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  • 1.
    Bagheri, M.
    et al.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Khamespanah, E.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Hojjat, H.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; Tehran Institute for Advanced Studies, Tehran, Iran.
    Movaghar, A.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Partial Order Reduction for Timed Actors2022In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2022, p. 43-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a compositional approach for the Partial Order Reduction (POR) in the state space generation of asynchronous timed actors. We define the concept of independent actors as the actors that do not send messages to a common actor. The approach avoids exploring unnecessary interleaving of executions of independent actors. It performs on a component-based model where actors from different components, except for the actors on borders, are independent. To alleviate the effect of the cross-border messages, we enforce a delay condition, ensuring that an actor introduces a delay in its execution before sending a message across the border of its component. Within each time unit, our technique generates the state space of each individual component by taking its received messages into account. It then composes the state spaces of all components. We prove that our POR approach preserves the properties defined on timed states (states where the only outgoing transition shows the progress of time). We generate the state space of a case study in the domain of air traffic control systems based on the proposed POR. The results on our benchmarks illustrate that our POR method, on average, reduces the time and memory consumption by 76 and 34%, respectively. 

  • 2.
    Bagheri, M.
    et al.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khamespanah, E.
    Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khakpour, N.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö Campus, Sweden.
    Akkaya, I.
    University of California at Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Movaghar, A.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Lee, E. A.
    University of California at Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Coordinated actor model of self-adaptive track-based traffic control systems2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 143, p. 116-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptation is a well-known technique to handle growing complexities of software systems, where a system autonomously adapts itself in response to changes in a dynamic and unpredictable environment. With the increasing need for developing self-adaptive systems, providing a model and an implementation platform to facilitate integration of adaptation mechanisms into the systems and assuring their safety and quality is crucial. In this paper, we target Track-based Traffic Control Systems (TTCSs) in which the traffic flows through pre-specified sub-tracks and is coordinated by a traffic controller. We introduce a coordinated actor model to design self-adaptive TTCSs and provide a general mapping between various TTCSs and the coordinated actor model. The coordinated actor model is extended to build large-scale self-adaptive TTCSs in a decentralized setting. We also discuss the benefits of using Ptolemy II as a framework for model-based development of large-scale self-adaptive systems that supports designing multiple hierarchical MAPE-K feedback loops interacting with each other. We propose a template based on the coordinated actor model to design a self-adaptive TTCS in Ptolemy II that can be instantiated for various TTCSs. We enhance the proposed template with a predictive adaptation feature. We illustrate applicability of the coordinated actor model and consequently the proposed template by designing two real-life case studies in the domains of air traffic control systems and railway traffic control systems in Ptolemy II. 

  • 3.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    et al.
    Sharif Univ Technol, Tehran, Iran..
    Lee, Edward A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Berkeley, USA..
    Kang, Eunsuk
    Carnegie Mellon Univ, Pittsburgh, USA..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik Univ, Island.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Univ Tehran, Tehran, Iran..
    Movaghar, Ali
    Sharif Univ Technol, Tehran, Iran..
    Lightweight Formal Method for Robust Routing in Track-based Traffic Control Systems2020In: 2020 18TH ACM-IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FORMAL METHODS AND MODELS FOR SYSTEM DESIGN (MEMOCODE), IEEE , 2020, p. 115-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a robust solution for the path planning and scheduling of the moving objects in a Track-based Traffic Control System (TTCS). The moving objects in a TTCS pass over pre-specified sub-tracks. Each sub-track accommodates at most one moving object in-transit. Due to the uncertainties in the context of a TTCS, we assign an arrival time window to each moving object for each sub-track in its route, instead of an exact value. The moving object can safely enter into the sub-track in the mentioned time window. To develop a safe plan, we adapt the tagged-signal model and provide a rigorous mathematical formalism for the actor model of a TTCS. To illustrate the applicability of the provided semantics, we provide a formal model of TTCSs in the Alloy language and use its analyzer to verify the developed model against system safety properties.

  • 4.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    et al.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik Univ, Sch Comp Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik Univ, Iceland; University of Tehran, Iran.
    Baier, Christel
    Technische Universitt Dresden, Germany.
    Movaghar, Ali
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Magnifier: A Compositional Analysis Approach for Autonomous Traffic Control2022In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 2732-2747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous traffic control systems are large-scale systems with critical goals. To satisfy expected properties, these systems adapt themselves to possible changes in their environment and in the system itself. The adaptation may result in further changes propagated throughout the system. For each change and its consequent adaptation, assuring the satisfaction of properties of the system at runtime is important. A prominent approach to assure the correct behavior of these systems is verification at runtime, which has strict time and memory limitations. To tackle these limitations, we propose Magnifier, an iterative, incremental, and compositional verification approach that operates on an actor-based model where actors are grouped in components, and components are augmented with a coordinator. The Magnifier idea is zooming on the area (component) affected by a change and verifying the correctness of properties of interest of the system after adapting the component to the change. Magnifier checks if the change is propagating, and if that is the case, then it zooms out to perform adaptation on a larger area to contain the change. The process is iterative and incremental, and considers areas affected by the change one by one. In Magnifier, we use the Coordinated Adaptive Actor model (CoodAA) for traffic control systems. We present a formal semantics for CoodAA as a network of Timed Input-Output Automata (TIOAs), and prove the correctness of our compositional reasoning. We implement our approach in Ptolemy II. The results of our experiments indicate that the proposed approach improves the verification time and the memory consumption compared to the non-compositional approach.

  • 5.
    Biffl, S.
    et al.
    Institute of Information Systems Engineering Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Navarro,
    University of Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete, Spain.
    Löwe, W.
    Department of Computer Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mirandolla, R.
    Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Weyns, D.
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Preface2021In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, p. v-viConference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Castagnari, C.
    et al.
    Division of Computer Science, Smart Mobility Lab, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino, MC, Italy.
    de Berardinis, J.
    Division of Computer Science, Smart Mobility Lab, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino, MC, Italy.
    Forcina, G.
    Division of Computer Science, Smart Mobility Lab, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino, MC, Italy.
    Jafari, A.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Lightweight preprocessing for agent-based simulation of smart mobility initiatives2018In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2018, p. 541-557Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the impacts of a mobility initiative prior to deployment is a complex task for both urban planners and transport companies. To support this task, Tangramob offers an agent-based simulation framework for assessing the evolution of urban traffic after the introduction of new mobility services. However, Tangramob simulations are computationally expensive due to their iterative nature. Thus, we simplified the Tangramob model into a Timed Rebeca (TRebeca) model and we designed a tool-chain that generates instances of this model starting from the same Tangramob’s inputs. Running TRebeca models allows users to get an idea of how mobility initiatives affect the system performance, in a short time, without resorting to the simulator. To validate this approach, we compared the output of both the simulator and the TRebeca model on a collection of mobility initiatives. Results show a correlation between them, thus demonstrating the usefulness of using TRebeca models for unconventional contexts of application.

