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  • 1.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tailoring Pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access to the Requirements of Critical Cyber-Physical Systems2021Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the context of Industry 4.0, many devices have become more intelligent and connected, leading to challenges on how to meet the stringent requirements on latency and reliability in networks of critical cyber-physical systems. In particular, timely channel access and high reliability are of essence to guarantee real-time deadlines. To this end, time-division multiple-access (TDMA) schemes are often used in industrial applications to get contention-free access to the channel. Using pairwise non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) on top of such an existing TDMA scheme has recently emerged as a promising solution. With pairwise NOMA, two nodes are served simultaneously using the same time-frequency resources but with different power levels. To separate the signals, successive interference cancellation is used at the receiver. In addition, by adjusting the power allocation, pairwise NOMA can easily switch to TDMA by assigning zero power to one user, if and when needed. Due to this flexibility, pairwise NOMA can be integrated into existing wireless networks and schedulers with improved performance as a result. In particular, if pairwise NOMA could be tailored to the requirements of systems of collaborating cyber-physical systems, it would be possible to enhance performance in terms of latency and reliability, while still providing timely channel access to critical users using TDMA. This is the scope of the thesis work.

    In order to evaluate the communication reliability for each user in the system as well as for the overall system, the individual outage probability (IOP) and the overall outage probability (OOP) are of essence, but have so far not been available for pairwise NOMA used on top of TDMA. In this thesis work, closed-form expressions for the IOP and the OOP of both uplink and downlink NOMA are derived – also in the presence of a mobile smart jammer. Using these performance metrics, insightful guidelines on the impact of some key parameters on the communication reliability such as power allocation, decoding order, node placements and so on are provided. It should be noted that the conclusions on node placement can be used for smart user pairing, but also for placement of access points (AP) or even mobile APs, using a UAV. Moreover, by formulating a non-cooperative game between a malicious smart mobile jammer and a friendly mobile AP serving two friendly sensor nodes simultaneously, Nash equilibrium points are obtained to reduce power consumption for the AP, while satisfying the communication reliability requirements. Using the derived expressions for OOP and IOP to select proper settings for pairwise NOMA, it is shown that NOMA can be tailored to ensure user fairness, provide timely channel access and high reliability, which is useful for enhancing performance of critical cyber-physical systems even in the presence of jamming.

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  • 2.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Using Outage Probability to Tailor Communication Protocols Suitable for Cyber-Physical Systems Operating in Confined Areas2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some types of Cyber-Physical System (CPS) applications found within e.g., quarrying, mining, harbors, and construction sites, operate within confined areas. To guarantee that communications between nodes in such systems operate smoothly, the adopted wireless communication protocols must meet stringent requirements, even in the presence of interference and/or jamming. This thesis work targets finding performance metrics suitable for designing and evaluating wireless networks when used for CPSs in confined areas. Given the shortage of spectrum and the increased risk of cyber-attacks experienced lately, the protocols must also be adjusted to perform well when subject to strong interference and/or adversary jamming. Hence, to be useful in practice, metrics that can be recalculated during runtime are needed, such that they can be used not only to propose, select and tailor the communication protocols to fulfill the stringent CPS requirements but also to optimize their performance during runtime. The literature survey conducted in this thesis shows that a reliability metric in terms of thresholding the so-called outage probability is valuable for all design steps as well as for continuously optimizing the communications. However, since the outage probability is defined as the probability that an individual wireless link will experience outage, it does not address the reliability of the entire network within the confined area. The thesis work shows that it is possible to consider overall outage probabilities and evaluates the probability of outage for each individual packet from a specific source node to a final destination, including all possible links in the network. This way, it is possible to consider the overall outage for all packets within the network in the confined area. Outage probability measures are defined for different system models and closed-form expressions for the outage are derived for the Individual Outage Probability (IOP), the Overall Outage Probability (OOP), the IOP for one packet (IOPP), and the OOP for all packets (OOPP), with and without the presence of attackers and/or strong interference. These reliability metrics can be adopted to analyze the effects of a wide range of parameters such as power allocation, node positions, the use of relay nodes or retransmissions, etc. on the individual link, individual source packet, and overall network reliability. The analysis thereby makes it possible to provide a set of general guidelines for tailoring the protocols and enhance the communication reliability of all legitimate nodes in the CPS. Having the closed-form expressions readily available also enables recalculating and adjusting parameters faster in order to find the best solution to improve the communication reliability during runtime. The thesis work demonstrates how outage probability can be used to enhance system performance in several example scenarios, including a multiple access scheme, pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA), mobile access points and/or relay nodes. The outage analysis can thereby be applied to an existing CPS application to enhance reliability, robustness, and flexibility while maintaining a low delay.

