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  • 1.
    Kavvalos, Mavroudis
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Xin, Zhao
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schnell, Rainer
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Propulsion Technology, Cologne, Germany.
    Aslanidou, Ioanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kalfas, Anestis
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A Modelling Approach of Variable Geometry for Low Pressure Ratio Fans2019In: International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, ISABE 2019, Canberra, Australia, 23 - 27 September 2019 Paper No. ISABE-2019-24382, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development and application of a modelling approach of variable geometry conceptsfor low pressure ratio fans; namely Variable Area Nozzle and Variable Pitch Fan. An enhanced approachfor Outlet Guide Vane pressure loss predictions and an aerothermodynamic analysis of variable pitchconcept are developed and integrated into a multi-disciplinary conceptual engine design framework. Astreamline curvature algorithm is deployed for the derivation of the off-design fan performance map,alleviating scaling issues from higher pressure ratio fan designs. Correction deltas are derived through thevariable pitch analysis for calculating the re-shaped off-design fan performance map. The aforementionedvariable geometry concepts are evaluated in terms of surge margin at engine and aircraft level for a lowpressure ratio aft-fan of a hybrid-electric configuration. Performance assessments carried out suggest thata +8° closing of fan blade cascades leads to a 33% surge margin improvement (with reference being thesurge margin without variable geometry) compared to a 25% improvement achieved by +20% opening thenozzle area at end of runway take-off conditions. Although weight and complexity implications of variablegeometry are not considered, the integrated modelling approach is shown to be able to assess and comparesuch novel engine technologies for low pressure ratio fans in terms of operability.

  • 2.
    Rahman, Moksadur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zaccaria, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Xin, Zhao
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Diagnostics-Oriented Modelling of Micro Gas Turbines for Fleet Monitoring and Maintenance Optimization2018In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 6, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The market for the small-scale micro gas turbine is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Especially, utilization of commercial off-the-shelf components is rapidly reducing the cost of ownership and maintenance, which is paving the way for vast adoption of such units. However, to meet the high-reliability requirements of power generators, there is an acute need of a real-time monitoring system that will be able to detect faults and performance degradation, and thus allow preventive maintenance of these units to decrease downtime. In this paper, a micro gas turbine based combined heat and power system is modelled and used for development of physics-based diagnostic approaches. Different diagnostic schemes for performance monitoring of micro gas turbines are investigated.

  • 3.
    Sahoo, Smruti
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Xin, Zhao
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kalfas, A.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Performance assessment of an integrated parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system aircraft2019In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2019, Vol. 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid-electric propulsion system promises avenues for a greener aviation sector. Ground research work was performed in the past for the feasibility assessment, at the system level, for such novel concepts and the results showed were promising. Such designs, however, possess unique challenges from an operational point of view, and for sizing of the sub-system components; necessitating further design space exploration for associating with an optimal operational strategy. In light of the above, the paper aims at presenting an operational analysis and performance assessment study, for a conceptualised parallel hybrid design of an advanced geared turbofan engine, based on 2035 timeframe technology level. It is identified that the hybrid power operation of the engine is constrained with respect to the requirement of maintaining an adequate surge margin for the low pressure side components; however, a core re-optimised engine design with consideration of electrical power add-in for the design condition, relieves such limit. Therefore such a design, makes it suitable for implementation of higher degree of hybridisation. Furthermore, performance assessment is made both at engine and engine-aircraft integrated level for both scenarios of hybrid operation and the benefits are established relative to the baseline engine. The performance at engine level engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), thrust specific power consumption (TSPC), and overall efficiency, shows improvement in both hybridised scenarios. Improvement in SFC is achieved due to supply of the electrical power, whereas, the boost in TSPC, and overall efficiency is attributed to the use of higher efficiency electrical drive system. Furthermore, it is observed that while the hybridised scenario performs better at engine level, the core re-optimised design exhibits a better saving for block fuel/energy consumption, due to the considerable weight savings in the core components.

  • 4.
    Schnell, Rainer
    et al.
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Propulsion Technology, Cologne, Germany.
    Xin, Zhao
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Rallis, Efthymios
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Kavvalos, Mavroudis
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sahoo, Smruti
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schnoes, Markus
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Propulsion Technology, Cologne, Germany.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Assessment of a Turbo‐Electric Aircraft Configuration with Aft‐Propulsion Using Boundary Layer Ingestion2019In: Aerospace, ISSN 2226-4310, Vol. 6, no 12, article id 134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a turbo‐electric propulsion system was analyzed, and its performance was assessed. The aircraft considered here was a single‐aisle, medium‐range configuration targeting a capacity of 150 Pax. The propulsion concept comprised two boosted geared turbofan engines mounted under‐wing. Those main engines were supported by an electrically driven aft‐propulsor contributing to the thrust generation and by taking advantage of ingesting the boundary layer of the fuselage for potentially higher levels of propulsive efficiency and allowing for the improved operation of the main engines. The performance assessment as carried out in the context of this paper involved different levels: Firstly, based on the reference aircraft and the detailed description of its major components, the engine performance model for both main engines, as well as for the electrically driven aft‐propulsor was set up. The methodology, as introduced, has already been applied in the context of hybrid‐electric propulsion and allowed for the aforementioned aircraft sizing, as well as the subsequent gas turbine multi‐point synthesis (simulation). A geared turbofan architecture with 2035 technology assumptions was considered for the main engine configuration. The present trade study focused on the design and performance analysis of the aft‐propulsor and how it affected the performance of the main engines, due to the electric power generation. In order to allow for a more accurate description of the performance of this particular module, the enhanced streamline curvature method with an underlying and pre‐optimized profile database was used to design a propulsor tailored to meet the requirements of the aft propulsor as derived from the cycle synthesis and overall aircraft specification; existing design expertise for novel and highly integrated propulsors could be taken advantage of herein. The resulting performance characteristics from the streamline curvature method were then fed back to the engine performance model in a closely coupled approach in order to have a more accurate description of the module behavior. This direct coupling allowed for enhanced sensitivity studies, monitoring different top‐level parameters, such as the thrust/power split between the main engines and the aft propulsor. As a result, different propulsor specifications and fan designs with optimal performance characteristics were achieved, which in return affected the performance of all subsystems considered. 