  • 7.
    Causevic, Aida
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards a Framework for Safe and Secure Adaptive Collaborative Systems2019In: The 9th IEEE International Workshop on Industrial Experience in Embedded Systems Design IEESD 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Dastani, M.
    et al.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Preface2017In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Dastani, Mehdi
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Hojjat, Hossein
    Rochester Inst Technol, Rochester, USA..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Fundamentals of Software Engineering (extended versions of selected papers of FSEN 2015) Preface2018In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 160, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Dastani, Mehdi
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Fundamentals of Software Engineering (extended versions of selected papers of FSEN 2017) Preface2019In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 182, p. 86-87Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    de Berardinis, J.
    et al.
    The University of Manchester, School of Computer Science, United Kingdom.
    Forcina, Giorgio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Jafari, A.
    Reykjavik University, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. University, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Actor-based macroscopic modeling and simulation for smart urban planning2018In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 168, p. 142-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the impacts of a mobility initiative prior to deployment is a complex task for both urban planners and transport companies. Computational models like Tangramob offer an agent-based framework for simulating the evolution of urban traffic after the introduction of new mobility services. However, simulations can be computationally expensive to perform due to their iterative nature and the microscopic representation of traffic. To address this issue, we designed a simplified model architecture of Tangramob in Timed Rebeca (TRebeca) and we developed a tool-chain for the generation runnable instances of this model starting from the same input files of Tangramob. Running TRebeca models allows users to get an idea of how the mobility initiatives under study affect the traveling experience of commuters, in a short time and without the need to use the simulator during this first experimental step. Then, once a subset of these initiatives is identified according to user's criteria, it is reasonable to simulate them with Tangramob in order to get more detailed results. To validate this approach, we compared the output of both the simulator and the TRebeca model on a collection of mobility initiatives. The correlation between the results demonstrates the usefulness of using TRebeca models for unconventional contexts of application.

  • 12.
    De Boer, Frank
    et al.
    Ctr Wiskunde & Informat, Kruislaan 413,POB 94079, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Serbanescu, Vlad
    Ctr Wiskunde & Informat, Kruislaan 413,POB 94079, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Haehnle, Reiner
    Tech Univ Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany..
    Henrio, Ludovic
    Univ Cote dAzur, Nice, France..
    Rochas, Justine
    Univ Cote dAzur, Nice, France..
    Din, Crystal Chang
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Johnsen, Einar Broch
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Fernandez-Reyes, Kiko
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Yang, Albert Mingkun
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    A Survey of Active Object Languages2017In: ACM Computing Surveys, ISSN 0360-0300, E-ISSN 1557-7341, Vol. 50, no 5, article id 76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To program parallel systems efficiently and easily, a wide range of programming models have been proposed, eachwith different choices concerning synchronization and communication between parallel entities. Among them, the actor model is based on loosely coupled parallel entities that communicate by means of asynchronous messages and mailboxes. Some actor languages provide a strong integration with object-oriented concepts; these are often called active object languages. This article reviews four major actor and active object languages and compares them according to carefully chosen dimensions that cover central aspects of the programming paradigms and their implementation.

  • 13.
    Dehnavi, S.
    et al.
    School of ECE, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran; School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sedaghatbaf, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Salmani, B.
    Department of Informatik, RWTH-Aachen University, Germany.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kargahi, M.
    School of ECE, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran.
    Khamespanah, E.
    School of ECE, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran; School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Towards an actor-based approach to design verified ROS-based robotic programs using rebeca2019In: Procedia Computer Science, Elsevier B.V. , 2019, Vol. 155, p. 59-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotic technology helps humans in different areas such as manufacturing, health care and education. Due to the ubiquitous revolution, today's focus is on mobile robots and their applications in a variety of cyber-physical systems. ROS is a wll-known and powerful middleware that facilitates software development for mobile robots. However, this middleware does not support assuring properties such as timeliness and safety of ROS-based software. In this paper we present an integration of Timed Rebeca modeling language with ROS to synthesize verified robotic software. First, a conceptual model of robotic programs is developed using Timed Rebeca. After verifying a set of user-defined correctness properties on this model, it is translated to a ROS program automatically. Experiments on some small-scale case studies illustrates the applicability of the proposed integration method. 

  • 14.
    Ebrahimi, E.
    et al.
    TU Hamburg, Christian Doppler Laboratory for Blockchain Technologies for the Internet of Things, Hamburg, Germany.
    Khamespanah, E.
    University of Tehran, School of ECE, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mohammadi, S.
    University of Tehran, School of ECE, Tehran, Iran.
    Model Checking of Hyperledger Fabric Smart Contracts2023In: IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Technol. Factory Autom., ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting interactions between shared-purpose organizations that are not entirely trustworthy of each other without centralized oversight is an idea that emerged with the advent of private blockchains such as Hyperledger Fabric and its smart contracts. It is critical to check contracts to ensure their proper functionality, as organizations may collaborate with competitors. Due to the new architecture of Hyperledger Fabric, tools in this area are limited. To formally verify the source code of contracts, we mapped Fabric contract concepts into the Rebeca modeling language. Rebeca is an actor-based language that enables the modeling of concurrent and distributed systems and is supported by a model checking tool, Afra. We have identified vulnerabilities such as deadlock and starvation by examining the desired properties. Using the model checking approach, we could debug the code and hence benefit from speeding up the transactions, creating fewer extra blocks, requiring less storage space to store the ledger, and avoiding wasting computing resources.

