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  • 1.
    Blackman, Corey
    et al.
    SaltX Technology, Hägersten, Stockholm, Sweden; Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Gluesenkamp, K. R.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, United States.
    Malhotra, M.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, United States.
    Yang, Z.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, United States; Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States.
    Study of optimal sizing for residential sorption heat pump system2019Ingår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 150, s. 421-432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas-driven sorption heat pumps (GDSHP) show significant potential to reduce primary energy use, associated emissions and energy costs for space heating and domestic hot water production in residential applications. This study considered a bivalent heating system consisting of a sorption heat pump and a condensing boiler, and focuses on the optimal heating capacity of each of these components relative to each other. Two bivalent systems were considered: one based on a solid chemisorption cycle (GDSHPA), and one based on a resorption cycle (GDSHPB). Simulations of year-round space heating loads for two single-family houses, one in New York and the other Minnesota, were carried out and the seasonal gas coefficient of performance (SGCOP) calculated. The sorption heat pump's design heating capacity as a fraction of the bivalent system's total heating capacity was varied from 0 to 100%. Results show that SGCOP was effectively constant for sorption heat pump design capacity greater than 41% of the peak bivalent GDSHPA design capacity in Minnesota, and 32% for GDSHPB. In New York, these values were 42% and 34% for GDSHPA and GDSHPB respectively. The payback period was also evaluated based on postulated sorption heat pump component costs. The fastest payback was achieved with sorption heat pump design capacity between 22 and 44%.

  • 2.
    Gluesenkamp, K. R.
    et al.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States.
    Frazzica, A.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Messina, Italy.
    Velte, A.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg, Germany.
    Metcalf, S.
    University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Yang, Z.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States.
    Rouhani, M.
    Simon Fraser University, Surrey, Canada.
    Blackman, Corey
    SaltX Technology AB, Sweden.
    Qu, M.
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, United States.
    Laurenz, E.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg, Germany.
    Rivero‐Pacho, A.
    University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Hinmers, S.
    University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Critoph, R.
    University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Bahrami, M.
    Simon Fraser University, Surrey, Canada.
    Füldner, G.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg, Germany.
    Hallin, I.
    HeatAmp Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experimentally measured thermal masses of adsorption heat exchangers2020Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 5, artikel-id 1150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal masses of components influence the performance of many adsorption heat pump systems. However, typically when experimental adsorption systems are reported, data on thermal mass are missing or incomplete. This work provides original measurements of the thermal masses for experimental sorption heat exchanger hardware. Much of this hardware was previously reported in the literature, but without detailed thermal mass data. The data reported in this work are the first values reported in the literature to thoroughly account for all thermal masses, including heat transfer fluid. The impact of thermal mass on system performance is also discussed, with detailed calculation left for future work. The degree to which heat transfer fluid contributes to overall effective thermal mass is also discussed, with detailed calculation left for future work. This work provides a framework for future reporting of experimental thermal masses. The utilization of this framework will enrich the data available for model validation and provide a more thorough accounting of adsorption heat pumps. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 3.
    Zhu, C.
    et al.
    Building Energy Research Center, Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building Equipment Research, Energy & Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge, United States.
    Gluesenkamp, K. R.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building Equipment Research, Energy & Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge, United States.
    Yang, Z.
    Lyle School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, United States.
    Blackman, Corey
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. SaltX Technology AB, Stockholm, Sweden; Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Unified thermodynamic model to calculate COP of diverse sorption heat pump cycles: Adsorption, absorption, resorption, and multistep crystalline reactions2019Ingår i: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 99, s. 382-392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A straightforward thermodynamic model is developed in this work to analyze the efficiency limit of diverse sorption systems. A method is presented to quantify the dead thermal mass of heat exchangers. Solid and liquid sorbents based on chemisorption or physical adsorption are accommodated. Four possible single-effect configurations are considered: basic absorption or adsorption (separate desorber, absorber, condenser, and evaporator); separate condenser/evaporator (two identical sorbent-containing reactors with a condenser and a separate direct expansion evaporator); combined condenser/evaporator (one salt-containing reactor with a combined condenser/evaporator module); and resorption (two sorbent-containing reactors, each with a different sorbent). The analytical model was verified against an empirical heat and mass transfer model derived from component experimental results. It was then used to evaluate and determine the optimal design for an ammoniate salt-based solid/gas sorption heat pump for a space heating application. The effects on system performance were evaluated with respect to different working pairs, dead thermal mass factors, and system operating temperatures. The effect of reactor dead mass as well as heat recovery on system performance was also studied for each configuration. Based on the analysis in this work, an ammonia resorption cycle using LiCl/NaBr as the working pair was found to be the most suitable single-effect cycle for space heating applications. The maximum cycle heating coefficient of performance for the design conditions was 1.50 with 50% heat recovery and 1.34 without heat recovery. 

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