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  • 1.
    Dahlen, Micael
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Thorbjørnsen, Helge
    Norwegian School of Economics, Bergen, Norway.
    Sjåstad, Hallgeir
    Norwegian School of Economics, Bergen, Norway.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Hellström, Charlotta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Stier, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Elvén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Changes in Physical Activity Are Associated with Corresponding Changes in Psychological Well-Being: A Pandemic Case Study2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, p. 1-9, article id 10680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal crises and personal challenges are often followed by substantial changes in physicalactivity. Is there a link between such changes and psychological well-being? Seeking to answerthis question, we conducted a correlational study on a representative sample in Sweden during thefirst year of the COVID-19 pandemic (N = 1035). About 49% of the sample had decreased theirphysical activity compared to their self-reported activity level prior to the pandemic, whereas 32%had increased it. The results showed a positive and robust association between changes in dailyactivity level and corresponding changes in psychological well-being. Specifically, individuals whohad reduced their physical activity over the last year reported lower life satisfaction than before, andindividuals who had increased their physical activity reported higher life satisfaction than before.The amount of complete physical inactivity (sitting) showed a similar pattern as the exercise data,meaning that individuals who reported increasing inactivity per day also reported a greater declinein life satisfaction. Additional analyses showed that the association between daily activity level andlife satisfaction was somewhat stronger for men than for women, but there was no difference whencomparing individual versus organized activities. The current study was based on a cross-sectionaldesign, measuring self-reported change over time. Recent work from other research teams have usedlongitudinal data and experience-sampling in different settings, finding similar results. We concludethat there is good reason to recommend physical exercise as a coping strategy in difficult times.

  • 2.
    Dahlen, Micael
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Thorbjørnsen, Helge
    Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Hellström, Charlotta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Stier, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Elvén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    The comeback effect: How happy are people who have recovered from a COVID-19 infection?2022In: International Journal of Wellbeing, E-ISSN 1179-8602, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 114-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is already a large body of research on the dramatic negative effects of COVID-19 on peoples’ mental and physical health. Millions of people have died, and the pandemic has negatively influenced the lives of billions of people. Luckily however, the vast majority of people infected with the virus, recovers. The happiness and wellbeing of these people have not been extensively studied. In the current paper, we ask the question: Are people who have recovered from a COVID-19 infection happier than those who have not been infected at all? Building on previous research on hedonic adaptation and counterfactual thinking, we hypothesize, and find, that those who have had an infection appear slightly happier than others.  The study relies on two surveys conducted in Sweden during the pandemic in 2020 (n=1029) and 2021 (n=1788).

  • 3.
    Elvén, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Stier, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Hellström, Charlotta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dahlen, M.
    Department of Marketing and Strategy, Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Changes in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Swedish Population Study2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 5, article id 2558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments have enforced measures to limit the spread of COVID-19 with varying degrees of success, which could affect people’s physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior. This study aimed to examine changes in PA levels, types of PA, and sedentary behavior in the Swedish population before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Associations between changed PA levels and demographical and behavioral determinants were also investigated. In December 2020, 1035 individuals (18–79 years old) completed a survey about their PA and sedentary behavior before and during the pandemic. Factors influencing their PA were also explored. Fifty-one percent of the sample reported reduced total PA, 18% had no change, and 31% increased their PA. Overall, organized PA decreased the most and sedentary behavior increased. The youngest and oldest age groups reported the greatest reduction in PA, while middle-aged groups reported the most increased PA. Men reported a larger increase in sedentary behavior than women. Mental and physical capability was associated with change in PA. In conclusion, this study indicates that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of the Swedish population have decreased PA levels with a concurrent increase in sedentary behavior, which may have negative health consequences. Interventions are recommended to address both PA and sedentary behavior, specifically to strengthen people’s ability to perform PA and focusing on the youngest and oldest age groups. 