  • 15.
    Forcina, Giorgio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Mälardalens högskola , Vasteras, Sweden.
    Sedaghatbaf, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Mälardalens högskola , Vasteras, Sweden.
    Baumgart, S.
    Volvo , Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jafari, A.
    Reykjavik University , 101 Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Khamespanah, E.
    University of Tehran , Tehran, Iran.
    Mrvaljevic, P.
    Mälardalens högskola , Vasteras, Sweden.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Mälardalens högskola , Vasteras, Sweden.
    Safe design of flow management systems using rebeca2020In: Journal of Information Processing, ISSN 0387-5806, Vol. 28, p. 588-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Track-based flow management systems like transportation systems and traffic control systems play a crucial role in our daily life. Safety and performance are among the most important quality requirements for these systems. This paper presents AdaptiveFlow as a framework for modeling, safety checking and performance analysis of track-based flow management systems. AdaptiveFlow is based on the Hewitt actors computation model. In particular, tracks are modeled as actors and moving objects as messages. Timed Rebeca is used for modeling, and the model checking tool Afra is used for safety verification and performance evaluation in AdaptiveFlow. To react to dynamic changes in the environment, AdaptiveFlow provides support for three adaptive policies, which can be examined and compared in different scenarios. To demonstrate the applicability of AdaptiveFlow, we consider the Electric Site Research Project of Volvo Construction Equipment as a case study. In this project, a fleet of autonomous haulers is utilized to transport materials in a quarry site. Furthermore, to show the reusability of the framework for other flow management scenarios, an experiment on an urban garbage collection system is presented. © 2020 Information Processing Society of Japan.

  • 16.
    Ghassemi, F.
    et al.
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Khamespanah, E.
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    Mirani, M.
    Khatam University, Iran.
    Hojjat, H.
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    Transparent Actor Model2023In: Proceedings - 2023 IEEE/ACM 11th International Conference on Formal Methods in Software Engineering, FormaliSE 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 97-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several programming and formal modeling languages are designed based on actors. Each language has certain policies for message delivery between actors and for handling the messages in the buffers. These policies are implicit in the semantics of each language. One can infer interesting properties of actor languages related to communication and coordination based on different policies and their interactions. We define the 'Transparent Actor' model where we make policies explicit as points of possible variations. We identify an abstract network entity and define the semantics of Transparent Actors in three parts: actors, network, and composition. We define a core actor language named BABEL as a basis to describe the semantics of Transparent Actors using structural operational semantics (SOS) rules with variation points. These parametric rules make the implicit policies clear and can be used as a template to define the semantics of different actor-based languages. We evaluate the applicability of the template by examining the semantics for actor-based languages Rebeca, Lingua Franca, ABS, AKKA, and Erlang. We implement BABEL in Maude as a proof of concept, then concretize the parametric rules to implement some of the above languages. We consider a few properties, check them via a set of designated litmus test cases using our Maude implementations, and discuss the policy interactions. 

  • 17.
    Jafari, A.
    et al.
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Nair, Jayasoorya Jayanthi Surendran
    Mälardalen University.
    Baumgart, S.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Safe and efficient fleet operation for autonomous machines: An actor-based approach2018In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 2018, p. 423-426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we formally model and verify run-time requirements of an application consisting of complex electrified machines called HX autonomous haulers, developed by Volvo Construction Equipment. To model the fleet control, we use Timed Rebeca, an actor-based modeling language, and to analyze the system performance, we use Afra, an integrated environment for modeling and verifying distributed systems modeled by Rebeca or Timed Rebeca language. We run a set of experiments to find the improved configuration in which the total time for machines to complete one operating cycle is minimized. 

  • 18.
    Jahandideh, I.
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Ghassemi, F.
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Hybrid rebeca: Modeling and analyzing of cyber-physical systems2019In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2019, p. 3-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In cyber-physical systems like automotive systems, there are components like sensors, actuators, and controllers that communicate asynchronously with each other. The computational model of actor supports modeling distributed asynchronously communicating systems. We propose Hybrid Rebeca language to support modeling of cyber-physical systems. Hybrid Rebeca is an extension of actor-based language Rebeca. In this extension, physical actors are introduced as new computational entities to encapsulate physical behaviors. To support various means of communication among the entities, the network is explicitly modeled as a separate entity from actors. We derive hybrid automata as the basis for analysis of Hybrid Rebeca models. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach through a case study in the domain of automotive systems. We use SpaceEx framework for the analysis of the case study. 

  • 19.
    Jahandideh, Iman
    et al.
    Univ Tehran, Coll Engn, Sch Elect & Comp Engn, Tehran, Iran..
    Ghassemi, Fatemeh
    Univ Tehran, Coll Engn, Sch Elect & Comp Engn, Tehran, Iran.;Inst Res Fundamental Sci, Sch Comp Sci, POB 19395-5746, Tehran, Iran..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjav Univ, Sch Comp Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    An actor-based framework for asynchronous event-based cyber-physical systems2021In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 641-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In cyber-physical systems like automotive systems, there are components like sensors, actuators, and controllers that communicate asynchronously with each other. The computational model of actors supports modeling distributed asynchronously communicating systems. We propose the Hybrid Rebeca language to support the modeling of cyber-physical systems. Hybrid Rebeca is an extension of the actor-based language Rebeca. In this extension, physical actors are introduced as new computational entities to encapsulate physical behaviors. To support various means of communication among the entities, the network is explicitly modeled as a separate entity from actors. We develop a tool to derive hybrid automata as the basis for the analysis of Hybrid Rebeca models. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach through a case study in the domain of automotive systems. We use the SpaceEx framework for reachability analysis of the case study. Compared to hybrid automata, our results show that for event-based asynchronous models hybrid Rebeca improves analyzability by reducing the number of real variables, and increases modularity and hence, minimizes the number of changes caused by a modification in the model.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Bjarne
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Pourvatan, Bahman
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Moezkarimi, Zahra
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Formal Verification of Consistency for Systems with Redundant Controllers2024In: Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science, EPTCS, Open Publishing Association , 2024, Vol. 399, p. 169-191Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A potential problem that may arise in the domain of distributed control systems is the existence of more than one primary controller in redundancy plans that may lead to inconsistency. An algorithm called NRP FD is proposed to solve this issue by prioritizing consistency over availability. In this paper, we demonstrate how by using modeling and formal verification, we discovered an issue in NRP FD where we may have two primary controllers at the same time. We then provide a solution to mitigate the identified issue, thereby enhancing the robustness and reliability of such systems.