  • 5.
    Sielemann, M.
    et al.
    Modelon Deutschland GmbH, Munich, Germany.
    Thorade, M.
    Modelon AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Claesson, J.
    Modelon Inc, Glastonbury, Connecticut, United States.
    Nguyen, A.
    Xin, Zhao
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sahoo, Smruti
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Modelica and functional mock-up interface: Open standards for gas turbine simulation2019In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2019, Vol. 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces two physical modeling standards in the gas turbine and cycle analysis context. Modelica is the defacto standard for physical system modeling and simulation. The Functional Mock-Up Interface is a domain-independent standard for model exchange (“engine decks”). The paper summarizes key language concepts and discusses important design patterns in the application of gas turbine simulation concepts to the acausal modeling language. To substantiate how open standards are applicable to gas turbine simulation, the paper closes with two application examples, a conventional unmixed turbofan thermodynamic cycle and weight analysis as well as an electrically boosted geared turbofan.

  • 6.
    Xin, Zhao
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sahoo, Smruti
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Rantzer, Jonatan
    Modelon AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Sielemann, Michael
    Modelon AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Off-design performance analysis of hybridized aircraft gas turbine2019In: Aeronautical Journal, ISSN 0001-9240, Vol. 1231270, p. 1999-2018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An advanced geared turbofan with year 2035 technology level assumptions was established and used for the hybridisation study in this paper. By boosting the low-speed shaft of the turbofan with electrical power through the accessory gearbox, a parallel hybrid concept was set up. Focusing on the off-design performance of the hybridised gas turbine, electrical power input to the shaft, defined as positive hybridisation in this context, generally moves the compressor operation towards surge. On the other hand, the negative hybridisation, which is to reverse the power flow direction can improve the part-load operations of the turbofan and minimise the use of compressor handling bleeds. For the pre-defined mission given in the paper, negative hybridisation of descent, approach and landing, and taxi operations with 580 kW, 240 kW and 650 kW, respectively was found sufficient to keep a minimum compressor surge margin requirement without handling bleed.

    Looking at the hybridisation of key operating points, boosting the cruise operation of the baseline geared turbofan is, however, detrimental to the engine efficiency as it is pushing the cruise operation further away from the energy optimal design point. Without major modifications to the engine design, the benefit of the hybridisation appears primarily at the thermomechanical design point, the hot-day take-off. With the constraint of the turbine blade metal temperature in mind, a 500kW positive hybridisation at hot-day take-off gave cruise specific fuel consumption (SFC) reduction up to 0.5%, mainly because of reduced cooling flow requirement. Through the introduction of typical electrical power system performance characteristics and engine performance exchange rates, a first principles assessment is illustrated. By applying the strategies discussed in the paper, a 3% reduction in block fuel burn can be expected, if a higher power density electrical power system can be achieved.

  • 7.
    Xin, Zhao
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sahoo, Smruti
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sumsurooah, S.
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Valente, G.
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Rashed, M.
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Vakil, G.
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Hill, C. I.
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Jacob, C.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Gobbin, A.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Bardenhagen, A.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Prölss, K.
    Modelon Deutschland GmbH, Munich, Germany.
    Sielemann, M.
    Modelon Deutschland GmbH, Munich, Germany.
    Rantzer, J.
    Modelon AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, E.
    Modelon AB, Lund, Sweden.
    A framework for optimization of hybrid aircraft2019In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2019, Vol. 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve the goals of substantial improvements in efficiency and emissions set by Flightpath 2050, fundamentally different concepts are required. As one of the most promising solutions, electrification of the aircraft primary propulsion is currently a prime focus of research and development. Unconventional propulsion sub-systems, mainly the electrical power system, associated thermal management system and transmission system, provide a variety of options for integration in the existing propulsion systems. Different combinations of the gas turbine and the unconventional propulsion sub-systems introduce different configurations and operation control strategies. The trade-off between the use of the two energy sources, jet fuel and electrical energy, is primarily a result of the trade-offs between efficiencies and sizing characteristics of these sub-systems. The aircraft structure and performance are the final carrier of these trade-offs. Hence, full design space exploration of various hybrid derivatives requires global investigation of the entire aircraft considering these key propulsion sub-systems and the aircraft structure and performance, as well as their interactions. This paper presents a recent contribution of the development for a physics-based simulation and optimization platform for hybrid electric aircraft conceptual design. Modeling of each subsystem and the aircraft structure are described as well as the aircraft performance modeling and integration technique. With a focus on the key propulsion sub-systems, aircraft structure and performance that interfaces with existing conceptual design frameworks, this platform aims at full design space exploration of various hybrid concepts at a low TRL level.

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