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  • 1.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Cioccolanti, Luca
    François, B.
    Jurasz, J.
    Zhang, Yang
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A Multi-Country Economic Analysis Of Lithium-Ion Batteries For Peak Shaving And Price Arbitrage In Commercial Buildings2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Holmberg, Aksel
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Pettersson, Oscar
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Hangula, A.
    Namibia Energy Institute, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Araoz, F. B.
    School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhang, Y.
    School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An open-source optimization tool for solar home systems: A case study in Namibia2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 130, no 15, p. 106-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar home systems (SHSs) represent a viable technical solution for providing electricity to households and improving standard of living conditions in areas not reached by the national grid or local grids. For this reason, several rural electrification programmes in developing countries, including Namibia, have been relying on SHSs to electrify rural off-grid communities. However, the limited technical know-how of service providers, often resulting in over- or under-sized SHSs, is an issue that has to be solved to avoid dissatisfaction of SHSs’ users. The solution presented here is to develop an open-source software that service providers can use to optimally design SHSs components based on the specific electricity requirements of the end-user. The aim of this study is to develop and validate an optimization model written in MS Excel-VBA which calculates the optimal SHSs components capacities guaranteeing the minimum costs and the maximum system reliability. The results obtained with the developed tool showed good agreement with a commercial software and a computational code used in research activities. When applying the developed optimization tool to existing systems, the results identified that several components were incorrectly sized. The tool has thus the potentials of improving future SHSs installations, contributing to increasing satisfaction of end-users.

  • 3.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zaccaria, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhang, Yang
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Flexibility Services Provided by Building Thermal Inertia2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Larsson, David
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Solar Electricity in Swedish District Heating Areas: Effective Energy Measures in Apartment Buildings to Increase the Share of Renewable Energy in Europe2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling / [ed] Anna Land, Stockholm: Svensk Fjärrvärme , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To overcome the climate challenge is one of the greatest tasks of our time. In EU, renovating the existing building stock has been found an effective measure. In Swedish buildings with district heating, lowering heat demand could be questioned, because the energy used is mainly renewable bio energy or waste heat from industries. In addition many district heating systems cogenerate electricity, which could reduce the overall European greenhouse gas emissions.

    The aim of this article is to find effective measures for Swedish apartment buildings, in order to increase the share of renewable energy in European energy consumption. As a basis we use a previous study of energy saving potentials in apartment buildings. Added to this we study the impact of heat savings in 30 of Sweden’s largest district heating systems.

    The results show that on average heat reductions will lead to a decreased share of renewable energy, while electricity reductions will lead to an increased share of renewables. Of the investigated measures, using photovoltaics for local solar electricity generation has the largest potential.

    Our conclusion is that using the potential of solar electricity production should be considered in national energy policy and future building requirements. Heat reduction, on the other hand, could have lower priority in district heating areas, at least for existing buildings.

  • 5.
    Molin, Elin
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Energy Technol, SE-79188 Falun, Sweden.;PPAM Solkraft AB, Corp Res, SE-59072 Ljungsbro, Sweden..
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Molin, Andreas
    PPAM Solkraft AB, Corp Res, SE-59072 Ljungsbro, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Div Energy Syst, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Waeckelgard, Ewa
    Dalarna Univ, Energy Technol, SE-79188 Falun, Sweden..
    Experimental Yield Study of Bifacial PV Modules in Nordic Conditions2018In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1457-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on the first full-year field study in Sweden using bifacial photovoltaic modules. The two test sites are located on flat roofs with a low albedo of 0.05 in Linkoping (58 degrees N) and were studied fromDecember 2016 to November 2017. Site 1 has monofacial and bifacial modules with a 40 degrees tilt facing south, which is optimal for annual energy yield for monofacial modules at this location. Site 2 has monofacial 40 degrees tilt south-facing modules and bifacial vertical east-west orientated modules. The annual bifacial energy gain (BGE) was5% at site 1 and1% at site 2 for albedo 0.05. The difference in power temperature coefficients between bifacial and monofacial modules was estimated to influence BG(E) by + 0.4 and + 0.1 percentage points on site 1 and 2, respectively. A higher albedo could be investigated on a sunny day with fresh snow for the bifacial east-west modules. The specific yield was 7.57 kWh/kW(p), which was a yield increase of 48% compared with tar paper at similar solar conditions.

  • 6.
    Philippe, Macé
    et al.
    Becquerel Institute, Belgium.
    Larsson, David
    Solkompaniet, Sweden.
    Benson, Jessica
    RISE, Sweden.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Inventory on Existing Business Models, Opportunities and Issues for BIPV: IEA PVPS Task 15 Subtask B – Transition towards sound BIPV business models2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) can have a vastly different business model than other PV installations; applied on buildings or ground mounted. Business models for ordinary PV installations generally focus only on revenues from the electricity generated, whereas BIPV has the potential to also reduce costs through the replacement of other building materials.