  • 21.
    Khakpour, N.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Kleijn, J.
    LIACS, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University.
    A Formal Model to Integrate Behavioral and Structural Adaptations in Self-adaptive Systems2019In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer , 2019, p. 3-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach for modelling adaptive complex systems should be flexible and scalable to allow a system to grow easily, and should have a formal foundation to guarantee the correctness of the system behavior. In this paper, we present the architecture, and formal syntax and semantics of HPobSAM which is a model for specifying behavioral and structural adaptations to model large-scale systems and address re-usability concerns. Self-adaptive modules are used as the building blocks to structure a system, and policies are used as the mechanism to perform both behavioral and structural adaptations. While a self-adaptive module is autonomous to achieve its local goals by collaborating with other self-adaptive modules, it is controlled by a higher-level entity to prevent undesirable behavior. HPobSAM is formalized using a combination of algebraic, graph transformation-based and actor-based formalisms.

  • 22.
    Khamespanah, E.
    et al.
    School of Electrical an Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Khosravi, R.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An efficient TCTL model checking algorithm and a reduction technique for verification of timed actor models2018In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 153, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NP-hard time complexity of model checking algorithms for TCTL properties in dense time is one of the obstacles against using model checking for the analysis of real-time systems. Alternatively, a polynomial time algorithm is suggested for model checking of discrete time models against TCTL≤,≥ properties (i.e. TCTL properties without U=c modalities). The algorithm performs model checking against a given formula Φ for a state space with V states and E transitions in O(V(V+E)⋅|Φ|). In this work, we improve the model checking algorithm of TCTL≤,≥ properties, obtaining time complexity of O((Vlg⁡V+E)⋅|Φ|). We tackle the model checking of discrete timed actors as an application of the proposed algorithms. We show how the result of the fine-grained semantics of discrete timed actors can be model checked efficiently against TCTL≤,≥ properties using the proposed algorithm. This is illustrated using the timed actor modeling language Timed Rebeca. In addition to introducing a new efficient model checking algorithm, we propose a reduction technique which safely eliminates instantaneous transitions of transition systems (i.e. transition with zero time duration). We show that the reduction can be applied on-the-fly during the generation of the original timed transition system without a significant cost. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the reduction technique via a set of case studies selected from various application domains. Besides, while TCTL≤,≥ can be model checked in polynomial time, model checking of TCTL properties with U=c modalities is an NP-complete problem. Using the proposed reduction technique, we provide an efficient algorithm for model checking of complete TCTL properties over the reduced transition systems.

  • 23.
    Khamespanah, E.
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khosravi, R.
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Afra: An Eclipse-Based Tool with Extensible Architecture for Modeling and Model Checking of Rebeca Family Models2023In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2023, p. 72-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Afra is an Eclipse-based tool for the modeling and model checking of Rebeca family models. Together with the standard enriched editor, easy to trace counter-example viewer, modular temporal property definition, exporting a model and its transition system to some other formats facilities are features of Afra. Rebeca family provides actor-based modeling languages which are designed to bridge the gap between formal methods and software engineering. Faithfulness to the system being modeled, and the usability of Rebeca family languages help in ease of modeling and analysis of the model, together with the synthesis of the system based on the model. In this paper, architectural decisions and design strategies we made in the development of Afra are presented. This makes Afra an extensible and reusable application for the modeling and analysis of Rebeca family models. Here, we show how different compilers can be developed for the family of languages which are the same in general language constructs but have some minor differences. Then we show how the model checking engine for these different languages is designed. Despite the fact that Afra has a layered object-oriented design and is developed in Java technology, we use C++ codes for developing its model checking for the performance purposes. This decision made the design of the application even harder.

  • 24.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    et al.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Mohaqeqi, Morteza
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Schedulability Analysis of WSAN Applications: Outperformance of a Model Checking Approach2022In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, Vol. 2022-SeptemberConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN) are real-time systems which demand timing requirements. To ensure this level of requirements, different timing analysis approaches have been proposed for WSAN systems. Among different alternatives, analytical analysis and model checking approaches are two common ones which are widely used for the timing analysis of WSAN systems. Analytical approaches apply worst-case response time analysis techniques, whereas model checking generates explicit states of models to analyze them. In this paper, we develop schedulability analysis techniques based on two approaches, i.e., analytical and model checking approaches. We apply and compare the proposed analysis approaches on WSAN systems with an application in monitoring and control of civil infrastructures implemented on the Imote2 wireless sensor platform. We show that the highest possible data acquisition frequency for this application is computed while meeting the deadlines, and compare the results of the two approaches in terms of scalability, extensibility, and flexibility.

  • 25.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    et al.
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    Mrvaljevic, Pavle
    Mälardalen University.
    Fattouh, Anas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using Afra in Different Domains by Tool Orchestration2021In: Composing Model-Based Analysis Tools / [ed] Robert Heinrich; Francisco Durán; Carolyn Talcott; Steffen Zschaler, Springer, Cham , 2021, 1, p. 283-299Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The formal modelling and verification of distributed systems represents a complex process in which multiple tools are involved. Rebeca is a language which is developed to make modelling and verification of distributed systems with asynchronous message passing easier. This chapter shows how different tool orchestration methods are used for developing different verification engines for Rebeca models. As the first step, the way of enabling performance evaluation for Rebeca models is shown. To this end, state spaces which are generated for Rebeca models are transformed to the input of a third party tool and the result of the verification is given to the modeller. The second one is developing a search-based optimisation for wireless sensors and actuators applications. Running the model checker in a loop with different input parameters helps in finding the optimum values for parameters with respect to a given optimisation goal. The third one is for safety verification and performance evaluation of collaborative autonomous machines of Volvo car. The verification is done through developing and evaluating models by the model checking tool and Volvo car simulator (VCE Simulator).

