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  • 1.
    Aronsson, Vanda
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Stockholm Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Can a poor psychosocial work environment and insufficient organizational resources explain the higher risk of ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations?: Evidence from a Swedish national cohort2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 310-317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in burnout, self-rated health (SRH) and sickness absence between human service occupations (HSOs) and other occupations, and whether they can be attributed to differences in psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. Methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population (n = 4408). Employment in HSOs, psychosocial work environment and organizational resources in 2012 predicted relative risks of sickness absence, burnout and suboptimal SRH in 2014 using modified Poisson regressions. The psychosocial work factors' and organizational resource variables' relative importance were estimated by adding them to the models one by one, and with population attributable fractions (PAFs). Results: Employment in HSOs was associated with a higher risk of sickness absence and the risk was explained by psychosocial and organizational factors, particularly high emotional demands, low work-time control and exposure to workplace violence. Employment in HSOs was not associated with burnout after sociodemographic factors were adjusted for, and furthermore not with SRH. A lower risk of suboptimal SRH was found in HSOs than in other occupations with equivalent psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. PAFs indicated that psychosocial work environment and organizational resource improvements could lead to morbidity reductions for all outcomes; emotional demands were more important in HSOs. Conclusions: HSOs had higher risks of sickness absence and burnout than other occupations. The most important work factors to address were high emotional demands, low work-time control, and exposure to workplace violence.

  • 2. Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Bergman, Louise
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Flourish, fight or flight: Health and well-being in self-employment over time-associations with business success2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Around 9% of the working population in Sweden consists of self-employed business owners, but a considerable amount of them struggle to consolidate or expand their businesses. Among the factors predicting business success the decisive role of long-term health of business owners has been acknowledged only recently, but longitudinal studies testing this assumption are scarce. Based on the conservation of resources theory, good health can be seen as a resource that helps business owners to tackle high workloads and make business succeed.Design: Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Health Survey is used. Starting in 2012, N= 554 self-employed have answered three or more times in the biannual data collection. Latent growth curve modelling is employed to study general and mental health trajectories and their associations with business survival over time.Results: Preliminary descriptive analyses on biannual changes suggest that roughly one in ten self-employed leaves self-employment at follow-up. Job demands and emotional exhaustion are higher among those who leave compared to those who remain in business. After integrating new data collected in 2018, growth curve analyses are run over the whole longitudinal sample, and associations of health trajectories to business survival will be tested.Limitations: Data is collected with questionnaires, and business success is operationalized as business survival only.

  • 3.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmo Univ, Ctr Work Life & Evaluat Studies, Malmo, Sweden..
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Malmo Univ, Ctr Work Life & Evaluat Studies, Malmo, Sweden..
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd. Stockholm University, Dept of Publ Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    What happens to the physical and psychosocial work environment when activity-based offices are introduced into academia?2018Inngår i: Journal of Corporate Real Estate, ISSN 1463-001X, E-ISSN 1479-1048, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 230-243Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose There is an increased interest for introducing activity-based offices at universities. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the knowledge about the importance of the built environment for the psychosocial work environment within academia by analyzing how staff at a large Swedish university experienced the physical and psychosocial work environment before and after moving to activity-based offices. Design/methodology/approach A Web-based survey was distributed to all employees at two faculties at a university three months before (2015, n = 217, response rate 51 per cent) and nine months after (2016, n = 200, response rate 47 per cent) relocation to a new activity-based university building. Findings In the new premises, a vast majority (86 per cent) always occupied the same place when possible, and worked also more often from home. The social community at work had declined and social support from colleagues and supervisors was perceived to have decreased. The participants reported a lower job satisfaction after the relocation and were more likely to seek new jobs. No aspects in the physical or psychosocial work environment were found to have improved after the relocation. Research/limitations implications The study had a two-wave cross-sectional design, which does not allow establishing causal relations. Practical implications There is reason to be cautious about relocation to activity-based offices at universities. The potential savings in costs for premises may lead to may be followed by an increase in other costs. The risk that staff cannot concentrate on their work in activity-based university workplaces and lose their sense of community with colleagues are factors, which in the long run may lead to decreased efficiency, more conflicts and poorer well-being. Originality/value This paper contributes with new knowledge concerning changes in the physical and psychosocial work environment when relocating from cell offices to activity-based offices in a university setting.

