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  • 1.
    Salman, Shaik Mohammed
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB.
    Sitompul, Taufik Akbar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. CrossControl.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics. Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fog Computing for Augmented Reality: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented reality applications are computationally intensive and have latency requirements in the range of 15-20 milliseconds. Fog computing addresses these requirements by providing on-demand computing capacity and lower latency by bringing the computational resources closer to the augmented reality devices. In this paper, we reviewed papers providing custom solutions for augmented reality using the fog architecture and identified that the ongoing research trends towards balancing quality-of-experience, energy, and latency for both single and collaborative multi-device augmented reality applications. Furthermore, some works also focus on providing architectures for fog-based augmented reality systems and also on the training of machine learning algorithms in the fog layers to improve user experience. Based on these findings, we provide some challenges and research directions that can facilitate the adoption of fog-based augmented reality systems.

  • 2.
    Sitompul, Taufik Akbar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. CrossControl AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Wallmyr, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. CrossControl AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Analyzing Online Videos: A Complement to Field Studies in Remote Locations2019In: 17th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Paphos, Cyprus, September 2–6, 2019, Proceedings, Part III, Cham, 2019, Vol. 117438, p. 371-389Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a complementary method, called online video study, to conducting field studies in remote locations, by using available videos on YouTube. There are two driving factors for the online video study. Firstly, there are some occasions where conducting field studies are difficult, for example, due to the remoteness of the location where the research subject is located. Secondly, there is a growing interest among researchers to use available data on the internet as their research data source. To give a context, the study specifically investigates how operators of forest harvesters work in their natural settings. The online video study was started by collecting suitable videos on YouTube using certain criteria. We found 26 videos that meet our criteria, which also provide diverse samples of forest harvesters, operators, and working situations. We used five prior field studies, which investigated forest harvesters-related issues, to evaluate the feasibility of our approach. The results of the online video study method are promising, since we are able to find answers for research questions that we have predefined. The paper does not only contribute to the understanding of how operators of forest harvesters work in natural settings, but also the feasibility of conducting the online video study, which can be utilized when the research subject is located in remote locations.

  • 3.
    Sitompul, Taufik Akbar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. CrossControl AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Wallmyr, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. CrossControl AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Using Augmented Reality to Improve Productivity and Safety for Heavy Machinery Operators: State of the Art2019In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Virtual-Reality Continuum and its Applications in Industry, 2019, p. 8:1-8:9, article id 8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The machinery used in industrial applications, such as in agriculture, construction, and forestry, are increasingly equipped with digital tools that aim to aid the operator in task completion, improved productivity, and enhanced safety. In addition, as machines are increasingly connected, there are even more opportunities to integrate external information sources. This situation provides a challenge in mediating the information to the operator. One approach that could be used to address this challenge is the use of augmented reality. This enables the system-generated information to be combined with the user’s perception of the environment. It has the potential to enhance the operators’ awareness of the machine, the surroundings, and the operation that needs to be performed. In this paper, we review the current literature to present the state of the art, discuss the possible benefits, and the use of augmented reality in heavy machinery.

  • 4.
    Wallmyr, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. CrossControl AB.
    Sitompul, Taufik Akbar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. CrossControl AB.
    Chuang, Lewis L.
    Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität München, Germany.
    1st Workshop on User Interfaces for Heavy Vehicles: Let’s Get to Work2019In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications: Adjunct Proceedings, New York, 2019, p. 1-6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are more types of vehicles than the automobile. Many are used for purposes other than transporting passengers or goods. They are often dedicated to enable the user in performing specific manual tasks, in parallel to driving. Such heavy vehicles range from construction vehicles, such as excavators and articulated haulers, to agriculture vehicles, such as tractors and harvesters. They also include speciality vehicles such as lifts and cranes. Recent advances in information technology radically increases their productivity and safety. Moreover, heavy vehicles are increasingly sensor and software-driven, as well as connected and integrated with information systems. This development creates new interaction challenges and research areas. The aim of this workshop is to gather practitioners, researchers, and professionals who wish to explore the potential opportunities, identify research challenges, and innovate in the domain of heavy vehicles.

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  • 5.
    Wallmyr, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. CrossControl AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sitompul, Taufik Akbar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. CrossControl AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Holstein, Tobias
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Hochschule Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Lindell, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Evaluating Mixed Reality Notifications to Support Excavator Operator Awareness2019In: 17th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Paphos, Cyprus, September 2–6, 2019, Proceedings, Part I, Cham: Springer, 2019, Vol. 11746, p. 743-762Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operating heavy vehicles, for instance an excavator, requires a high level of attention to the operation done using the vehicle and awareness of the surroundings. Digital transformation in heavy vehicles aims to improve productivity and user experience, but it can also increase the operators mental load because of a higher demand of attention to instrumentation and controls, subsequently leading to reduced situation awareness. One way to mitigate this, is to display information within the operators’ field of view, which enhances information detectability through quick glances, using mixed reality interfaces. This work explores two types of mixed reality visualizations and compares them to a traditional display setup in a simulated excavator environment. We have utilized eye-tracking glasses to study users’ attention to the task, surrounding awareness, and interfaces, followed by a NASA-RTLX questionnaire to evaluate the users’ reported mental workload. The results indicate benefits for the mixed reality approaches, with lower workload ratings together with an improved rate in detection of presented information.

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