  • 26.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    et al.
    Univ Tehran, Sch ECE, Tehran, Iran.;Reykjavik Univ, Sch Comp Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Reykjavik Univ, CRESS, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik Univ, Sch Comp Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mechitov, Kirill
    Univ Illinois, OSL, Champaign, IL USA..
    Agha, Gul
    Univ Illinois, OSL, Champaign, IL USA..
    Modeling and analyzing real-time wireless sensor and actuator networks using actors and model checking2018In: International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer, ISSN 1433-2779, E-ISSN 1433-2787, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 547-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmers often use informal worst-case analysis and debugging to ensure that schedulers satisfy real-time requirements. Not only can this process be tedious and error-prone, it is inherently conservative and thus likely to lead to an inefficient use of resources. We propose to use model checking to find a schedule which optimizes the use of resources while satisfying real-time requirements. Specifically, we represent a Wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN) as a collection of actors whose behaviors are specified using a Java-based actor language extended with operators for real-time scheduling and delay representation. We show how the abstraction mechanism and the compositionality of actors in the actor model may be used to incrementally build a model of a WSAN's behavior from node-level and network models. We demonstrate the approach with a case study of a distributed real-time data acquisition system for high-frequency sensing using Timed Rebeca modeling language and the Afra model checking tool.

  • 27.
    Khosravi, R.
    et al.
    School of ECE, University of Tehran, Tehran, Ira.
    Khamespanah, E.
    School of ECE, University of Tehran, Tehran, Ira.
    Ghassemi, F.
    School of ECE, University of Tehran, Tehran, Ira.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Actors Upgraded for Variability, Adaptability, and Determinism2024In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2024, Vol. 14360 LNCS, p. 226-260Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rebeca modeling language is designed as an imperative actor-based language with the goal of providing an easy-to-use language for modeling concurrent and distributed systems, with formal verification support. Rebeca has been extended to support time and probability. We extend Rebeca further with inheritance, polymorphism, interface declaration, and annotation mechanisms. These features allow us to handle variability within the model, support non-disruptive model evolution, and define method priorities. This enables Rebeca to be used more effectively in different domains, like in Software Product Lines, and holistic analysis of Cyber-Physical Systems. We develop specialized analysis techniques to support these extensions, partly integrated into Afra, the model checking tool of Rebeca.

  • 28.
    Lee, E. A.
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley, United States.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    What good are models?2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 11222, Springer Verlag , 2018, p. 3-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models are central to engineering. They are used for analysis, synthesis, and communication between humans. A given artifact or process may have multiple models with different purposes, modeling different aspects, or modeling at varying levels of abstraction. In this paper, we give a general overview of how models are used, with the goal of making the concepts clearer for different communities. We focus on the domain of track-based flow management of automated systems, and identify two different modeling styles, Eulerian and Lagrangian. Eulerian models focus on regions of space, whereas Lagrangian models focus on entities moving through space. We discuss how the features of the system, like having centralized or decentralized control or the ability to install fixed infrastructure, influence the choice between these styles. Although the choice between modeling styles is rarely made consciously, it affects modeling efficiency, and one style may be far better suited for certain modeling problems than another. For problems with a more global nature concerning the physical space, an Eulerian model is likely to be a better match. For problems that concern the moving objects specifically, where the identity of the individual objects is important, a Lagrangian view is the one to choose. In many cases, combining the two styles is the most effective approach. We illustrate the two styles using an example of an automated quarry. 

  • 29.
    Lohstroh, M.
    et al.
    University of California, US.
    Derler, P.
    National Instruments, Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Preface2018In: Principles of Modeling: Essays Dedicated to Edward A. Lee on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday / [ed] Lohstroh, Marten, Derler, Patricia, Sirjani, Marjan, Springer Verlag , 2018, p. VII-XChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Lohstroh, M.
    et al.
    C Berkeley, United States.
    Schoeberl, M.
    TU Denmark, Denmark.
    Goens, A.
    TU Dresden, Germany.
    Wasicek, A.
    Avast, United States.
    Gill, C.
    Washington Univ., St. Louis, United States.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lee, E. A.
    C Berkeley, United States.
    Invited: Actors revisited for time-critical systems2019In: Proceedings - Design Automation Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, article id 152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programming time-critical systems is notoriously difficult. In this paper we propose an actor-oriented programming model with a semantic notion of time and a deterministic coordination semantics based on discrete events to exercise precise control over both the computational and timing aspects of the system behavior.

  • 31.
    Marksteiner, S.
    et al.
    AVL List Gmbh, Graz, Austria.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using Automata Learning for Compliance Evaluation of Communication Protocols on an NFC Handshake Example2024In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2024, p. 170-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Near-Field Communication (NFC) is a widely adopted standard for embedded low-power devices in very close proximity. In order to ensure a correct system, it has to comply to the ISO/IEC 14443 standard. This paper concentrates on the low-level part of the protocol (ISO/IEC 14443-3) and presents a method and a practical implementation that complements traditional conformance testing. We infer a Mealy state machine of the system-under-test using active automata learning. This automaton is checked for bisimulation with a specification automaton modelled after the standard, which provides a strong verdict of conformance or non-conformance. As a by-product, we share some observations of the performance of different learning algorithms and calibrations in the specific setting of ISO/IEC 14443-3, which is the difficulty to learn models of system that a) consist of two very similar structures and b) very frequently give no answer (i.e. a timeout as an output).

  • 32.
    Marksteiner, Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Avl List GmbH, Graz, Austria.
    Schmittner, C.
    Ait Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
    Christl, K.
    Ait Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
    Nickovic, D.
    Ait Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    From TARA to Test: Automated Automotive Cybersecurity Test Generation Out of Threat Modeling2023In: Proceedings: CSCS 2023 - 7th ACM Computer Science in Cars Symposium, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) demands the management of cyber security risks in vehicle design and that the effectiveness of these measures is verified by testing. Generally, with rising complexity and openness of systems via software-defined vehicles, verification through testing becomes a very important for security assurance. This mandates the introduction of industrial-grade cybersecurity testing in automotive development processes. Currently, the automotive cybersecurity testing procedures are not specified or automated enough to be able to deliver tests in the amount and thoroughness needed to keep up with that regulation, let alone doing so in a cost-efficient manner. This paper presents a methodology to automatically generate technology-agnostic test scenarios from the results of threat analysis and risk assessment (TARA) process. Our approach is to transfer the resulting threat models into attack trees and label their edges using actions from a domain-specific language (DSL) for attack descriptions. This results in a labelled transitions system (LTS), in which every labelled path intrinsically forms a test scenario. In addition, we include the concept of Cybersecurity Assurance Levels (CALs) and Targeted Attack Feasibility (TAF) into testing by assigning them as costs to the attack path. This abstract test scenario can be compiled into a concrete test case by augmenting it with implementation details. Therefore, the efficacy of the measures taken because of the TARA can be verified and documented. As TARA is a de-facto mandatory step in the UNECE regulation and the relevant ISO standard, automatic test generation (also mandatory) out of it could mean a significant improvement in efficiency, as two steps could be done at once.