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  • 3.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dealing with Jamming Attacks in Uplink Pairwise NOMA Using Outage Analysis, Smart Relaying and Redundant Transmissions2024In: Open Journal of the Communications Society, Vol. 5, p. 112-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on optimizing the performance of an uplink pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) scenario with and without the support of a relayer, while subject to jamming attacks. We consider two different relaying protocols, one where the sources and the destination are within range of each other and one where they are not. The relay node can be mobile, e.g., a mobile base station, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a stationary node that is chosen as a result of a relay selection procedure. We also benchmark with a NOMA retransmission protocol and an Orthogonal Multiple Access (OMA) scheme without a relayer. We analyze, adjust and compare the four protocols for different settings using outage analysis, which is an efficient tool for establishing communication reliability for both individual nodes and the overall wireless network. Closed-form expressions of outage probabilities can be adopted by deep reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms to optimize wireless networks online. Accordingly, we first derive closed-form expressions for the individual outage probability (IOP) of each source node link and the relayer link using both pairwise NOMA and OMA. Next, we analyze the IOP for one packet (IOPP) for each source node considering all possible links between the source node to the destination, taking both phases into account for the considered protocols when operating in Nakagami-m fading channels. The overall outage probability for all packets (OOPP) is defined as the maximum IOPP obtained among the source nodes. This metric is useful to optimize the whole wireless network, e.g., to ensure fairness among the source nodes. Then, we propose a method using deep RL where the OOPP is used as a reward function in order to adapt to the dynamic environment associated with jamming attacks. Finally, we discuss valuable guidelines for enhancing the communication reliability of the legitimate system.

  • 4.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Defeating Jamming Attacks in Downlink Pairwise NOMA Using Relaying2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores an incremental relaying strategy in downlink pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA), which involves multiple pairs of nodes near and far from the downlink destinations. The strategy aims to select a near destination node to relay the packet of a far destination node, considering the presence of jamming attacks. To this end, we first derive closed-form expressions for the individual outage probability (IOP) for both near and far destinations in Nakagami-m fading channels. Next, the overall IOP (OIOP) performance is defined as the maximum value among the obtained IOPs, ensuring fairness among the nodes. To optimize the system, simulated annealing algorithms are proposed to determine the best power allocation and the best relay-destination pairing. We can conclude that both the power allocation and the position/selection of the near destination node significantly impact the OIOP for a specific pair. However, in the case of multiple pairs of destinations, a good power allocation alone suffices for each pair, and fixed or even random destination pairing is satisfactory in the considered context.

  • 5.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Outage Performance Comparison of Adaptive Relaying Schemes Subject to Jamming2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proper relay selection (RS) plays a key role for improving the reliability of wireless networks, especially in the presence of jamming attacks and/or interferers. In this work, we consider several RS schemes from the literature, using e.g. channel gains and signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) to select a relayer and evaluate them using outage probability (OP). We also propose an RS scheme which is selecting relayers to maximize the communication reliability in terms of minimizing the OP. The suggested RS strategy also takes the effect of jamming attacks and/or interferers into account. Accordingly, an intensive investigation of the OP of all RS schemes considering also jammers' positions in various scenarios is conducted. The results suggest that a combination of RS schemes using channel gains and SINRs of all hops achieves the best communication reliability in scenarios with intensive interference. The sensitivity for channel estimation errors of the relaying schemes is also investigated. Finally, discussions about the obtained results together with the complexity of all RS schemes are presented before providing guidelines on which schemes should be used in which scenarios to improve the communication reliability.