  • 4.
    Elvén, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Stier, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Hellström, Charlotta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dahlen, Mikael
    Stockholm School of Economics. Department of Marketing and Strategy. Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Swedes’ physical activity and sedentary behaviour2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite the proven health benefits of physical activity (PA), more than a quarter of the world’s adult population is insufficiently physically active, which increases the risk of diseases and premature death. During the COVID-19 pandemic governments have implemented enforced measures to limit the spread of the virus, which could affect people’s PA.  Aim: This study aimed to examine changes in PA levels, types of PA, and sedentary behavior in the Swedish population before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Associations between demographical and behavioral determinants, and changes in PA were also investigated. Method: In December 2020, 1.035 individuals (18-79 y) completed a survey about PA and sedentary behavior, at present and before the pandemic. Factors influencing their PA were also explored.  Results: Fifty-one percent of the sample reduced total PA, 18% had no change and 31% increased PA. Overall, organized PA, for example at fitness centers and sport training, decreased the most, and sedentary behavior increased. The youngest and the oldest age groups reported the greatest reduction of PA, while the middle age groups reported the most increased PA. Mental and physical capability was associated with PA change. Conclusion: During the pandemic, most of the Swedish population have decreased PA levels with a concurrent increase in sedentary behavior. This may have both a short-and long-term negative health impact on individuals’ and populations’ health.  Implications for caring in a changing world: As physical inactivity already is a global public health problem during non-pandemic circumstances this study’s findings call for further actions during and after the pandemic to support people in maintaining or increasing daily PA and decreasing sedentary behavior. Interventions in health care are recommended to strengthen peoples’ ability to perform PA, focus on the youngest and oldest age groups, and be applied on an individual basis as well as in organizational contexts.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Gottzén, Lucas
    Stockholms universitet, Sweden.
    Andersson Bruck, Kjerstin
    Örebro universitet, Sweden.
    Franzén, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Utvärdering av Mentorer i våldsprevention: Slutrapport2018Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Utvärdering av Mentorer i våldsprevention
  • 6.
    Johansson, Carl
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Asztalos Morell, Ildikó
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Gustafsson, Lena-Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Spotting good ageing: using welfare theory of health to frame the agency of older adults with immigrant backgrounds to attain good ageingIn: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Care providers for older immigrants in Sweden find themselves in a paradox. Individuals and associations call for culturally sensitive elderly care. However, implementing this comes at the risk of over-culturizing needs and behaviours, drawing a negative picture of ‘the problem of immigrants’ that needs to be solved with special interventions. To find a balance in this paradox, we applied the welfare theory of health to grasp a new understanding of the phenomena and draw a holistic picture of a person’s needs and resources available to achieve good ageing, reaching beyond the cultural paradox. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with older adults with immigrant backgrounds in Sweden. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. Combining welfare theory of health with immaterial capital theories offered a holistic theoretical approach to good ageing. This took its departure from the agency of older adults, mitigating the gap between their vital life goals and available resources to reach these goals. Although informants wanted caring interventions from close family, we identified distinct responses to mitigate the diminished trust older adults had in the capability of welfare institutions to provide adequate elderly care.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Carl
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Gustafsson, Lena-Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Asztalos Morell, Ildikó
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. School of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agriculture, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Culturally sensitive active ageing seen through the lens of the welfare theory of health: assistant nurses’ views2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1161688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assistant nurses caring for older adults with immigrant backgrounds are on the front lines of a practical, theoretical, and policy battlefield. They need to implement culturally sensitive care provision while not overstating the importance of culture, thereby, contributing to a negative picture of older immigrants as especially problematic. One proposed way to strike such a balance is the welfare theory of health (WTH). In this article, we let assistant nurses apply the WTH to a series of questions in four different vignettes representing the life stories of older persons who characterize typical dilemmas described by the theory. The results show that, through the lens of the WTH, assistant nurses looked for individual care preferences rather than stereotypical ideas about cultural characteristics. Further, the assistant nurses expressed a desire to get to know the persons more deeply to better interpret and understand their individual preferences. Thus, the theoretical framework is useful not only for exposing vulnerabilities to which some older adults with immigrant backgrounds may be exposed, but also for finding ways to mitigate the vulnerability by illuminating vital life goals and using them as a framework to organize care. This approach allows for mitigating the gap between the vital life goals and available resources to achieve a holistic state of health.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Carl
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Asztalos Morell, Ildikó
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Gustafsson, Lena-Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Culturally sensitive active ageing through the Welfare Theory of Health. Views of assistant nursesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Johansson, Carl
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Asztalos Morell, Ildikó
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Gustafsson, Lena-Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Holistic health amongst older adults – A validation study of the health measure Health as Ability of ActingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Johansson, Carl
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Asztalos Morell, Ildikó
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Urban & Rural Dev, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Lena-Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Swedish experts' understanding of active aging from a culturally sensitive perspective - a Delphi study of organizational implementation thresholds and ways of development2022In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775, Vol. 7, article id 991219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundInternational migration and aging populations make for important trends, challenging elderly care regimes in an increasingly globalized world. The situation calls for new ways of merging active aging strategy and cultural sensitivity. This study aim to illuminate the gap between cultural sensitivity and active aging to identify perceived thresholds by Swedish municipal officials in the understanding of older late-in-life-immigrants situation. MethodsDelphi methodology in three rounds. Twenty-three persons in municipal decision-making positions participated and generated 71 statements, of which 33 statements found consensus. ResultsThe 33 statements show that the decision makers prefer not to use cultural sensitivity as a concept in their work, but rather tailor interventions based on individual preferences that may or may not be present in a certain culture. However, as the complexity of care increases, emphasis drifts away from personal preferences toward text-book knowledge on cultures and activity.