  • 33.
    Moradi, Fereidoun
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pourvatan, Bahman
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Moezkarimi, Zahra
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    CRYSTAL framework: Cybersecurity assurance for cyber-physical systems2024In: The Journal of logical and algebraic methods in programming, ISSN 2352-2208, E-ISSN 2352-2216, ISSN 2352-2208, Vol. 139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose CRYSTAL framework for automated cybersecurity assurance of cyber-physical systems (CPS) at design-time and runtime. We build attack models and apply formal verification to recognize potential attacks that may lead to security violations. We focus on both communication and computation in designing the attack models. We build a monitor to check and manage security at runtime and use a reference model, called Tiny Digital Twin, in detecting attacks. The Tiny Digital Twin is an abstract behavioral model that is automatically derived from the state space generated by model checking during design-time. Using CRYSTAL, we are able to systematically model and check complex coordinated attacks. In this paper we discuss the applicability of CRYSTAL in security analysis and attack detection for different case studies, Temperature Control System (TCS), Pneumatic Control System (PCS), and Secure Water Treatment System (SWaT). We provide a detailed description of the framework and explain how it works in different cases.

  • 34.
    Moradi, Fereidoun
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sedaghatbaf, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Talcott, Carolyn
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    An Actor-based Approach for Security Analysis of Cyber-Physical Systems2020In: Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems, FMICS 2020, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 12327, Springer, 2020, p. 130-147, article id 12327Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Moradi, Fereidoun
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bagheri, M.
    Tehran Institute for Advanced Studies, Khatam University, Tehran, Iran.
    Rahmati, Hanieh
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Yazdi, Hamed
    Chavoosh ICT, Isfahan, Iran.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Monitoring Cyber-Physical Systems Using a Tiny Twin to Prevent Cyber-Attacks2022In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 13255, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2022, p. 24-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a method to detect attacks on sensors and controllers in cyber-physical systems. We develop a monitor that uses an abstract digital twin, Tiny Twin, to detect false sensor data and faulty control commands. The Tiny Twin is a state transition system that represents the observable behavior of the system from the monitor point of view. At runtime, the monitor observes the sensor data and the control commands, and checks whether the observed data and commands are consistent with the state transitions in the Tiny Twin. The monitor produces an alarm when an inconsistency is detected. We model the components of the system and the physical processes in the Rebeca modeling language and use its model checker to generate the state space. The Tiny Twin is built automatically by reducing the state space, keeping the observable behavior of the system, and preserving the trace equivalence. We demonstrate the method and evaluate it in detecting attacks using a temperature control system. 

  • 36.
    Moradi, Fereidoun
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pourvatan, Bahman
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tiny Twins for detecting cyber-attacks at runtime using concise Rebeca time transition system2024In: Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISSN 0743-7315, E-ISSN 1096-0848, Vol. 184, article id 104780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for detecting cyber-attacks in cyber-physical systems using a monitor. The method employs an abstract model called Tiny Twin, which is built at design time and is used at runtime to detect inconsistencies. Tiny Twin is a state transition system that represents the observable behavior of the system from the monitor point of view. We model the behavior of the system in the Rebeca modeling language and use Afra model checker to generate the state space. The Tiny Twin is built automatically, by abstracting the state space while keeping the observable actions and preserving the trace equivalence. For doing that we had to solve the complexities in the state space introduced by time-shifts, nondeterministic assignments and abstraction of internal actions. We formally define the state space as Concise Rebeca Timed Transition System (CRTTS), and then map CRTTS to an LTS. The LTS is then fed to a tool to abstract away the non-observable actions.

  • 37.
    Moradi, Fereidoun
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sedaghatbaf, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    On-Off Attack on a Blockchain-based IoT System2019In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 1768-1773Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in using the Blockchain for resolving IoT security and trustworthiness issues existing in today's complex systems. Blockchain concerns trust in peer to peer networks by providing a distributed tamper-resistant ledger. However, the combination of these two emerging technologies might create new problems and vulnerabilities that attackers might abuse.In this paper, we aim to investigate the trust mechanism of Lightweight Scalable BlockChain (LSB), that is a Blockchain specifically designed for Internet of Things networks, to show that a malicious participant in a Blockchain architecture have possibility to pursue an On-Off attack and downgrade the integrity of the distributed ledger. We choose a remote software update process as an instance to represent this violation. Finally, using the actor-based language Rebeca, we provide a model of a system under attack and verify the described attack scenario.

  • 38.
    Rezaei, S.
    et al.
    Ece Department University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Khamespanah, E.
    Ece Department University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sedaghatbaf, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mohammadi, S.
    Ece Department University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Developing Safe Smart Contracts2020In: Proceedings - 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference, COMPSAC 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020, p. 1027-1035, article id 9202741Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Blockchain is a shared, distributed ledger on which transactions are digitally recorded and linked together. Smart Contracts are programs running on Blockchain and are used to perform transactions in a distributed environment without need for any trusted third party. Since smart contracts are used to transfer assets between contractual parties, their safety and security are crucial and badly written and insecure contracts may result in catastrophe. Actor-based programming is known to solve several problems in building distributed software systems. Moreover, formal verification is a solid technique for developing dependable systems. In this paper, we show how the actor model can be used for modeling, analysis and synthesis of smart contracts. We propose Smart Rebeca as an extension of the actor-based language Rebeca, and use the model checking toolset Afra for verification of smart contracts. We implement a synthesizer to synthesize Solidity programs that run on the Ethereum platform from Smart Rebeca models. We examine the challenges and opportunities of our approach in modeling, formal verification, and synthesis of smart contracts using actors. 