  • 6.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Defeating Jamming Using Outage Performance Aware Joint Power Allocation and Access Point Placement in Uplink Pairwise NOMA2021In: IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society, E-ISSN 2644-125X, Vol. 2, p. 1957-1979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an uplink pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) scenario using a mobile access point (AP) or an unmanned aerial vehicle in the presence of a jamming attack is considered. To mitigate the influence of the jamming attack, a joint power allocation and AP placement design is proposed. Accordingly, closed-form expressions of the overall outage probability (OOP) and the individual outage probability (TOP) considering imperfect channel state information for each of the source nodes the AP serves, are derived over Nakagami-m fading channels using dynamic decoding order and fixed pairwise power allocation. We conduct an investigation of the effect of different parameters such as power allocation, source node placements, AP placement, target rates, and jammer location on the OOP and the IOP performance. By adapting the power allocation and the AP placement to the jamming attack, the communication reliability can be increased significantly compared to neglecting the presence of the jammer or treating the jammer as noise. Since the malicious jammer and the AP have conflicting interests in terms of communication reliability, we formulate a non-cooperative game for the two players considering their positions and the power allocation of the NOMA nodes as their strategies and the OOP as utility function. We propose using hybrid simulated annealing - greedy algorithms to address the joint power allocation and AP placement problem for the cases of both a fixed and a mobile jammer. Finally, the Nash equilibrium points are obtained and then the UAV goes directly to this position and keeps staying there to save power consumption.

  • 7.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Outage Performance of Pairwise NOMA Allowing a Dynamic Decoding Order and Optimal Pairs of Power Levels2020In: IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society, E-ISSN 2644-125X, Vol. 1, p. 1886-1906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we evaluate the overall outage probability (OOP) of pairwise Non-orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) for both uplink and downlink. We also propose a dynamic decoding order (DDO) together with a fixed pairwise power allocation (FPPA) scheme, in which the optimal decoding order is decided based on the instantaneous channel gains, and thereafter, a pair of power levels is assigned in accordance with the selected decoding order. Exact closed-form expressions of the OOPs for both uplink and downlink pairwise NOMA considering all proposed decoding orders over Nakagami- m fading are derived. Further, we find the optimal fixed power levels for different power allocation strategies so that the OOPs are minimized. Moreover, we investigate the influence of the distances between the source nodes and the access point (AP), the target transfer rates and the path-loss exponents on the OOPs for all cases of decoding orders. In addition, we benchmark our proposed DDO against other decoding orders in terms of the OOP. The results show that assigning optimal fixed power levels which takes the instantaneous decoding order into account not only improves the communication reliability, but also reduces the complexity and computational load at the AP.

  • 8.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Leander, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Process Control Platform, Västerås, Sweden.
    Anomaly Attack Detection in Wireless Networks Using DCNN2022In: 2022 IEEE 8th World Forum on Internet of Things, WF-IoT 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wireless devices in industrial sectors has increased due to its various advantages related to cost and flexibility. However, legitimate wireless communication systems are vulnerable to cybersecurity attacks, due to its inherent open nature. Detection of rogue devices therefore plays a crucial role in critical wireless applications. In this paper we design a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) to classify legitimate and rogue devices using raw IQ samples as input data. An algorithm is presented to find the optimal number of convolutional layers and number of filters for each layer under an accuracy constraint, in order to enable fast prediction time. Furthermore, we investigate how wireless channel models affect the accuracy and prediction time of the designed DCNN model. Our obtained results are benchmarked against previous DCNN models. Moreover, we discuss how the systems should react to a detected rogue device, considering the IEC 62443 standard.

