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  • 1.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Huselius, Joel
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Extracting Simulation Models from Complex Embedded Real-Time Systems2006In: Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, ICSEA'06, Tahiti, French Polynesia, 2006, p. Article number 4031792-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modeling process is presented for extracting timingaccurate simulation models from complex embedded real-time systems. The process is supported by two complementary methods for tool-supported model extraction, Model Synthesis and Hybrid Model Extraction. The generated models enable impact analysis for complex real-time systems with respect to dynamic system properties, such as timing and resource usage. This can make software maintenance more predictable with respect to time-to-market and development costs, since timing errors can be identified early and avoided. The contribution of the paper is the modeling process, the Hybrid Model Extraction method and an interactive modeling tool, MASS, designed to support Hybrid Model Extraction of large implementations in C.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Framework for Analysis of Timing and Resource Utilization targeting Complex Embedded Systems2006In: ARTES - A network for Real-Time research and graduate Education in Sweden 1997 - 2006, Uppsala: Department of Information Technology , 2006, p. 297-329Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A problem in common of many complex software systems embedded in industrial

    products is the absence of analyzability as formal models of the system

    behavior does not exist. When performing maintenance of such systems it is

    hard to predict how changes will impact specific system properties related to

    timing and resource utilization and there is therefore a significant risk of running

    into problems with unexpected side-effects of the changes made, which

    increases development time required and costs.

    In this paper we present the ART Framework, a set of methods and tools

    that enable behavior impact analysis for existing industrial real-time systems.

    The ART Framework enables developers of complex software systems to identify

    problematic side-effects of a proposed design before vast resources have

    been invested in implementation and testing. This reduces the risk of expensive

    and time-consuming problems discovered late in a development project

    and also reduces the risk releasing software containing latent critical errors.

  • 3.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stig
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Integrating Perceived Customer Value in the Evaluation of Performance in Product Development2010In: PICMET 2010: TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT FOR GLOBAL ECONOMIC GROWTH, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product delivering companies invest resources in product development activities in order to create value. Still, when performance in product development is to be evaluated, time, cost, and quality are in focus, especially in the later stages of the development when it is expensive and difficult to make any changes. Time, cost, and quality are important dimensions of performance but they are not revealing the complete picture. Missing is the value perspective. This paper outlines a method for how perceived customer value can be used to evaluate performance in product development and describes how it is verified through a case study. By using the perceived customer value of requirements, the value propagation throughout the development is possible to monitor based on both market and scope changes. In addition, a measure of productivity can be calculated by relating the perceived value to the spent effort. This information is used in order to visualize the value propagation and performance during the development. Hence, through this method it is possible to evaluate the productivity of activities from initial ideas to a final product. The paper is concluded with a discussion of managerial implications and how this method contributes to theory.

  • 4.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research.
    PMEX: A Performance Measurement Evaluation Matrix For The Development Of Industrial Software-Intensive Products2011In: International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (IJITM), ISSN 0219-8770, ISSN 0219-8770, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 55-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to measure performance is both fundamental to and critical in successful product development. Previous research has focused on adding new measurements, not on evaluating those currently used. The PMEX is a tool to evaluate the performance-measurement system based on success factors in the development of software-intensive products. Three case studies have been conducted to test the PMEX and the results indicate that the PMEX enables managers to determine explicitly what is and what is not measured. Time, cost and quality seem to be the focus of the performance measurements while technology and planning activities are absent.

  • 5.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Performance Evaluation Framework for Innovation a chapter in Innovation in Business and Enterprise: Technologies and Frameworks2010In: Innovation in Business and Enterprise: Technologies and Frameworks, IGI Global, 2010, p. 135-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a framework for a conceptual evaluation of the performance of industrial product innovation activities. The framework promotes a holistic view of performance by considering three categories of activities: Planning, Implementation, and Sales and Delivery. Successful performance evaluation comes from acknowledging the fact that there are different objectives for each of the three activity categories. Moreover, performance may be expressed as a function of the performance of the Planning, the Implementation, and the Sales and Delivery activities. In this chapter the results of research involving seven large companies in Sweden, with the objective of improving the understanding of what is required to be successful when developing complex industrial products, are presented. Key factors for success as well as some general conclusions are discussed.