  • 39.
    Salimi, M.
    et al.
    Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
    Majd, A.
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Loni, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Troubitsyna, E.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Multi-objective optimization of real-time task scheduling problem for distributed environments2020In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH CONFERENCE ON THE ENGINEERING OF COMPUTER BASED SYSTEMS (ECBS 2019), Association for Computing Machinery , 2020, article id a13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-world applications are composed of multiple tasks which usually have intricate data dependencies. To exploit distributed processing platforms, task allocation and scheduling, that is assigning tasks to processing units and ordering inter-processing unit data transfers, plays a vital role. However, optimally scheduling tasks on processing units and finding an optimized network topology is an NP-complete problem. The problem becomes more complicated when the tasks have real-time deadlines for termination. Exploring the whole search space in order to find the optimal solution is not feasible in a reasonable amount of time, therefore meta-heuristics are often used to find a near-optimal solution. We propose here a multi-population evolutionary approach for near-optimal scheduling optimization, that guarantees end-to-end deadlines of tasks in distributed processing environments. We analyze two different exploration scenarios including single and multi-objective exploration. The main goal of the single objective exploration algorithm is to achieve the minimal number of processing units for all the tasks, whereas a multi-objective optimization tries to optimize two conflicting objectives simultaneously considering the total number of processing units and end-to-end finishing time for all the jobs. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by experiments based on a use case for mapping a number of jobs covering industrial automation systems, where each of the jobs consists of a number of tasks in a distributed environment.

  • 40.
    Salimi, Maghsood
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Loni, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Learning Activation Functions for Adversarial Attack Resilience in CNNs2023In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2023, p. 203-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adversarial attacks on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been a serious concern in recent years, as they can cause CNNs to produce inaccurate predictions. Through our analysis of training CNNs with adversarial examples, we discovered that this was primarily caused by naïvely selecting ReLU as the default choice for activation functions. In contrast to the focus of recent works on proposing adversarial training methods, we study the feasibility of an innovative alternative: learning novel activation functions to make CNNs more resilient to adversarial attacks. In this paper, we propose a search framework that combines simulated annealing and late acceptance hill-climbing to find activation functions that are more robust against adversarial attacks in CNN architectures. The proposed search method has superior search convergence compared to commonly used baselines. The proposed method improves the resilience to adversarial attacks by achieving up to 17.1%, 22.8%, and 16.6% higher accuracy against BIM, FGSM, and PGD attacks, respectively, over ResNet-18 trained on the CIFAR-10 dataset.

  • 41.
    Salimi, Maghsood
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Loni, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    SARAF: Searching for Adversarial Robust Activation Functions2023In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2023, p. 174-182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have received great attention in the computer vision domain. However, CNNs are vulnerable to adversarial attacks, which are manipulations of input data that are imperceptible to humans but can fool the network. Several studies tried to address this issue, which can be divided into two categories: (i) training the network with adversarial examples, and (ii) optimizing the network architecture and/or hyperparameters. Although adversarial training is a sufficient defense mechanism, they suffer from requiring a large volume of training samples to cover a wide perturbation bound. Tweaking network activation functions (AFs) has been shown to provide promising results where CNNs suffer from performance loss. However, optimizing network AFs for compensating the negative impacts of adversarial attacks has not been addressed in the literature. This paper proposes the idea of searching for AFs that are robust against adversarial attacks. To this aim, we leverage the Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm with a fast convergence time. This proposed method is called SARAF. We demonstrate the consistent effectiveness of SARAF by achieving up to 16.92%, 18.3%, and 15.57% accuracy improvement against BIM, FGSM, and PGD adversarial attacks, respectively, over ResNet-18 with ReLU AFs (baseline) trained on CIFAR-10. Meanwhile, SARAF provides a significant search efficiency compared to random search as the optimization baseline.

  • 42.
    Sharifi, Z.
    et al.
    University of Tehran , Tehran, Iran.
    Khosravi, R.
    University of Tehran , Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Mälardalens högskola , Vasteras, Sweden., Reykjavik University , 101 Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Khamespanah, E.
    University of Tehran , Tehran, Iran.
    Towards Formal Analysis of Vehicle Platoons Using Actor Model2020In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020, p. 1820-1827Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle platooning is a promising technology to save the road capacity and also fuel consumption by reducing the distance between the vehicles in the platoon. The closer the cars are to each other, the closer we are to the goals. But, this will increase the need for safety verification. In this paper we use formal methods to verify safety distance in a platoon. To do so, we present a formal actor-based model for a vehicle platoon which incorporates vehicle dynamics and communication protocol. Also, we present a method to do the analysis based on model checking that applies mathematical analysis to reduce the state space. The method uses an upper bound and a lower bound value as network delay, and verifies if a specified vehicle in a platoon has enough distance to the leader during its traveling. © 2020 IEEE.

  • 43.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Analysing Real-time Distributed Systems using Timed Actors2019In: 2019 IEEE/ACM 23RD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON DISTRIBUTED SIMULATION AND REAL TIME APPLICATIONS (DS-RT) / [ed] Derango, F Calafate, CT Voznak, M Garro, A Troppea, M, IEEE , 2019, p. 324-324Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Power is Overrated, Go for Friendliness! Expressiveness, Faithfulness, and Usability in Modeling: The Actor Experience2018In: Principles of Modeling: Essays Dedicated to Edward A. Lee on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday / [ed] Lohstroh, Marten, Derler, Patricia, Sirjani, Marjan, Springer Verlag , 2018, p. 423-448Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expressive power of a language is generally defined as the breadth of ideas that can be represented and communicated in a language. For formal languages, the expressive power has been evaluated by checking its Turing completeness. In a modeling process, apart from the modeling language, we have two other counterparts: the system being modeled and the modeler. I argue that faithfulness to the system being modeled and usability for the modeler are at least as important as the expressive power of the modeling language, specially because most of the modeling languages used today are highly expressive. I call faithfulness and usability together “friendliness”. I show how we used the actor-based language Rebeca in modeling different applications, where it is friendly, and where it is not. I discuss how the friendliness of Rebeca may help in the analysis of models and allows for system synthesis on the basis of models. 