  • 9.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Salman, Shaik Mohammed
    ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Deep Neural Network for Indoor Positioning Based on Channel Impulse Response2022In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, Vol. 2022-SeptemberConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fingerprinting positioning aided by wireless technologies plays an important role in a variety of industrial applications, such as factory automation, warehouse automation, and underground mining, where guaranteeing a position prediction error smaller than a threshold value is necessary to meet certain functional requirements. In this paper, we firstly design a deep convolutional neural network that uses the channel impulse response measurement as an input parameter to predict the position of a mobile robot. Second, we propose a simulated annealing algorithm that finds a minimum number of access points with their respective optimal positions that satisfies an expected average distance error in terms of a mobile robot's predicted position. The obtained results show that the average distance error is significantly reduced, e.g., by half compared to the case without optimal positions of access points.

  • 10.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tran, Hung
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Reliability and Fairness for CANT Communication Based on Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access2019In: 2019 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS WORKSHOPS (ICC WORKSHOPS), IEEE , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, communication using unmanned aerial vehicles (LAVO as relay nodes has been considered beneficial for a number of applications. Moreover, nomorthogonM multiple access (NONIA) with users being assigned different signal passer levels while sharing the same tune-frequency domain has been found effective to enhance spectrum utilization and provide predictable access to the channel. Thus, in this paper we consider an UAV communication system with NOMA and propose a solution to find the optimal values for the user's power allocation coefficients (PA(s) needed to achieve the required levels of communication reliability. We present a closed-form expression for the PAC of each user and also propose an algori for finding the optimal altitude of the UAV required to satisfy the fairness condition for all users. Finally, we provide numerical mutinies and compare the results tar three types of communication environments.

  • 11.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tran, Hung
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Girs, Svetlana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Reliability and Fairness for UAV Communication Based on Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access2019In: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops), 2019, no 53Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, communication using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as relay nodes has been considered beneficial for a number of applications. Moreover, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) with users being assigned different signal power levels while sharing the same time-frequency domain has been found effective to enhance spectrum utilization and provide predictable access to the channel. Thus, in this paper we consider an UAV communication system with NOMA and propose a solution to find the optimal values for the user’s power allocation coefficients (PACs) needed to achieve the required levels of communication reliability. We present a closed-form expression for the PAC of each user and also propose an algorithm for finding the optimal altitude of the UAV required to satisfy the fairness condition for all users. Finally, we provide numerical examples and compare the results for three types of communication environments.

  • 12.
    Hoang, Van-Phuc
    et al.
    Le Quy Don Technical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dang, Van-Binh
    Le Quy Don Technical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Temperature Beat Sensor for Energy Efficient, Long Range Smart Monitoring Systems2020In: Proceedings - 2020 International Conference on Green and Human Information Technology, ICGHIT 2020, 2020, p. 18-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beat sensor has shown its large potential to address issues of smart environment monitoring such as real time drought management. This paper presents an efficient temperature Beat sensor for energy efficient, long range smart monitoring systems by combining a new technique of Beat sensor with long range (LoRa) communication protocol. With the compact circuit size and the low energy consumption, the proposed sensor can be applied for Internet of Things based smart monitoring systems. The analysis and experimental results have clarified the advantages of the proposed temperature Beat sensor and its potential applications.