  • 6.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Challenges with Evaluating Performance in Product Development2010In: 17TH INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE, Murcia, Spain, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to from a managerial perspective investigate performance evaluation practices in a product development context. The focus is on exploring how managers perceive and evaluate performance in a software-intensive product development context. The research approach pursued in this research consist of a literature review combined with focused group interviews and exploratory multiple case studies. Moreover, a number of seminars have been held to discuss the findings both in academia and in practice. The result of this research indicates that product development managers are dissatisfied with their current way of evaluating performance. Performance measurements and the perception of performance are focused on cost, time and quality, i.e. what is easily measurable and not necessarily what is important. The dimensions of value creations and learning are missing. It is argued that manager perception of performance is affected by how it is measured, hence limiting the scope of the performance criteria. Thus, a change in the way managers perceive performance is necessary before there can be any change in the way performance is evaluated. Managers within product development that are dissatisfied with their performance measurement system should focus on how the organization perceive performance. By developing relevant performance criteria the first step in developing an effective performance evaluation system is made.

  • 7.
    Cedergren, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corp Res.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Evaluation of performance in a product development context2010In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 359-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's competitive environment the need to deploy product-development investments more effectively is greater than ever. To assist managers, two conceptual tools have been developed to support the evaluation of performance in product development. The Performance Measurement Evaluation Matrix (PMEX) presented here helps managers evaluate performance-measurement systems they currently use, in order to identify areas requiring improvement. Results from using the PMEX indicate that it is common to associate performance measurements with the efficiency aspects of time, cost, and quality, without monitoring the value created. Performance is largely perceived by managers in terms of time, cost, and quality of the activities in the later phases of the development process. We argue that an effective performance-measurement system is based on performance criteria and then derive measurements based on these. It is argued that there should be a change in the perception of performance before performance-evaluation systems can be improved. The Product Development Organizational Model (PDOPM) assists in developing the perception of performance by relating uncertainty, efficiency and effectiveness at three generic activity levels within the product-development function. The use of our tools provides an improved perception of performance and its measurement, thus enabling improvements to the evaluation of performance.

  • 8.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Cederblad, Lars
    Level 21 Management AB Västerås, Sweden .
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research Västerås, Sweden .
    Productivity Framework for Innovative Product Development2007In: Managing Total Innovation and Open Innovation in the 21st Century: ISMOT07, PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY, 2007, p. 1655-1660Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative product development (IPD) give companies the competitive advantage required to be successful in the highly competitive market of today. The natural question is: how do you make your organization as effective as possible in the IPD process? This paper presents a framework to reason about the subject of productivity in the IPD process. The framework is deducted from the definitions of innovation and product development, an effective IPD process contains three parts; Planning (what to develop), Implementation (product realization) and Marketing, Sales and Delivery. Success comes from acknowledging the fact that there are different objectives within the three parts. The productivity of the IPD process can be expressed as a function of the efficiencies of Planning, Implementation and Marketing, Sales and Delivery. This paper is the first qualitative result of research together with seven high-tech industrial companies, with the goal to find what is required to be efficient in the Planning and the Implementation process. The key factors for success as well as some general conclusions are presented in this paper.

  • 9.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    PMEX - A Performance Measurement Evaluating Matrix for Development of Complex Products and Systems2008In: PICMET 2008, Cape Town, South Africa, 2008, p. 1224-1234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key aspect in a sustainable economy is to be able to do more with less by making better use of resources. Within the development of complex products and systems, a continuous need to improve performance exists, i.e., making better use of a company's resources. In this improvement process it is important to measure the performance of the product development process. Previous research mainly focuses on the design and implementation of new performance measurement systems, not on evaluating the measures currently used. The research question in this paper is how to evaluate a company's performance measurement systems from a manager's perspective. To answer this question, a performance measurement evaluation matrix (PMEX) is developed. The PMEX has the different phases of the Stage-Gate process as one dimension and important success factors in the development of complex products and systems as the other dimension. Furthermore, a multiple case study has been conducted as a first verification of the PMEX. The first results of the study indicate that the PMEX enables managers to overview what is and what is not measured. The PMEX can therefore function as a conceptual tool in the discussions for setting the scope of the performance measurement system. 

  • 10.
    Kraft, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lu, Yue
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Metaheuristic Approach for Best Effort Timing Analysis targeting Complex Legacy Real-Time Systems2008In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 14TH IEEE REAL-TIME AND EMBEDDED TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS SYMPOSIUM, 2008, p. 258-269Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies developing real-time systems today have today no means for response time analysis, as their systems violate the assumptions of traditional analytical methods for response-time analysis and are too complex for exhaustive analysis using model checking.

    This paper presents a novel approach for best effort response time analysis targeting such systems, where probabilistic simulation is guided by a search algorithm of metaheuristic type, similar to genetic algorithms.

    The best effort approach means that the result is not guaranteed to be the worst-case response time, but also that the method scales to large industrial systems.

    The proposed method should be regarded as a form of testing, focusing on timing properties.

    An evaluation is presented which indicates that the proposed approach is significantly more efficient than traditional probabilistic simulation in finding extreme task response times. The paper also presents a method for finding good parameters for the search algorithm, in order to improve its efficiency.

  • 11.
    Kraft, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB.
    Kienle, Holger
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Trace Recording for Embedded Systems: Lessons Learned from Five Industrial Projects2010In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6418, Springer, 2010, p. 315-329Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experiences from five industry collaboration projects performed between 2004 - 2009 where solutions for embedded systems trace recording have been developed and evaluated; in four cases for specific industrial systems and in the last case as a generic solution for a commercial real-time operating system, in collaboration with the RTOS company. The experiences includes technical solutions regarding efficient instrumentation and logging, technology transfer issues and evaluation results regarding CPU and RAM overhead. A brief overview of the Tracealyzer tool is also presented, a result of the first project (2004) which still is used by ABB Robotics and now in commercialization.

  • 12.
    Larsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Technology Transfer: Why some Succeed and some don't2006In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, 2006, 2006, p. 23-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present several technology transfer cases both successes and failures. These cases describe transfers from research department within a large corporation to a product company, university to a large product company and university to a small product company. Based on the analysis of these cases we outline several strategies that can be used, in isolation or combined, in order to increase the probability for success

  • 13.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    ABB.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB.
    Wallin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Assessing the Influence on Processes when Evolving the Software Architecture2007In: 9th International Workshop on Principles of Software Evolution, IWPSE 2007, Held in Conjunction with the 6th ESEC/FSE Joint Meeting, 2007, p. 59-66Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software intensive products and systems evolve over the life-cycle. Changing business objectives may drive architectural or process changes. Altering either architecture or process mightinfluence the other. Also the organization may influence and be influenced. This paper describes these relationships and proposes a method for assessing the influence on process that a proposed architectural change can have. The method includes the use of scenarios and process reference models. A case study where the method has been used is described, identifying the need for changes in the processes to be able to utilize the advantages made possible due to the architectural evolution. The case study supports our proposal that a structured method to assess the impacts on process when changing the architecture of a system helps to reduce risks and to facilitate the envisioned business benefits. This also identifies the need to devise methods for other types of changes, e.g. how a process change may influence architecture or organization.

  • 14.
    Lindgren, Markus
    et al.
    ABB Force Measurement.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Key Aspects of Software Release Planning in Industry2008In: Proceedings of the Australian Software Engineering Conference, ASWEC, IEEE Computer Society , 2008, p. 320-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software release planning is the process of deciding what to include in future release(s) of a product. Basically the problem can be seen as a company-wide optimization problem involving many stakeholders where the goal is to maximize utilization of the often limited resources of a company and turn them into business benefit. Saliu and Ruhe have proposed a set of key aspects for release planning methods, of which only a subset have been validated in industry. In this paper we use the Saliu and Ruhe key aspects as a starting point for identifying key aspects of release planning. To do this we have performed a multiple case study involving 7 international industrial companies, all producers of software intensive products. Our contribution is (1) a more strict meaning of a release planning key aspect, (2) validation of some of the aspects proposed by Saliu and Ruhe, and (3) an extension of the key aspects. We also capture state-of-the-practice for release planning in industry.

  • 15.
    Lindgren, Markus
    et al.
    ABB Force Measurement, Sweden.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Towards a Capability Model for the Software Release Planning Process — Based on a Multiple Industrial Case Study2008In: In Proc. 9th International Conference on Product Focused Software Process Improvement, Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer , 2008, p. 117-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software release planning is an important activity for effectively identifying the customer needs generating best business, especially for incremental software development. In this paper we propose a capability model for improving the release planning process of an organization. Using this model it is possible to 1) determine the capabilities of an organization’s release planning process, and 2) identify areas for improvement. The model is based on empirical data from a multiple case study involving 7 industrial companies, all being producers of software intensive systems. We also provide examples of how the proposed capability model can be applied using the companies from the study.

  • 16.
    Lindgren, Markus
    et al.
    ABB Force Measurement.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Importance of Software Architecture during Release Planning2008In: 7th IEEE/IFIP Working Conference on Software Architecture, WICSA 2008, IEEE Computer Society , 2008, p. 253-256Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Release planning is the process of deciding what to include in future release(s) of a product. In this paper we look at how software architects are involved during release planning in industry today, and how architectural issues are considered during this phase.

  • 17.
    Lindgren, Markus
    et al.
    ABB Force Measurement.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Method for Balancing Short- and Long-Term Investments: Quality vs. Features2008In: EUROMICRO 2008 - Proceedings of the 34th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2008, IEEE Computer Society , 2008, p. 175-182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a number of conflicting forces between shortand long-term considerations for software release planning in industry. For example, from a business perspective it is usually desired with a short time-to-market. However, from software quality perspective it is usually desired to have a longer time-to-market such that the proper architectural mechanisms can be put in place, which in the long-term reduce development cost and addresses quality aspects. In this paper we outline some of these conflicting forces, with a focus on long-lived systems, and examplify how they impact product quality and time-to-market. In this paper we propose a simple, but useful, extensionof the release planning process that addresses these conflicting forces. The method is inspired from empirical data captured in a multiple case study involving 7 companies.

  • 18.
    Lüders, Frank
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Flemström, Daniel
    Wall, Anders
    ABB.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Prototype Tool for Software Component Services in Embedded Real-Time Systems2006In: Component-Based Software Engineering: 9th International Symposium, CBSE 2006, Västerås, Sweden, June 29 - July 1, 2006. Proceedings, Springer, 2006, p. 222-237Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of software component models has become popular during the last decade, in particular in the development of software for desktop applications and distributed information systems. However, such models have not been widely used in the domain of embedded real-time systems. There is a considerable amount of research on component models for embedded real-time systems, or even narrower application domains, which focuses on source code components and statically configured systems. This paper explores an alternative approach by laying the groundwork for a component model based on binary components and targeting the broader domain of embedded real-time systems. The work is inspired by component models for the desktop and information systems domains in the sense that a basic component model is extended with a set of services for the targeted application domain. A prototype tool for supporting these services is presented and its use illustrated by a control application.

  • 19.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Business Sustainability for Software Systems2008In: Business Sustainability 2008, Ofir, Portugal, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development of industrial software systems with controllable outcome in terms of cost, schedule and quality despite changes originating from new technology, stakeholders’ concerns, organization, and business goals during long life-times is a challenge. Unruh has argued that numerous barriers to sustainability arise because today’s technological systems were designed and built for permanence and reliability, not change. Sustainability is a characteristic of a process or state that can be maintained at a certain level indefinitely. The implied preference would be for systems to be productive indefinitely, to be “sustainable”. For instance, “sustainable development” would be development of software systems that last indefinitely. Author Michael Pollan has defined an unsustainable system simply as “a practice or process that can’t go on indefinitely because it is destroying the very conditions on which it depends

  • 20.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    ABB Corporate research.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Applying the Software Engineering Taxonomy2009Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Guiding Architectural Decisions with the Influencing Factors Method2008In: Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA) 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Influencing Factors (IF) method guides the architect through stakeholders’ concerns to architectural decisions in line with current business goals. The result is a set of requirements on software quality attributes and business goals and highlighted trade-offs among software quality attributes and among business goals. The IF method is suitable for sustainable software systems since it allows new concerns, resulting from changes in business goals, stakeholder concerns, technical environment and organization, to be added to existing concerns.

  • 22.
    Stoll, Pia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Software Engineering featuring the Zachman Taxonomy2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering of today must consider organizational- and business issues as well as architectural issues for fast manufacturing of software. The semantics in a taxonomic scheme including organizational-, business- and architecture artifacts would help software engineers define explicit relations between software engineering artifacts at all levels and enable fast and flexible creation of process models for software manufacturing.

    In this paper we present our software engineering taxonomic scheme, featuring the Zachman Enterprise Architecture taxonomy. The taxonomic scheme classifies software engineering artifacts from the IEEE Software Engineering Book Of Knowledge according to Zachman’s relationship rules and our interpretation of the Zachman taxonomy.

    The software engineering taxonomic scheme proved to give useful insights to how customer sites and development sites may interact for fast innovation exemplified with the companies Apple (AppStore) and Google. The scheme also proved to be useful for process analysis which is shown for the Scrum process.