  • 11.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Stockholm Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Hellström, Charlotta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Stier, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Elvén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Changes in Mental Health and Views on Communication and Activities of Public Institutions among Swedes during the COVID-19 Pandemic-A Cross-Sectional Repeated Measures Design2021In: Healthcare, E-ISSN 2227-9032, Vol. 9, no 11, article id 1498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many studies have been conducted on the effects of COVID-19 on individual lives, only a few focus on the changes in mental health and views of public institutions during the pandemic. This study aimed to investigate how mental health, i.e., life satisfaction, worries, and psychological distress, and views on public institutions' communication and activities have changed among Swedes during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether this was moderated by age and sex. In April-May 2020 (survey 1) and in January-February 2021 (survey 2), 2554 adults and 1904 newly recruited adults, respectively, anonymously completed online surveys. We found that life satisfaction and psychological distress did not change from survey 1 to survey 2. However, the level of worries increased, and the positive views of the public institutions decreased. Moreover, worries and psychological distress increased more in young adults than older adults. Finally, the change in the views of the public institutions was not related to the change in worries. Our results highlight the COVID-19 long-term impacts on individual mental health and call for the need for future research concerning the consequences for the population, especially among young adults. The results also indicate that the views on activities of public authorities decreased over time, especially among men. Given that loss of this trust can have vastly negative effects, for instance, on the vaccine campaign, it is important to monitor this trend, to increase awareness among Swedish authorities. The results also stress for institutions to provide adequate support both during the COVID-19 pandemic and in a future crisis.

  • 12.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Förändringar av oro, psykisk hälsa och förtroende för samhällsfunktioner under Covid-192022In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 99, no 2, p. 191-200Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att beskriva människors oro, psykisk hälsa och förtroende för sam-hällsfunktioner under covid-19 i relation till kön och ålder, utifrån två datain-samlingar; april–maj, 2020 och februari-mars, 2021. Kvinnorna skattade mer rädsla än männen, gällande att själv eller någon nära anhörig skulle bli allvar-ligt sjuk eller få ekonomiska konsekvenser till följd av covid-19. Unga vuxna skattade mer psykiska besvär vid båda mättillfällena jämfört med de andra åldersgrupperna. Förtroende för samhällsfunktioner minskade vid andra un-dersökningen oavsett kön. Kvinnorna hade dock högre förtroende än männen. Förtroendet minskade för samtliga åldersgrupper, men var högst hos de äldre. Kunskaper om hur gruppers oro, psykiska hälsa och förtroende påverkas är viktiga för att identifiera riskgrupper, samt att utveckla anpassade stödinsatser till de med störst behov vid eventuella kommande kriser.