  • 13.
    Hoang, Van-Phuc
    et al.
    Le Quy Don Technical University, Vietnam.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Le Quy Don Technical University, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Van-Trung
    Le Quy Don Technical University, Vietnam.
    Tran, Xuan Nam
    Le Quy Don Technical University, Vietnam.
    Ishibashi, Koichiro
    University of Electro-Communications, Japan.
    An Energy Efficient, Long Range Sensor System for Real-Time Environment Monitoring2023In: Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2023, p. 823-830Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vietnam is among the top countries in the world at risk of natural hazards so that efficient real-time environment monitoring is becoming essential. The continuous development in information and communication technology is inspiring the development of the smart monitoring systems for environmental management and protection. This paper presents an energy efficient, long range sensor system for Internet of Things (IoT)-based smart environment monitoring and early warning. The proposed system combines the novel energy efficient temperature. Beat sensors integrated with the LoRaWAN communication protocol and web interface. The experimental results are achieved to clarify the efficiency of the proposed sensor system and its potential applications in the real systems.

  • 14.
    Nhan Vo, Van
    et al.
    Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.
    Tran, Hung
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    So-In, Chakchai
    Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.
    Tran, Dung Duc
    Duy Tan University, Danang 550000, Vietnam.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    On Communication Performance in Energy Harvesting WSNs Under a Cooperative Jamming Attack2020In: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 4955-4966, article id 9000803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we consider the system performance of an energy harvesting (EH) wireless sensor network in terms of reliable communications when subjected to a cooperative jamming attack. A set of strategically located nodes acting as cluster heads (CHs) transfer energy to the wireless sensors within range, forming a cluster. The sensors use this energy to transmit data to the CHs, which, in turn, deliver the information to a base station (BS) using nonorthogonal multiple access. The BS processes the collected information and synchronizes the operation of all CHs. Furthermore, there exist two adversaries, namely, a jamming attacker and an eavesdropper, who cooperate to attack the considered system. To protect against this attack, the CHs should be controlled by suitable power allocation coefficients obtained from the security constraints of the CHs. Using these constraints, closed-form expressions are derived to find the power allocation coefficients that will enable reliable and secure communication. In addition, we propose an interference channel selection policy for the sensor-to-CHs links and CHs-to-BS links to improve the reliability of communication while enhancing energy utilization. Finally, an algorithm for finding the optimal EH time is also proposed.

  • 15. Salman Shaik, Mohammad
    et al.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Scheduling Firm Real-time Applications on the Edge with Single-bit Execution Time Prediction2023In: Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Real-Time Distrib. Comput., ISORC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 207-213Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The edge computing paradigm brings the capabilities of the cloud such as on-demand resource availability to the edge for applications with low-latency and real-time requirements. While cloud-native load balancing and scheduling algorithms strive to improve performance metrics like mean response times, real-time systems, that govern physical systems, must satisfy deadline requirements. This paper explores the potential of an edge computing architecture that utilizes the on-demand availability of computational resources to satisfy firm real-time requirements for applications with stochastic execution and inter-arrival times. As it might be difficult to know precise execution times of individual jobs prior to completion, we consider an admission policy that relies on single-bit execution time predictions for dispatching. We evaluate its performance in terms of the number of jobs that complete by their deadlines via simulations. The results indicate that the prediction-based admission policy can achieve reasonable performance for the considered settings.

  • 16.
    Salman Shaik, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Struhar, Vaclav
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bakhshi Valojerdi, Zeinab
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dao, Van-Lan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Desai, Nitin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Karagiannis, Vasileios
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Schulte, Stefan
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Venito, Alexandre
    TU Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Enabling Fog-based Industrial Robotics Systems2020In: The 25th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA2020, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low latency and on demand resource availability enable fog computing to host industrial applications in a cloud like manner. One industrial domain which stands to benefit from the advantages of fog computing is robotics. However, the challenges in developing and implementing a fog-based robotic system are manifold. To illustrate this, in this paper we discuss a system involving robots and robot cells at a factory level, and then highlight the main building blocks necessary for achieving such functionality in a fog-based system. Further, we elaborate on the challenges in implementing such an architecture, with emphasis on resource virtualization, memory interference management, real-time communication and the system scalability, dependability and safety. We then discuss the challenges from a system perspective where all these aspects are interrelated.

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