    This report includes examples of various BIPV installations ranging from simple in-roof installations to innovative facade designs. The timing of introducing BIPV in the design process affects the complexity of the façade. The façade examples cover the use of standard modules to custom-made modules adapted to the design. The BIPV roof examples cover both small, simple in-roof installations and a full roof BIPV solution. Results from the studied cases, show that only one of the involved companies have a BIPV-specific business model in place.

    A basic BIPV-specific business model could be based solely on cost savings from replacing other building materials and revenues from electricity generation. This is viable if the BIPV installation has sufficiently low cost, or if the value of the replaced materials and electricity generated is sufficiently high. A BIPV specific business model is found in the case with a full BIPV roof, an installation that arose from the need for a roof renovation. The other examples are also based on material savings and electricity revenues but many were made with publicly funded incentives like investment subsidies.

    The purpose of the case study is to identify the main drives for choosing BIPV in each example. These drives and values can be used as a basis in the development of new business models. For example, there is a green value, i.e. value of being environmentally friendly and sustainable, attached to PV, which could be significantly higher for a good looking, architecturally integrated BIPV installation than for the average PV system. For example, the green identity attracts high paying customers as tenants in two of the cases, which allows for higher rental fees. Future work is needed to explore ways to fully capture and monetize the green value of a building with BIPV.

    Another business model, shown in one example, could be to build and sell the building at a premium. So far, there is no clear evaluation of the price premium of a building with BIPV. On the other hand, compared to the total cost of a new building, the cost of a BIPV installation is seemingly moderate. In two of the examples with large BIPV facades, the added cost was only 1-2 % of the building cost. A leasing arrangement with the utilty is also described in one example.

    In the future, it is likely that BIPV must cope without investment subsidies and that electricity revenues will be high from self-consumption, but low from excess production. Highlighted in the analysis of regulatory environment is the need for collective self-consumption to be allowed. BIPV can also benefit from regulatory measures imposing a reduced purchased energy demand of new or retrofitted buildings.

  • 7.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sveriges första MW-solcellspark och dess forskningssystem: En systembeskrivning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013 began the construction of a 1 MW solar park immediately north of the E18 at Onsmyran, 10 km east of Västerås. It was inaugurated on February 5, 2014. It was at that time the largest photovoltaic plant in Sweden and the second largest in the Nordic region.

    The project's aim was to increase understanding and provide an opportunity to influence how future PV installations should be carried out in Sweden in as cost effective manner as possible and thereby become an attendant for increased solar electricity generation in Sweden.

    In the project ten smaller research systems were evaluated in detail. The purpose of this report is to provide a description of the MW solar park and provide a detailed description of the ten research systems with 3.0 to 8.4 kW power as assessed in detail in the project.

    The different research systems were

    • 2-axis tracking freestanding.

    • 1 axis tracking freestanding, tilted axis 30°.

    • Fixed mounting freestanding, 19° tilt.

    • Fixed mounting freestanding, 41° tilt.

    • Fixed mounting on a roof, 19° tilt.

     

    All of the above PV systems were available with and without power optimizer on each module.

    Installation and operating experiences of especially the research systems are described in this report, since it may be useful information for future PV installations in Sweden. Problems with data logging is a more common source of error than failure of solar modules. The conclusions give reflections on things to consider when setting up a logging system.

    In this report no measurement results or conclusions based on the measurement results were made. This will be reported in a separate report.

  • 8.
    Stridh, Bengt
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Larsson, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Investeringskalkyl för solceller2016Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Stridh, Bengt
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Rosenlind, Johanna
    Mälarenergi, Sweden.
    Bagge, Patrik
    Mälarenergi, Sweden.
    Sahoo, Smruti
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zetterström, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Power quality experiences from Sweden's first MW photovoltaics park and impact on LV planning2016In: IEEE ISGT 2016: Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first 1 MW PV park in Sweden was installed in 2014. A concern from the grid owner perspective is how the growing number of PV installations will influence the power quality in their grids. The power quality impact from the 1 MW park was demonstrated to fall within the regulating limitations in EIFS 2013:1 for the following aspects: voltage changes, voltage harmonics, interharmonics, and voltage unbalance. However, the slow voltage variations were exceeding the Swedish industry recommendations (AMP) governing a single production source. This deviation occurred during 0.74% of the studied two-month period. To meet AMP recommendations it would have been necessary to install a separate cable intended only for the solar park itself and connected closer to the substation. Perhaps a more appropriate alternative would have been to connect the solar park on the closest 20 kV grid.