  • 13.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Billevik, Joakim
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Preaching to the choir: effects of the Mentors in Violence Prevention programme on ‘the bad apples’2022In: Journal of Gender-Based Violence, ISSN 2398-6808, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) is a systematic education programme aimed at addressing gender inequality and preventing violence among boys and men. The programme originates from Canada and the USA, and since 2015 has been introduced in a number of Swedish schools. Whereas most evaluations of MVP and other programmes addressing gender-based violence focus on broad changes, we argue that these evaluations fail to provide insight into where and for whom the programmes are or are not effective. By identifying the participants with knowledge and attitudes furthest away from the target assumptions of the programme and following them throughout the programme, we can see what effects the programme has on those with the most problematic knowledge and attitudes. The study shows that MVP does not seem to contribute to a more positive development for the group of students whose knowledge and attitudes are furthest from the programme’s target assumptions. Moreover, the study shows that the comparison group shows a more positive development over time than the MVP group. This leads to the conclusion that MVP seems to have limited potential to change the specific group with low levels of knowledge about violence and most problematic attitudes towards violent behaviour.

  • 14.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Elvén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Center for Clinical Research, Central Hospital of Västerås, Uppsala University, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden;Division of Public Health Sciences, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, SE-72134 Västerås, Sweden.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Stier, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dahlen, Micael
    Department of Marketing and Strategy, Stockholm School of Economics, SE-11383 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    How Have Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior, Changed during the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Swedish Repeated Cross-Sectional Design Study2023In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 3642-3642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) affect people’s physical and mental health. The aim was to examine changes in PA and SB in a Swedish population: at three time points: 2019, 2020, and 2022, i.e., before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pre-pandemic PA and SB, i.e., 2019, were assessed retrospectively in 2020. Associations between PA and SB with sex, age, occupation, COVID-19 history, weight change, health, and life satisfaction were also examined. The design was repeated cross-sectionally. The main findings demonstrate the PA levels decreased between 2019 and 2020, and between 2019 and 2022, but not between 2020 and 2022. The SB increase was most evident between 2019 and 2020. Between 2020 and 2022, results showed a decrease in SB, but SB did not reach pre-pandemic levels. Both sexes decreased their PA over time. Although men reported more PA sex, they did not have any association with PA changes. Two age groups, 19–29 years and 65–79 years, decreased their PA over time. Both PA and SB were associated with COVID-19, occupation, age, life satisfaction, health, and weight change. This study underlines the importance of monitoring changes in PA and SB as they have relevance for health and well-being. There is a risk that the levels of PA and SB do not return to pre-pandemic levels in the population.