  • 4.
    Bälter, O.
    et al.
    Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design, KTH—Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedin, B.
    Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design, KTH—Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tobiasson, H.
    Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design, KTH—Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Walking outdoors during seminars improved perceived seminar quality and sense of well-being among participants2018Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, nr 2, artikkel-id 303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour are a growing health problem globally. Physical inactivity is associated with increased risk of numerous ailments, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Our primary aim was to perform a feasibility study on how to incorporate physical activity among students and teachers in regular teaching activities. The second aim was to investigate how students and teachers perceived the differences between outdoor walking seminars and regular indoor seminars. By transforming an on-campus course into a blended course, we were able to conduct seminars outdoors in nearby nature while walking. These walking seminars were evaluated among 131 students and nine teachers leading the walking seminars. The responses to the student survey and teacher interviews indicate that discussions, sense of well-being and the general quality of the seminar improved, regardless of how physically active participants were the rest of the time. The study shows one way to increase physical activity with small means; in our case, a reorganization of how we prepared for the seminars which allowed for walking discussions.

  • 5.
    Dellve, Lotta
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Sweden.
    Håkansta, Carin
    Karlstads universitet, Sweden.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Stockholm University, Dept of Publ Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kylin, Camilla
    Karlstads universitet, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Sweden.
    Rydenfält, Christofer
    Lunds tekniska högskola, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Berglund, Leif
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Kaltenbrunner Nykvist, Monica
    Högskolan i Gävle, Sweden.
    Snabbt förändrade arbetsmiljöer kräver forskning som bidrar till bred kunskap och metodik2018Inngår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 24, nr 3-4, s. 85-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Drake, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is combining human service work with family caregiving associated with additional odds of emotional exhaustion and sickness absence? A cross-sectional study based on a Swedish cohort2020Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 93, nr 1, s. 55-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to examine to what extent human service work and family caregiving is associated with emotional exhaustion and sickness absence, and to what extent combining human service work and family caregiving is associated with additional odds.

    METHODS: Data were derived from participants in paid work from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, year 2016 (n = 11 951). Logistic regression analyses were performed and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals estimated for the association between human service work and family caregiving, respectively, as well as combinations of the two on one hand, and emotional exhaustion and self-reported sickness absence on the other hand. Interaction between human service work and family caregiving was assessed as departure from additivity with Rothman's synergy index.

    RESULTS: Human service work was not associated with higher odds of emotional exhaustion, but with higher odds of sickness absence. Providing childcare was associated with higher odds of emotional exhaustion, but lower odds of sickness absence, and caring for a relative was associated with higher odds of both emotional exhaustion and sickness absence. There was no indication of an additive interaction between human service work and family caregiving in relation to neither emotional exhaustion nor sickness absence.

    CONCLUSIONS: We did not find support for the common assumption that long hours providing service and care for others by combining human service work with family caregiving can explain the higher risk of sickness absence or emotional exhaustion among employees in human service occupations.

  • 7.
    Dunlavy, A. C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Juárez, S.
    Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Rostila, M.
    Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Suicide risk among native- and foreign-origin persons in Sweden: a longitudinal examination of the role of unemployment status2019Inngår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 579-590Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Prior research has documented an association between unemployment and elevated suicide risk. Yet, few Swedish studies have explicitly considered how such risk may vary by different migration background characteristics among persons of foreign-origin, who often experience diverse forms of labor market marginalization. This study examines the extent to which unemployment status may differentially influence suicide risk among the foreign-origin by generational status, region of origin, age at arrival, and duration of residence. Methods: Population-based registers were used to conduct a longitudinal, open cohort study of native-origin and foreign-origin Swedish residents of working age (25–64 years) from 1993 to 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicide mortality were estimated using gender-stratified Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Elevated suicide risk observed among foreign-origin unemployed groups was generally of a similar or lower magnitude than that found in unemployed native-origin, although unemployed second-generation Swedish men demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.05) excess risk of suicide than that observed among their native-origin counterparts. Unemployed foreign-born men with a younger age at arrival and longer duration of residence demonstrated an increased risk of suicide, while those who arrived as adults, and a shorter duration of residence did not show any increased risk. Among foreign-born women, excess suicide risk persisted regardless of age at arrival and duration of residence in the long-term unemployed. Conclusions: Multiple migration background characteristics should be considered when examining relationships between employment status and suicide among the foreign-origin.

