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  • 1.
    Bagheri, M.
    et al.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khamespanah, E.
    Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Khakpour, N.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö Campus, Sweden.
    Akkaya, I.
    University of California at Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Movaghar, A.
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Lee, E. A.
    University of California at Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Coordinated actor model of self-adaptive track-based traffic control systems2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 143, p. 116-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptation is a well-known technique to handle growing complexities of software systems, where a system autonomously adapts itself in response to changes in a dynamic and unpredictable environment. With the increasing need for developing self-adaptive systems, providing a model and an implementation platform to facilitate integration of adaptation mechanisms into the systems and assuring their safety and quality is crucial. In this paper, we target Track-based Traffic Control Systems (TTCSs) in which the traffic flows through pre-specified sub-tracks and is coordinated by a traffic controller. We introduce a coordinated actor model to design self-adaptive TTCSs and provide a general mapping between various TTCSs and the coordinated actor model. The coordinated actor model is extended to build large-scale self-adaptive TTCSs in a decentralized setting. We also discuss the benefits of using Ptolemy II as a framework for model-based development of large-scale self-adaptive systems that supports designing multiple hierarchical MAPE-K feedback loops interacting with each other. We propose a template based on the coordinated actor model to design a self-adaptive TTCS in Ptolemy II that can be instantiated for various TTCSs. We enhance the proposed template with a predictive adaptation feature. We illustrate applicability of the coordinated actor model and consequently the proposed template by designing two real-life case studies in the domains of air traffic control systems and railway traffic control systems in Ptolemy II. 

  • 2.
    Castagnari, C.
    et al.
    Division of Computer Science, Smart Mobility Lab, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino, MC, Italy.
    de Berardinis, J.
    Division of Computer Science, Smart Mobility Lab, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino, MC, Italy.
    Forcina, G.
    Division of Computer Science, Smart Mobility Lab, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino, MC, Italy.
    Jafari, A.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Lightweight preprocessing for agent-based simulation of smart mobility initiatives2018In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2018, p. 541-557Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the impacts of a mobility initiative prior to deployment is a complex task for both urban planners and transport companies. To support this task, Tangramob offers an agent-based simulation framework for assessing the evolution of urban traffic after the introduction of new mobility services. However, Tangramob simulations are computationally expensive due to their iterative nature. Thus, we simplified the Tangramob model into a Timed Rebeca (TRebeca) model and we designed a tool-chain that generates instances of this model starting from the same Tangramob’s inputs. Running TRebeca models allows users to get an idea of how mobility initiatives affect the system performance, in a short time, without resorting to the simulator. To validate this approach, we compared the output of both the simulator and the TRebeca model on a collection of mobility initiatives. Results show a correlation between them, thus demonstrating the usefulness of using TRebeca models for unconventional contexts of application.

  • 3.
    Causevic, Aida
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards a Framework for Safe and Secure Adaptive Collaborative Systems2019In: The 9th IEEE International Workshop on Industrial Experience in Embedded Systems Design IEESD 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Dastani, M.
    et al.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Preface2017In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Dastani, Mehdi
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Hojjat, Hossein
    Rochester Inst Technol, Rochester, USA..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Fundamentals of Software Engineering (extended versions of selected papers of FSEN 2015) Preface2018In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 160, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    de Berardinis, J.
    et al.
    The University of Manchester, School of Computer Science, United Kingdom.
    Forcina, Giorgio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jafari, A.
    Reykjavik University, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. University, School of Computer Science, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Actor-based macroscopic modeling and simulation for smart urban planning2018In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 168, p. 142-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the impacts of a mobility initiative prior to deployment is a complex task for both urban planners and transport companies. Computational models like Tangramob offer an agent-based framework for simulating the evolution of urban traffic after the introduction of new mobility services. However, simulations can be computationally expensive to perform due to their iterative nature and the microscopic representation of traffic. To address this issue, we designed a simplified model architecture of Tangramob in Timed Rebeca (TRebeca) and we developed a tool-chain for the generation runnable instances of this model starting from the same input files of Tangramob. Running TRebeca models allows users to get an idea of how the mobility initiatives under study affect the traveling experience of commuters, in a short time and without the need to use the simulator during this first experimental step. Then, once a subset of these initiatives is identified according to user's criteria, it is reasonable to simulate them with Tangramob in order to get more detailed results. To validate this approach, we compared the output of both the simulator and the TRebeca model on a collection of mobility initiatives. The correlation between the results demonstrates the usefulness of using TRebeca models for unconventional contexts of application.

  • 7.
    De Boer, Frank
    et al.
    Ctr Wiskunde & Informat, Kruislaan 413,POB 94079, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Serbanescu, Vlad
    Ctr Wiskunde & