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  • 1.
    Borg, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Welf,Falun, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Christine
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Eskilstuna Municipal, Dept Hlth & Social Care, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Landerdahl Stridsberg, Sara
    Mälardalen University.
    Zander, Viktoria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Implementation of welfare technology: a state-of-the-art review of knowledge gaps and research needs2022In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To offer guidance for future welfare technology research, this review provides an overview of current knowledge gaps and research needs as reported in primary scientific studies addressing the implementation of welfare technology for older people, people with disabilities and informal caregivers.

    Materials and methods: This paper conducted a state-of-the-art review based on systematic searches in 11 databases followed by a descriptive qualitative analysis of 21 selected articles.

    Results: Knowledge gaps and research needs were identified concerning two categories: research designs and populations and focus of research. The articles reported needs for comparative studies, longitudinal studies, and demonstration trials as well as the development of co-design processes involving technology users. They also called for studies applying a social system theory approach, involving healthy and frail older adults, representative samples of users within and across countries, informal and formal caregivers, inter-and multidisciplinary teams, and care organizations. Moreover, there are reported needs for studies of acquirement, adoption and acceptance of welfare technology, attitudes, beliefs, and context related to welfare technology, caregiver perspectives on welfare technology, services to provide welfare technology and welfare technology itself.

    Conclusions: There are considerable knowledge gaps and research needs concerning the implementation of welfare technology. They relate not only to the research focus but also to research designs, a social system theory approach and study populations.

  • 2.
    Ehn, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Richardson, Matt X.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Landerdahl Stridsberg, Sara
    Redekop, Ken
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Wamala, Sarah
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Mobile Safety Alarms Based on GPS Technology in the Care of Older Adults: Systematic Review of Evidence Based on a General Evidence Framework for Digital Health Technologies.2021In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 23, no 10, article id e27267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: GPS alarms aim to support users in independent activities. Previous systematic reviews have reported a lack of clear evidence of the effectiveness of GPS alarms for the health and welfare of users and their families and for social care provision. As GPS devices are currently being implemented in social care, it is important to investigate whether the evidence of their clinical effectiveness remains insufficient. Standardized evidence frameworks have been developed to ensure that new technologies are clinically effective and offer economic value. The frameworks for analyzing existing evidence of the clinical effectiveness of GPS devices can be used to identify the risks associated with their implementation and demonstrate key aspects of successful piloting or implementation.

    OBJECTIVE: The principal aim of this study is to provide an up-to-date systematic review of evidence based on existing studies of the effects of GPS alarms on health, welfare, and social provision in the care of older adults compared with non-GPS-based standard care. In addition, the study findings were assessed by using the evidence standards framework for digital health technologies (DHTs) established by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom.

    METHODS: This review was conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Primary studies published in peer-reviewed journals and gray literature from January 2005 to August 2020 were identified through searches in 13 databases and several sources of gray literature. Included studies had individuals (aged ≥50 years) who were receiving social care for older adults or for persons with dementia; used GPS devices as an intervention; were performed in Canada, the United States, European Union, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, South Korea, or Japan; and addressed quantitative outcomes related to health, welfare, and social care. The study findings were analyzed by using the NICE framework requirements for active monitoring DHTs.

    RESULTS: Of the screened records, 1.6% (16/986) were included. Following the standards of the NICE framework, practice evidence was identified for the tier 1 categories Relevance to current pathways in health/social care system and Acceptability with users, and minimum evidence was identified for the tier 1 category Credibility with health, social care professionals. However, several evidence categories for tiers 1 and 2 could not be assessed, and no clear evidence demonstrating effectiveness could be identified. Thus, the evidence required for using DHTs to track patient location according to the NICE framework was insufficient.

    CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of the beneficial effects of GPS alarms on the health and welfare of older adults and social care provision remains insufficient. This review illustrated the application of the NICE framework in analyses of evidence, demonstrated successful piloting and acceptability with users of GPS devices, and identified implications for future research.

  • 3.
    Landerdahl Stridsberg, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Richardson, Matt
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Redekop, K.
    Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Ehn, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Wamala, Sarah
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Gray Literature in Evaluating Effectiveness in Digital Health and Health and Welfare Technology: A Source Worth Considering2022In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 24, no 3, article id e29307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The need to assess the effectiveness and value of interventions involving digital health and health and welfare technologies is becoming increasingly important due to the rapidly growing development of these technologies and their areas of application. Systematic reviews of scientific literature are a mainstay of such assessment, but publications outside the realm of traditional scientific bibliographic databases-known as gray literature-are often not included. This is a disadvantage, particularly apparent in the health and welfare technology (HWT) domain. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to investigate the significance of gray literature in digital health and HWT when reviewing literature. As an example, the impact of including gray literature to the result of two systematic reviews in HWT is examined. METHODS: In this paper, we identify, discuss, and suggest methods for including gray literature sources when evaluating effectiveness and appropriateness for different review types related to HWT. The analysis also includes established sources, search strategies, documentation, and reporting of searches, as well as bias and credibility assessment. The differences in comparison to scientific bibliographic databases are elucidated. We describe the results, challenges, and benefits of including gray literature in 2 examples of systematic reviews of HWT. RESULTS: In the 2 systematic reviews described in this paper, most included studies came from context-specific gray literature sources. Gray literature contributed to the overall result of the reviews and corresponded well with the reviews' aims. The assessed risk of bias of the included studies derived from gray literature was similar to the included studies from other types of sources. However, because of less standardized publication formats, assessing and extracting data from gray literature studies were more time-consuming and compiling statistical results was not possible. The search process for gray literature required more time and the reproducibility of gray literature searches were less certain due to more unstable publication platforms. CONCLUSIONS: Gray literature is particularly relevant for digital health and HWT but searches need to be conducted systematically and reported transparently. This way gray literature can broaden the range of studies, highlight context specificity, and decrease the publication bias of reviews of effectiveness of HWT. Thus, researchers conducting systematic reviews related to HWT should consider including gray literature based on a systematic approach.

  • 4.
    Richardson, Matt
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Ehn, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Landerdahl Stridsberg, Sara
    Malardalen Univ, Inst Lib, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Redekop, Kenneth
    Erasmus Univ, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Wamala, Sarah
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Nocturnal digital surveillance in aged populations and its effects on health, welfare and social care provision: a systematic review2021In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Nocturnal digital surveillance technologies are being widely implemented as interventions for remotely monitoring elderly populations, and often replace person-based surveillance. Such interventions are often placed in care institutions or in the home, and monitored by qualified personnel or relatives, enabling more rapid and/or frequent assessment of the individual's need for assistance than through on-location visits. This systematic review summarized the effects of these surveillance technologies on health, welfare and social care provision outcomes in populations >= 50 years, compared to standard care. Method Primary studies published 2005-2020 that assessed these technologies were identified in 11 databases of peer-reviewed literature and numerous grey literature sources. Initial screening, full-text screening, and citation searching steps yielded the studies included in the review. The Risk of Bias and ROBINS-I tools were used for quality assessment of the included studies. Result Five studies out of 744 identified records met inclusion criteria. Health-related outcomes (e.g. accidents, 2 studies) and social care outcomes (e.g. staff burden, 4 studies) did not differ between interventions and standard care. Quality of life and affect showed improvement (1 study each), as did economic outcomes (1 study). The quality of studies was low however, with all studies possessing a high to critical risk of bias. Conclusions We found little evidence for the benefit of nocturnal digital surveillance interventions as compared to standard care in several key outcomes. Higher quality intervention studies should be prioritized in future research to provide more reliable evidence.

  • 5.
    Richardson, Matt X.
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Landerdahl Stridsberg, Sara
    Mälardalen University.
    Wamala Andersson, Sarah
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Evidence-related requirements in Swedish public sector procurement of health and welfare technologies – a systematic review2022In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health and welfare technologies (HWT) are becoming increasingly employed in the Nordic countries, and in Sweden in particular. The amount of HWT public procurement is likely increasing at a similar rate, but requirements for evidence for effectiveness placed on bidders during this process may be lacking. Method: This study investigated the use of evidence as a requirement in public sector tendering process of HWT, and how it affected bidder attributes and procurement outcomes. A novel type of systematic review and content analysis of requests for tenders for HWT announced prior to June 2021 was therefore conducted in Swedish public procurement databases. Result: Ninety requests for tenders for 11 types of HWT met the inclusion criteria for review, accounting for potential contracts worth 246 to 296 million EUR. Criteria requiring evidence for effectiveness were used in 16 requests for tenders, accounting for 183 million EUR in potential contracts. Eight of the requests referred to an established independent standard to confirm such evidence, such as CE standard of conformity, MDR and/or MDD. This prevalence appears to cut across all types of procuring organisations and all types of HWT. The use of any evidence criteria, or lack thereof, does not appear to affect the outcomes of the tendering process. Conclusion: Criteria requiring evidence for effectiveness are used in less than a fifth of all public procurements of health- and welfare technologies in Sweden, and less than 10% refer to some form of independent standard as confirmation of such evidence. The procurement process therefore risks creating a legacy of sub-optimal technologies in health- and social care services. More prevalent and specific requirements for evidence and its continual generation in the procurement process are highly recommended. Recommendations for decision makers, procurement managers, and developers are provided.

  • 6.
    Wahlström, Emmie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Landerdahl Stridsberg, Sara
    Mälardalen University.
    Larsson, Camilla
    Mälardalen University.
    Stier, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    School health professionals' understanding of culture: a scoping review protocol2023In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e077134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Introduction:  Culture is highlighted in previous research as important in encounters where health professionals and children do not share a language or culture. In these encounters, culture is described as mainly related to the child, whereas the health professionals' understanding of their own culture as impacting the encounter tends to be left out. To clarify how culture is understood and conceptualised among professionals, it is of relevance to collate previous research on health professionals' understanding of culture. In the scoping review that this protocol describes, we aim to focus on the context of the school health services, being a context accessible to many children in their everyday life. The aim of the review will be to identify, describe and analyse previous research concerning school health professionals' (ie, school nurses, school social workers, school doctors and school psychologists) understanding of culture.