  • 23.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Formal Approach to Analysis of Software Architectures for Real-Time Systems2000Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    A software architecture is a high-level design description of a software system. In terms of the architecture, early design decisions can be analyzed to improve the quality of a real time software system, which depends very much on how it is structured rather than how it is implemented. Architectural analysis techniques vary in their degree of formality. The least formal is based on reviews and scenarios, whereas the most formal analysis methods are based on mathematics. In this thesis, we propose to use a formal approach to software architectural analysis. We use networks of timed automata to model the architecture of real time systems and transform architectural analysis problems to reachability problems that can be checked by the existing tools for timed automata. The typical properties that can be handled using this approach are schedulability and safety properties. As the first technical contribution, we extend the classic model of timed automata with a notion of real time tasks. This yields a general model for real-time systems in which tasks may be periodic and non-periodic. We show that the schedulability problem for the extended model can be transformed to a reachability problem for standard timed automata, and thus it can be checked by existing model-checking tools, e.g. UPPAAL for timed automata. As the second contribution, we present a method to check general high level temporal requirements e.g. timing constraints on data flowing in multi-rate transactions, which can not be handled by traditional approach to schedulability analysis. We have developed an algorithm that given a data dependency model and a schedule for a transaction constructs a timed automaton describing the behavior of the transaction. Thus, by using existing verification tools we can verify that a given architecture is schedulable and more importantly, it is correctly constructed with respect to the high level temporal constraints.

  • 24.
    Wall, Anders
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Architectural Modeling and Analysis of Complex Real-Time Systems2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 25.
    Wall, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Andersson, Johan A.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Norström, C.
    ABB Robotics, Västerås, Sweden.
    Probabilistic simulation-based analysis of complex real-time systems2003In: Proceedings - 6th IEEE International Symposium on Object-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing, ISORC 2003, 2003, p. 257-266Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial real-time systems have evolved over a long period of time and were initially so simple that it was possible to predict consequences of adding new functionality by common sense. However as the system evolves the possibility to predict the consequences of changes becomes more and more difficult unless models and analysis method can be used. Moreover, traditional real-time models, e.g., fixed priority analysis, may be too simple for accurately capturing a complex system's characteristics. For instance, assuming worst-case execution time may not be realistic. Hence, analyses based on these models may give an overly pessimistic result. In this paper we describe our approach to introducing analyzability into complex real-time control systems. The proposed method is based on analytical models and discrete-event based simulation of the system behavior based on these models. The models describe execution times as statistical distributions which are measured and calculated in the existing system. Simulation will not only enable models with statistical execution times, but also correctness criterion other than meeting deadlines, e.g., nonempty communication queues. The simulation result is analyzed by specifying properties in a probabilistic property language. The result of such an analysis is either of probabilistic nature or boolean depending on how the property is specified. Having accurate system models enable analysis of the impact on the temporal behavior of e.g., customizing or maintaining the software.

  • 26.
    Wall, Anders
    et al.
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden .
    Andersson, Johan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Norström, Christer
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Decreasing Maintenance Costs by Introducing Formal Analysis of Real-Time Behavior in Industrial Settings2006In: Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods: First International Symposium, ISoLA 2004, Paphos, Cyprus, October 30 - November2, 2004, Revised Selected Papers, 2006, p. 130-145Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem with long-lived large industrial software systems such as telecom and industrial automation systems is the increasing complexity and the lack of formal models enabling efficient analyses of critical properties. New features are added or changed during the system life cycle and it becomes harder and harder to predict the impact of maintenance operations such as adding new features or fixing bugs.

    We present a framework for introducing analyzability in a late phase of the system's life cycle. The framework is based on the general idea of introducing a probabilistic formal model that is analyzable with respect to the system properties in focus, timing and usage of logical resources. The analyses are based on simulations. Traditional analysis method falls short due to a too limited modelling language or problems to scale up to real industrial systems.

    This method can be used for predicting the impact caused by e.g. adding a new feature or other changes to the system. This enables the system developers to identify potential problems with their design at an early stage and thus decreasing the maintenance cost.

    The framework primarily targets large industrial real-time systems, but it is applicable on a wide range of software system where complexity is an issue. This paper presents the general ideas of the framework, how to construct, validate, and use this type of models, and how the industry can benefit from this. The paper also present a set of tools developed to support the framework and our experiences from deploying parts of the framework at a company.

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