  • 8. Eto, Fabiola Naomi
    et al.
    Santos, RS
    Melo, ECP
    Harter Griep, Rosane
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Stockholm University, Dept of Publ Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    958 Comparing two approaches to scoring allostatic load in brazilian civil servants: April 2018 Occupational and Environmental Medicine 75(Suppl 2):A309.1-A3092018Inngår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2018, Vol. 75(Suppl2), s. A309.1-a309.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Hagqvist, E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Vinberg, S.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hagström, M.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Granqvist, S.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Landstad, B. J.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Falling outside the system: Occupational safety and health inspectors’ experiences of micro-enterprises in Sweden2020Inngår i: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 125, artikkel-id 104631Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, 11 Swedish occupational safety and health (OSH) inspectors were interviewed about their views of and experiences interacting with micro-enterprises (1-9 employees). The qualitative content analysis found one theme, “Falling outside the system”, and three subthemes, “The inspector—shaped by specific standards”, “The bureaucrat and the micro-entrepreneur—two separate worlds”, and “System faults and system changes”. According to the inspectors, the Swedish OSH regulatory system, with inspectors on the front line, neglects the specific needs, circumstances and characteristics of micro-enterprises. Therefore, we suggest revising the OSH regulatory system and following inspection methods and enforcement styles to better address the needs of micro-enterprises.

  • 10. Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Bernhard-oettel, Claudia
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Stockholm University, Dept of Publ Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Balancing work and life when self-employed: the role of gender contexts2018Inngår i: Gender perspectives on self-employment focusing on work - life balance and working conditions, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    The gender time gap: Time use among self-employed women and men compared to paid employees in Sweden2019Inngår i: Time & Society, ISSN 0961-463X, E-ISSN 1461-7463, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 680-696Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors set out to study the time use of men and women in Sweden, comparing self-employed and employed individuals. Previous studies indicate that there are reasons to believe that both gendered time use and mechanisms related to time use might differ between the self-employed and employees. Employing time use data, the aim was to study whether there are differences in gendered time use between self-employed individuals and employees in Sweden, and furthermore, which mechanism relates to gendered time use among self-employed individuals and employees. The results show that self-employed men and women distribute their time in a more gender-traditional manner than employees. In addition, relative resources are found to be an important factor related to gendered time use among the self-employed. For employees, gender relations tend to be a mechanism related to …

  • 12. Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Peters, Pascale
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Stockholm University, Dept of Publ Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Individual Perceptions of Boundary Control Mitigate the Effect of (in) Congruence Between Workers’ Preferred Work/Non-Work Boundaries and their Enacted Boundary Management on Work-Life Conflict2019Inngår i: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2019, s. 693-694Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Rapid development of boundary-transcending ICTs have led to more flexible forms of work organization, marking a fundamental shift in the flexibility and permeability of employees’ work-nonwork boundaries. This study investigates the inter-relationships between employees’ boundary management types, representing boundary (in)congruence between their preferred and enacted boundary management, and work-life conflict, and the potential moderating role of perceived boundary control herein.

    Design/Methodology: Data comprised 3,154 Swedish professional workers in different occupations within both the public and private sector. Correlations, t-tests, Chi square tests and univariate general linear model analyses (ANCOVA) were performed.

    Findings: Enacted integration as well as boundary incongruence were both positively associated with work-life-conflict. Moreover, incongruence accompanied by a high degree of enacted integration increased work-life conflict. Finally, boundary control mitigated work-life conflict. This was especially the case among employees preferring segmentation but enacting integration, i.e., boundary incongruence, but also among employees both preferring and enacting integration, i.e., boundary congruence.

    Practical implications: This study provides new and valuable knowledge on different boundary management types, reflecting boundary (in)congruence, that are associated with increased work-life conflict depending on the specific type of (in)congruence in question, and the role of boundary control herein as an important factor to combat work-life conflict. This kind of knowledge is of high relevance in contemporary working life characterized by an ever-increased blurring of work-nonwork boundaries. Organizations play an important role in creating new legitimate beliefs and as such, leisure norms could be implemented that promote employees’ boundary control, and subsequent reduced work-life conflict.

  • 13.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Gun
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Status incongruence in human service occupations and implications for mild-to-severe depressive symptoms and register-based sickness absence: A prospective cohort study.2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that negative status incongruence may contribute to explain higher risk of mental ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations (HSO). Methods Participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health who responded to questionnaires in both 2014 and 2016 (N=11 814; 42% men, 58% women) were included. Status incongruence between register-based educational level and subjective social status was assessed. The association between employment in a HSO and status incongruence was estimated in linear regression analyses adjusted for age, income, work hours, sickness absence, childcare, and job qualification match. The prospective associations between status incongruence and mild-to-severe depressive symptoms and register-based sickness absence ≥31 days respectively were estimated with logistic regression analyses in models adjusted for age and outcomes at baseline. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results Employment in a HSO was associated with more negative status incongruence in both genders [standardized coefficient men 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.07; women 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.09]. More negative status incongruence was furthermore associated with higher odds of mild-to-severe depressive symptoms (men OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.08-1.29; women OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.26) and sickness absence ≥31 days (men OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.23-1.59; women OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.28) two years later. Conclusion Status incongruence is somewhat higher among HSO than other occupations and associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms and sickness absence.