  • 10.
    Stridh, Bengt
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yard, Stefan
    Lunds Universitet.
    Larsson, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Production cost of PV electricity in Sweden2013In: EU PVSEC Proceedings, 2013, p. 4718-4722, article id 6CV.5.13Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The photovoltaic (PV) market in Sweden is small in comparison to most of the other PV markets in the European countries. However, the market is growing and about 8 MW was installed during 2012 that is 1/3 of the totally installed power. It is expected that the market will continue to grow during 2013.The PV levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) in Sweden was studied for grid connected PV systems to understand how competitive PV is on the Swedish market. It is concluded that PV production cost is still too high to be competitive in utility scale on the Nord Pool spot market without subsidies. However, for residential or commercial systems the production cost for PV electricity is today in some cases in the same order of magnitude as, or lower than, the running cost for bought electricity even without investment subsidy or electricity certificates, with the assumed parameters for estimation of LCOE. With investment subsidy the calculation improves substantially resulting in a LCOE lower than the running cost for bought electricity. To a much smaller extent an improvement of LCOE is also seen with electricity certificates.

  • 11.
    Stridh, Bengt
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Yard, Stefan
    Lund Univ, Sweden..
    Larsson, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Solkompaniet, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Profitability of PV electricity in Sweden2014In: 2014 IEEE 40TH PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIALIST CONFERENCE (PVSC), IEEE , 2014, p. 1492-1497Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish PV market is still limited compared to many other countries in Europe. However, the growth is strong. 19 MW was installed in 2013 showing that the market more than doubled during 2013 in comparison to 2012. Hence there is of interest to more in detail study the profitability of PV electricity in Sweden for grid connected PV systems, to understand how competitive PV is on the Swedish market. LCOE and payback period are presented for a PV system that is installed to replace retail electricity with PV electricity. Both the cases of private residential systems and of non-private systems are considered.

  • 12.
    Vedde, Jan
    et al.
    SiCon.
    Richter, Mauricio
    Tjendgdrawira, Caroline
    KU Leuven.
    Herteleer, Bert
    KU Leuven och CAT Projects.
    Herz, Magnus
    TÜV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH.
    Jahn, Ulrike
    TÜV Rheinland Energie und Umwelt GmbH.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB Corporate Research.
    Frearson, Lyndon
    CAT Projects.
    Green, Mike
    M.G. Lightning ltd.
    Technical Parameters Used in PV Financial Models: Review and Analysis2016In: 32nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 2016, p. 2897-2902, article id 7DO.14.4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When photovoltaic (PV) projects are developed and constructed for investment purposes, financing from professional investors and banks are required, and financial models are developed that describe the expected cash-flow generated by the PV plant over the economic lifetime of the project. The calculation is based on models that require both technical and financial inputs. In this paper we will review and analyse the technical assumptions in these models and discuss how the technical assumptions are typically used and to what extent the uncertainty related to the input parameters are appropriately addressed. Finally, a calculation and visualisation method is presented that highlights the nature and effect of this uncertainty.

  • 13.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yang, Ying
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lundblad, A.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Energy flexibility from the consumer: Integrating local electricity and heat supplies in a building2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 223, p. 430-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing penetration level of renewable energy requires more flexibility measures to be implemented in future energy systems. Integrating an energy consumer’s local energy supplies connects multiple energy networks (i.e., the electrical grid, the district heating network, and gas network) in a decentralized way. Such integration enhances the flexibility of energy systems. In this work, a Swedish office building is investigated as a case study. Different components, including heat pump, electrical heater, battery and hot water storage tank are integrated into the electricity and heat supply system of the building. Special focus is placed on the flexibility that the studied building can provide to the electrical grid (i.e., the building modulates the electricity consumption in response to the grid operator’s requirements). The flexibility is described by two metrics including the flexibility hours and the flexibility energy. Optimization of the component capacities and the operation profiles is carried out by using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). The results show that the system fully relies on electricity for the heat demand when not considering the flexibility requirements of the electrical grid. This suggests that district heating is economically unfavorable compared with using electricity for the heat demand in the studied case. However, when flexibility requirements are added, the system turns to the district heating network for part of the heat demand. The system provides great flexibility to the electrical grid through such integration. The flexibility hours can be over 5200 h in a year, and the flexibility energy reaches more than 15.7 MWh (36% of the yearly electricity consumption). The yearly operation cost of the system slightly increases from 62,273 to 65,178 SEK when the flexibility hours increase from 304 to 5209 h. The results revealed that flexibility can be provided from the district heating network to the electrical grid via the building.

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