  • 15.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Kullberg, Christian
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dag, Munir
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Viktig Intressant Person (VIP) i användning - En resultatutvärdering med programteoretisk ansats2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar resultaten från en utvärdering av det våldsförebyggande programmet Viktig intressant person (VIP). VIP är ett strukturerat målgruppsanpassat utbildningsprogram med pedagogiska inriktning som bedrivits i Eskilstuna kommun sedan 2014. Insatsen utgör en arbetsmetod som har utvecklats för att hjälpa personer med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar. Målgruppen för insatsen kvinnor och män som har insatser med stöd av Socialtjänstlagen (SoL) eller Lagen om stöd och service (LSS). Syftet med VIP-insatsen är att minska våldsutsattheten för denna grupp genom att ge dem det stöd de behöver och har rätt till.Utvärderingens övergripande syfte kan konkretiseras i tre delar. Del ett att undersöka; giltigheten i VIP-programmet, det vill säga insatsens programteori. Del två att undersöka hur insatsen genomförts, det vill säga programtroheten i insatsen. Del tre att utvärdera programmets resultat, det vill säga om deltagande i VIP leder till positiv förändring avseende psykisk hälsa, utsatthet för våld och Känsla av sammanhang (KASAM).Utvärderingen har genomförts under perioden hösten 2016 till våren 2018 genom en kombination av olika utvärderingssteg. Det första steget utgörs av ett programteoretiskt arbete och en forskningsöversikt. Fokus i forskningsöversikten har varit på vilka våldspreventiva insatser som finns för gruppen samt vilken förändringspotential dessa har. Det andra steget består i att studera insatsen programtrohet. Det tredje steget har sökt fånga den förändring som sker för brukarna före (T1) och efter (T2) insatsens genomförande. Detta har skett genom att med hjälp av skattningsskalor göra mätningar av KASAM, psykisk hälsa och utsatthet för våld- och konflikter. Utöver detta har även semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer kring upplevda förändringar i relation till de nämnda områdena genomförts med brukarna.Utvärderingens empiriska underlag utgörs av skattningar och intervjuer före- och efter insatsen med totalt 26 brukare, två intervjuer med skaparna av programmet, sex intervjuer med VIP-ledare samt material hämtade från tre forskningsseminarier som genomförts med VIP-ledare, styrgruppen för VIP samt andra intressenter.Det empiriska underlaget för utvärderingen är relativt begränsat för att i alla avseenden, kunna säkerställa förändringar som sker hos brukarna. När det gäller KASAM visar resultatet emellertid att det sker signifikanta förändringar till det bättre för brukarna. Resultaten är inte lika tydliga när det gäller deltagarnas psykiska hälsa. När det gäller detta område är emellertid ett viktigt resultat att för de deltagare som innan insatsen hade måttlig till hög3grad av psykisk ohälsa så minskade denna efter insatsen. Förändringar i relation till våld och konflikter visar en likande tendens som psykisk hälsa. Även i detta hänseende sker en positiv förändring. Resultatet bygger på ett begränsat antal brukare vilket gör att de förändringar som sker i relation till psykisk ohälsa samt våld och konflikter inte går att säkerställa statistiskt. Det tydligaste tecknet på att det skett en positiv förändring för brukarna erhålls när resultaten från samtliga tre undersökta områden (KASAM, psykisk hälsa samt våld- och konflikter) summeras. Resultatet visar då att samtliga brukare fått en positiv utveckling på minst ett av de nämnda områdena och att merparten av deltagarna fått en positiv förändring på flera av dem. Det finns också brukare som visar en negativ utveckling över tid. Exempelvis uppger några av brukarna att den psykiska ohälsan ökat över tid. Det finns flera olika förklaringar till att det sker en negativ utveckling för några brukare över tid men det mesta pekar på att detta inte kan hänvisas till insatsen.Utvärderingen belyser vidare insatsen programteoretiska antaganden. När det gäller dessa dras slutsatsen att programmet har en rimlig logiskt-teoretisk utgångspunkt som följs genom hela dess genomförande. I förhållande till programteorin identifieras emellertid även behovet av att ytterligare tydliggöra insatsen teoretiska antagande. Programtroheten i programtroheten belyses också i utvärderingen. Resultatet av detta arbete tyder på en hög grad av följsamhet, det vill säga att andel centrala behandlingsmoment (kärnkomponenter) som genomförs med skicklighet och noggrannhet. Denna slutsats gäller för merparten av de totalt 12 lektionerna. Några lektioner visar på lägre grad av följsamhet. För dessa utbildningstillfällen finns det således möjlighet att ytterligare förbättra följsamheten.Den sammantagna bedömningen av utvärderingen är att våldspreventionsprogrammet VIP skapat en positiv utveckling för deltagarna. Förutom att insatsen visar att Känslan av sammanganhang ökat signifikant vittnar flertalet brukare om både kunskapsmässig, attitydmässiga och beteendemässiga förändringar som ett direkt resultat av insatsen. I det fall det sker en negativ utveckling för brukarna är det möjligt att hänvisa detta till insatsen.Samtidigt som detta sägs kan det emellertid konstateras att det föreligger ett behov av fortsatt kunskapsutveckling, genom systematisk uppföljning och utvärdering av VIP-insatsen.

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