  • 45.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Forcina, Giorgio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Jafari, Ali
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Sedaghatbaf, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Actor-based Design Platform for System of Systems2019In: COMPSAC 2019: Data Driven Intelligence for a Smarter World COMPSAC 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present AdaptiveFlow as a platform for designing system of systems. A model-based development approach is proposed and tools are provided for formal verification and performance evaluation. The actor-based language, Timed Rebeca, is used for modelling, and the model checking tool Afra is used for checking the safety properties and also for performance evaluation. We investigate the efficiency of our approach and the applicability of the developed platform by conducting experiments on a case study based on the Electric Site Research Project of Volvo Construction Equipment. In this project, a fleet of autonomous haulers is utilised to transport materials in a quarry site. We used three adaptive policies as plugins to our platform and examined these policies in different scenarios.

  • 46.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ghassemi, F.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Pourvatan, B.
    Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Reo connectors and components as tagged signal models2018In: It's All About Coordination: Essays to Celebrate the Lifelong Scientific Achievements of Farhad Arbab, Springer, 2018, p. 160-173Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tagged Signal Model (TSM) is a denotational framework and a meta-model to study certain properties of models of computation. To study the behavior of Reo connectors in a closed system, we propose two denotational semantics for Reo using TSM. TSM is very similar to the coalgebraic model of Timed Data Streams (TDS), the first formal semantics and the basis for most of the other formal semantics of Reo. There is a direct mapping between the time – data pairs of TDS, and tag – value of TSM. This work shows how treating tags to be either totally or partially ordered has a direct consequence on the results. We looked into five primitive connectors of Reo in both these settings and discuss the determinacy of systems. 

  • 47.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Khamespanah, E.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Timed Actors and Their Formal Verification2023In: Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science, EPTCS, Open Publishing Association , 2023, Vol. 387, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we review the actor-based language, Timed Rebeca, with a focus on its formal semantics and formal verification techniques. Timed Rebeca can be used to model systems consisting of encapsulated components which communicate by asynchronous message passing. Messages are put in the message buffer of the receiver actor and can be seen as events. Components react to these messages/events and execute the corresponding message/event handler. Real-time features, like computation delay, network delay and periodic behavior, can be modeled in the language. We explain how both Floating-Time Transition System (FTTS) and common Timed Transition System (TTS) can be used as the semantics of such models and the basis for model checking. We use FTTS when we are interested in event-based properties, and it helps in state space reduction. For checking the properties based on the value of variables at certain point in time, we use the TTS semantics. The model checking toolset supports schedulability analysis, deadlock and queue-overflow check, and assertion based verification of Timed Rebeca models. TCTL model checking based on TTS is also possible but is not integrated in the tool.

  • 48.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khamespanah, E.
    Reykjavik University, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ghassemi, F.
    University of Tehran, School of ECE, Tehran, Iran.
    Reactive Actors: Isolation for Efficient Analysis of Distributed Systems2019In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE/ACM 23rd International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications, DS-RT 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explain how the isolation or decoupling of actors can help in developing efficient analysis techniques. The Reactive Object Language, Rebeca, and its timed extension are introduced as actor-based languages for modeling and analyzing distributed systems. We show how floating-time transition system can be used for model checking of timed actor models when we are interested in event-based properties, and how it helps in state space reduction. We explain how the model of computation of actors helps in devising an efficient state distribution policy in distributed model checking. We show how we use Rebeca to verify the routing algorithms of mobile adhoc networks. The paper is written in a way to make the ideas behind each technique clear such that it can be reused in similar domains.

  • 49.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lee, E. A.
    Department of Eecs Uc Berkeley, Berkeley, United States.
    Khamespanah, E.
    Ece Department University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Model Checking Software in Cyberphysical Systems2020In: Proceedings - 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference, COMPSAC 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020, p. 1017-1026Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model checking a software system is about verifying that the state trajectory of every execution of the software satisfies formally specified properties. The set of possible executions is modeled as a transition system. Each 'state' in the transition system represents an assignment of values to variables, and a state trajectory (a path through the transition system) is a sequence of such assignments. For cyberphysical systems (CPSs), however, we are more interested in the state of the physical system than the values of the software variables. The value of model checking the software therefore depends on the relationship between the state of the software and the state of the physical system. This relationship can be complex because of the real-time nature of the physical plant, the sensors and actuators, and the software that is almost always concurrent and distributed. In this paper, we study different ways to construct a transition system model for the distributed and concurrent software components of a CPS. We describe a logical-time based transition system model, which is commonly used for verifying programs written in synchronous languages, and derive the conditions under which such a model faithfully reflects physical states. When these conditions are not met (a common situation), a finer-grained event-based transition system model may be required. Even this finer-grained model, however, may not be sufficiently faithful, and the transition system model needs to be refined further to express not only the properties of the software, but also the properties of the hardware on which it runs. We illustrate these tradeoffs using a coordination language called Lingua Franca that is well-suited to extracting transition system models at these various levels of granularity, and we extend the Timed Rebeca language and its tool Afra to perform this extraction and then to perform model checking.

  • 50.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lee, Edward A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept EECS, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Univ Tehran, Dept ECE, Tehran 1961733114, Iran..
    Verification of Cyberphysical Systems2020In: Mathematics, E-ISSN 2227-7390, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 1068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The value of verification of cyberphysical systems depends on the relationship between the state of the software and the state of the physical system. This relationship can be complex because of the real-time nature and different timelines of the physical plant, the sensors and actuators, and the software that is almost always concurrent and distributed. In this paper, we study different ways to construct a transition system model for the distributed and concurrent software components of a CPS. The purpose of the transition system model is to enable model checking, an established and widely used verification technique. We describe a logical-time-based transition system model, which is commonly used for verifying programs written in synchronous languages, and derive the conditions under which such a model faithfully reflects physical states. When these conditions are not met (a common situation), a finer-grained event-based transition system model may be required. We propose an approach for formal verification of cyberphysical systems using Lingua Franca, a language designed for programming cyberphysical systems, and Rebeca, an actor-based language designed for model checking distributed event-driven systems. We focus on the cyber part and model a faithful interface to the physical part. Our method relies on the assumption that the alignment of different timelines during the execution of the system is the responsibility of the underlying platforms. We make those assumptions explicit and clear.

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