  • 14.
    Oksala, Tarkko
    et al.
    Aalto University, Otakaari, Finland.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Oksala, Aino
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Architectural Cognition Sociology2018Inngår i: Sociology and Anthropology, ISSN 2331-6179, E-ISSN 2331-6187, Vol. 6, nr 7, s. 579-588Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to promote Architectural Sociology keeping cognition in focus. Firstly architecture, cognition and society are considered in their relationships. Secondly associations promoting cognition, its study and extensions of architectural cognition are discussed. This all is made in order to form a clear conceptual basis to understand architectural action in socio-psychological reality. This is tested by using architectural goal setting as example. Application of the frame in solving recent challenges is commented.

  • 15.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Stockholm University, Dept of Publ Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ute är inne - kom igång med kontorsarbete utomhus2019Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This is a popular science publication about outdoor office work. It includes a literature review, results from own pilot projects and examples from the office market in Sweden. The report is a collaboration with Akademiska Hus, a public real estate company in the university sector. Download here: https://www.akademiskahus.se/globalassets/dokument/hallbarhet/ute_ar_inne_a4_susanna_toivanen_akademiska-hus_2019_05_13.pdf

  • 16.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Stockholm University, Dept of Publ Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Stockholms universitet..
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences..
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences..
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Lunds universitet..
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences..
    Mikroföretagares arbetsmiljö och hälsa med fokus på genus och etnicitet - innovationer för tillsyn2019Inngår i: Arbetsmiljö och ohälsa i ett genusperspektiv: uppdragsforskning med relevans för tillsynsverksamhete, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2019, s. 43-55Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Härter Griep, R.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mellner, C.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordenmark, M.
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Vinberg, S.
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Eloranta, S.
    Scandinavian Development Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction in self-employed individuals and small business owners compared with paid employees in Sweden—a 5-year study2019Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 53, nr 2 SI, s. 343-354Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysing Swedish population register data, the aim of the present study is to investigate differences in acute cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of stroke and myocardial infarction incidence between self-employed individuals and paid employees and to study whether the associations vary by gender or across industrial sectors. A cohort of nearly 4.8 million employed individuals (6.7% self-employed in 2003) is followed-up for hospitalization due to stroke and myocardial infarction (2004–2008). Self-employed individuals are defined as sole proprietors and limited liability company owners according to legal type of their enterprise. Negative binomial regression models are applied to compare hospitalization rates between the self-employed and paid employees, adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic confounders. Two- and three-way interaction are tested between occupational group, industrial sector, and gender. Limited liability company owners have significantly lower hospitalization for myocardial infarction than paid employees. Regarding two-way interaction, sole proprietors have higher myocardial infarction hospitalization in trade, transport and communication, and lower in agriculture, forestry, and fishing than paid employees. Limited liability company owners have lower hospitalization rate for myocardial infarction than employees in several industries. The results highlight the importance of enterprise legal type and industrial sector for CVD among self-employed individuals.

  • 18. Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Stockholm University, Dept of Publ Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Sickness Presence Among Self-Employed In Western Europe – The Importance Of Psychosocial Working Conditions2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-employed is an interesting category when it comes to the phenomenon of sickness presence. To our knowledge, there are few studies of sickness presence among self-employed. In addition, earlier studies have indicated that self-employed have a high working pace and work many and irregular ours (Gunnarsson, Vingård, & Josephson, 2007; Nordenmark, Vinberg & Strandh, 2012; Parasuraman & Simmers, 2001), indicating that it can be problematic and frustrating to stay at home because of illness. Also, self-employed can be seen as a group with low replace ability, which can contribute to high sickness presence (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005).  Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to study the occurrence of sickness presence among self-employed in relation to employees, and to analyse if possible differences between the groups can be explained by different psychosocial working conditions related to work demands and time pressure.