     Methods and analysis:  This scoping review will be guided by the methodology described by Peters et al and Khalil et al. Searches will be conducted in Scopus, PubMed, Cinahl Plus, SocIndex, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, APA PsycInfo, APA PsycArticles, Web of Science and Applied Social Sciences Index & Abstracts (ASSIA). Any published scientific papers focusing on school health professionals' understanding of culture (conceptualised through a variety of related terms) and school health services conducted within the last 10 years (2013-2023) will be included. Two reviewers will independently screen all titles and abstracts for inclusion. Two reviewers will conduct the screening of full-text documents and the extraction of information. Qualitative content analysis as well as discourse analysis will be employed.

     Ethics and dissemination:  Ethical approval is not required for this study. The findings will be disseminated through peer review publication as well as presentation at conferences and to relevant stakeholders.

  • 7.
    Wamala Andersson, Sarah
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Richardson, Matt
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Landerdahl Stridsberg, Sara
    Mälardalen University.
    Ehn, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Oklar effekt av digital nattillsyn2021In: Dagens arenaArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Wamala, Sarah
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Richardson, Matt X.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Landerdahl Stridsberg, Sara
    Mälardalen University.
    Ryan, J.
    School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Sukums, F.
    Directorate of Information and Communication Technology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Goh, Y. -S
    Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Artificial Intelligence and Precision Health Through Lenses of Ethics and Social Determinants of Health: Protocol for a State-of-the-Art Literature Review2023In: JMIR Research Protocols, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 12, article id e40565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Precision health is a rapidly developing field, largely driven by the development of artificial intelligence (AI)–related solutions. AI facilitates complex analysis of numerous health data risk assessment, early detection of disease, and initiation of timely preventative health interventions that can be highly tailored to the individual. Despite such promise, ethical concerns arising from the rapid development and use of AI-related technologies have led to development of national and international frameworks to address responsible use of AI. Objective: We aimed to address research gaps and provide new knowledge regarding (1) examples of existing AI applications and what role they play regarding precision health, (2) what salient features can be used to categorize them, (3) what evidence exists for their effects on precision health outcomes, (4) how do these AI applications comply with established ethical and responsible framework, and (5) how these AI applications address equity and social determinants of health (SDOH). Methods: This protocol delineates a state-of-the-art literature review of novel AI-based applications in precision health. Published and unpublished studies were retrieved from 6 electronic databases. Articles included in this study were from the inception of the databases to January 2023. The review will encompass applications that use AI as a primary or supporting system or method when primarily applied for precision health purposes in human populations. It includes any geographical location or setting, including the internet, community-based, and acute or clinical settings, reporting clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial outcomes, including detection-, diagnosis-, promotion-, prevention-, management-, and treatment-related outcomes. Results: This is step 1 toward a full state-of-the-art literature review with data analyses, results, and discussion of findings, which will also be published. The anticipated consequences on equity from the perspective of SDOH will be analyzed. Keyword cluster relationships and analyses will be visualized to indicate which research foci are leading the development of the field and where research gaps exist. Results will be presented based on the data analysis plan that includes primary analyses, visualization of sources, and secondary analyses. Implications for future research and person-centered public health will be discussed. Conclusions: Results from the review will potentially guide the continued development of AI applications, future research in reducing the knowledge gaps, and improvement of practice related to precision health. New insights regarding examples of existing AI applications, their salient features, their role regarding precision health, and the existing evidence that exists for their effects on precision health outcomes will be demonstrated. Additionally, a demonstration of how existing AI applications address equity and SDOH and comply with established ethical and responsible frameworks will be provided. 

  • 9.
    Zander, Viktoria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Uppsala Univ, Ctr Clin Res Sormland, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Christine
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Eskilstuna Municipal, Dept Hlth & Social Care, Eskilstuna, Sweden..
    Landerdahl Stridsberg, Sara
    Mälardalen University, University Library.
    Borg, Johan
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Educ Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden..
    Implementation of welfare technology: a systematic review of barriers and facilitators2021In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Although studies addressing barriers to and facilitators of implementation of welfare technology have been published, no systematic review synthesising evidence on such factors has been found. The purpose of this study was therefore to identify and synthesise existing primary research on facilitators and barriers that influence the implementation of welfare technology for older people, people with disabilities and informal caregivers. Materials and methods A systematic search in 11 databases was performed using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria to identify empirical studies that assess the implementation of welfare technology for older people, people with disabilities or informal caregivers. The search identified 33 publications with quantitative, qualitative and mixed method designs. The reported findings were thematically synthesised and conceptualised into themes. Results Six themes of facilitators and barriers that influence the implementation of welfare technology emerged: capacity, attitudes and values, health, expectations, participation and identity and lifestyle. These were presented from five perspectives: older persons and persons with disabilities, informal caregivers, health and care personnel, organisation and infrastructure and technology. The findings may be used as a means to structure the planning and evaluation of implementation processes of welfare technologies for older persons and persons with disabilities and to understand the complexities of implementation. Conclusions This knowledge generates deepened insights and structures to guide and evaluate the implementation processes of welfare technologies and engenders an understanding of the complexities of implementation.

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