypanosoma IgG antibodies. The two isolated strains, one from roe dear and one from European elk, were determined to Trypanosoma theileri by partial DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal gene. In the seven boars, no Trypanosoma were detected, but four out of seven strongly positive serological samples came from this group. This is the first study in Scandinavia on the presence of Trypanosoma in game animals. The results indicate that trypanosomiasis is frequently occurring among Swedish game animals.

  • 5.
    Nilsson, K,
    et al.
    Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.
    Liu, A,
    Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.
    Påhlson, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering.
    Lindquist, O.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Demonstration of intracellular microorganisms (Rickettsia spp., Chlamydia pneumoniae, Bartonella spp.) in2005In: Journal of Infection, ISSN 0163-4453, E-ISSN 1532-2742, Vol. 50, no (1):, p. 46-52.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Rickettsiae, which causes vasculitis, has not been linked to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in contrast to Chlamydia pneumoniae whose association with coronary artery disease and with sclerotic heart valves in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement is well established, even if causality is yet to unproven. In the search for any of these infectious agents, 84 pathological and 15 normal aortic heart valves of patients undergoing forensic autopsy were analysed by PCR and DNA-sequencing. Methods. Two to four pieces of all valves were examined by semi-nested PCR, with primers specific for 16S rDNA, citrate synthase (gltA) and 17 kDa outer membrane protein (OMP) genes. Results. Genetic material from Rickettsia spp. and C. pneumoniae was found in 17 (20.2%) and 22 (26.2%), respectively, of the 84 pathological aortic valves. In 35 (41.7%) of these 84 valves either C. pneumoniae or Rickettsia spp. were detected by PCR and in six cases (7.1%) these two organisms co-existed. In one case with Lambl's excrescences, previously considered as aseptic, presence of rickettsia-like organisms also was demonstrated by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and sequencing of the amplified PCR product showing 100% homology with the published sequence for R. helvetica. In three of the 15 control valves, genetic material from only C. pneumoniae was detected compared to Rickettsia spp. that was significantly detected only in the pathological valves (Fisher's Exact test, 1-sided p = 0.046). Conclusions. The findings suggest that Rickettsia spp. also have a rote in the pathogenesis of aortic valve disease. 

  • 6.
    Nilsson, K,
    et al.
    Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Lukinius, A,
    Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Påhlson, Carl
    Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Moron, C,
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, United States.
    Hajem, N,
    Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering.
    Olsson, B
    Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering.
    Lindquist, O
    Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Evidence of Rickettsia spp. infection in Sweden: a clinical, ultrastructural and serological study2005In: APMIS., Vol. 113, no 2, p. 126-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is an area potentially endemic for spotted fever rickettsioses. Rickettsia helvetica has been isolated from its tick vector Ixodes ricinus, and in a handful of cases linked to human disease. This study demonstrates for the first time in Sweden the transmission of rickettsial infection after a tick bite and the attack rate in an endemic area. We present three cases of documented rickettsial infection and a prospective serological study of Swedish recruits who were trained in the area where the patients lived and showed seroconversion to spotted fever rickettsiae. All patients showed a four-fold increase in antibody titer to the spotted fever rickettsia, R. helvetical and immunohistochemical examination revealed rickettsia-like organisms in the walls of skin capillaries and veins. Electron microscopy showed organisms resembling R. helvetica and immunogold labeling with two anti-rickettsial antibodies demonstrated specific labeling of the rickettsial organisms in the skin biopsy specimens. Eight of the thirty-five recruits showed a four-fold increase in IgG titer reflecting a high rate of exposure. The results of this study demonstrate that spotted fever rickettsioses should be taken into consideration in the diagnosis of tick-transmitted infections in Sweden.

  • 7. Nilsson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Elfving, Karin
    Påhlson, Carl
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Rickettsia helvetica in Patient with Meningitis, Sweden, 20062010In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 490-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pathogenicity of Rickettsia helvetica is relatively unknown. We isolated a spotted fever group rickettsial organism from a patient with subacute meningitis. Nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA, ompB, and 17kDa genes identified the isolate as R. helvetica. This organism may be associated with serious infections such as central nervous system disorders.

  • 8.
    Nilsson,, Kenneth
    et al.
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala.
    Påhlson,, Carl
    Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering. Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Swedn.
    Nilsson,, Lennart
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Lindquist., Olle
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Presence of Rickettsia helvetica in granulomatous tissue from three patients with sarcoidosis2002In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 185, no 8, p. 1128-1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In samples obtained during the autopsies of 2 patients with sarcoidosis, genetic material from Rickettsia helvetica was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and histologic and immunohistochemical examination (using 3 different antibodies) of the polymerase chain reaction-positive tissues showed different degrees of granuloma formation and presence of rickettsia-like organisms predominantly located in the endothelium and macrophages. Electron microscopic examination clearly identified and demonstrated rickettsia-like organisms within the granuloma, with findings suggestive of ongoing infection. Immunogold labeling withProteus OX-19 antiserum showed that the gold markers were localized to the rickettsia-like organisms. Paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens from 30 patients with confirmed sarcoidosis were also reexamined, and 26 specimens were judged to be positive for rickettsia-like organisms by histologic and immunohistochemical examination. In a specimen from 1 patient, rickettsia-like organisms also were demonstrated and identified by transmission electron microscopy. These results support the hypothesis that rickettsiae may contribute to a granulomatous process, as is seen in sarcoidosis.

  • 9.
    Rodriguez, Adrian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Påhlson, Carl
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Färm, Carina
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for quantification of species of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in wastewater treatment activated sludge.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Rodriguez Caballero, Adrian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hallin, S
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci.
    Påhlson, Carl
    Uppsala Univ.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Ammonia oxidizing bacterial community composition relates to process performance in wastewater treatment plants under low temperature conditions2012In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 197-204Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrification can be difficult to maintain at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) during cold periods resulting in disrupted nitrogen removal. The aim of this study was to relate nitrification process performance to abundance and composition of the ammonia oxidizer communities in two closely located municipal WWTPs in Sweden during an eight month period covering seasonal changes and low temperature conditions. Both facilities showed lower NH4+-N removal efficiency and nitrification rates as temperature decreased. However, one of the plants had a more stable nitrification rate and higher ammonia removal efficiency throughout the entire period. The differences in performance was related to a shift in the composition of the bacterial ammonia oxidizing community from a Nitrosomonas oligotropha-dominated community to a mixed community including also Nitrosomonas ureae-like ammonia oxidizers. This was likely a response to differences in NH4+-N and organic loading.

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