    European policymakers encourage individuals to become self-employed because it is a way to promote innovation and job-creation (Eurofound, 2017). The proportion of self-employed individuals in the employed labour force in Europe is around 15 percent. Most of the self-employed choose to become self-employed and have good working conditions and job quality. However, around one of five of the self-employed report that they have no alternative for work and they have lower levels of job quality and worse well-being compared to the former group of self-employed (ibid.). Several studies show that the self-employed have very high decision authority and control how work is organised (Hundley, 2001; Stephan & Roesler, 2010). Conversely, most research on the characteristics of the self-employed finds that they report higher job demands and a higher workload than employees do (Nordenmark et al., 2012; Stephan & Roesler, 2010). In general, research show that self-employment is associated with a higher degree of job satisfaction than regular employment (Benz & Frey, 2004; Blanchflower, 2004: Lange, 2012). Research show that high adjustment latitude can contribute to fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence (Gerich, 2014). However, according to a recent review research concerning other health outcomes among self-employed show contradictory results (Stephan, 2017). Although, research about sickness presence has increased during the last decade relatively few organizational scholars are familiar with the concept (Aronsson & Gustafsson, 2005; Johns, 2010). Sickness presence can cause productivity loss and higher organizational costs than sickness absence (Cooper & Dewe, 2008) and increase the risk for illness among individuals (Bergström et al., 2009). It can be assumed that sickness presence and health among self-employed are particularly crucial in this enterprise group due to that the smallness make them vulnerable.

    This present study is based on the fifth European survey on working conditions (EWCS) 2015, which has become an established source of information on working conditions and employment in EU Member States. The independent variable – employment type consists of the categories self-employed (with and without employees) and employees. The main independent variable is sickness presence and is measured by the following question: Over the past 12 months did you work when you were sick (1=Yes, 0=No). Several indicators of work demands, time pressure and background variables are used in the analysis.

     

    Preliminary study results show that self-employed report a higher level of sickness presence than employed; 52.4 verses 43.6 percent. The mean number of working hours is 43.5 among self-employed and 35.4 among employed. Self-employed have worked in the evenings on average nearly 7 days a month, which is more than twice as many times as for employees. It is also twice as usual that self-employed have worked on a Sunday compared to employees.  Self-employed have on average worked in the free time once or twice a month and employees have on average worked on their free time less often. All the differences between self-employed and employed are clearly significant and indicate a higher level of sickness presence and time pressure among self-employed. In a bivariate analysis, self-employed have a significant higher risk for reporting sickness presence. When controlling for the indicators of time pressure this relationship becomes insignificant. This means when holding the indicators of time pressure on a constant level there is no significant difference between self-employed and employed regarding the risk for reporting sickness presence. The indicator that explains the most of the difference in sickness presence between self-employed and employed is work in free time. All indicators of time pressure are significant related to the risk for sickness presence; the more hours worked and the more often worked in evenings, on Sundays and in the free time, the higher the risk for reporting sickness presence. All these variables are also significant associated to the risk for sickness presence when controlling for background characteristics. Age is significantly associated to sickness presence in the way that a higher age reduces the risk for reporting sickness presence. Women more often report sickness presence than men do. Civil status is not significantly associated to sickness presence. Having children increases the risk for sickness presence and having household economic difficulties increases the risk for reporting sickness presence. The indicators of time pressure contribute most to the level of explained variance in all performed regression models.

    The results show that self-employed have a significant higher risk for reporting sickness presence than employed have. This difference is explained by the variables measuring time pressure, which indicates that the self-employed have a higher risk of reporting sickness presence because they experience more time pressure. In the extended paper, we will include other psychosocial working conditions as e.g. job control and consider different clusters of self-employed. The contribution to the small group meeting will be knowledge about sickness presence among different groups of self-employed and implications for researchers and practitioners.

  • 19. Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd. Stockholm University, Dept of Publ Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sickness presenteeism among self-employed in Europe2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Health incidents often result in sickness absenteeism, ie the failure to report for work as scheduled. However, there is increasing evidence that workers more and more decide for another option: sickness presenteeism, defined as attending work while ill. This can be problematic for the individual and presenteeism creates costs for organizations and the society as well. European policymakers encourage individuals to become self-employed because it is a way to promote innovation and job-creation. The proportion of self-employed individuals in the employed labour force in Europe is around 15 percent. Most of the self-employed choose to become self-employed and have good working conditions and job quality. However, around 20 percent of the self-employed report that they have no alternative for work and they have lower levels of job quality and worse well-being compared to the former group of self-employed. In addition, earlier studies have indicated that self-employed have a high working pace and work many and irregular hours, indicating that it can be problematic and frustrating to stay at home because of illness. It can be assumed that health and well-being among self-employed and managers in small-scale enterprises is particularly crucial in this enterprise group due to that the smallness make them vulnerable. Self-employed is an interesting category when it comes to the phenomenon of sickness presenteeism. To our knowledge, there are few studies of sickness presenteeism among self-employed. AimThe aim of this paper is to study the occurrence of sickness presence among different groups of self-employed in relation to …

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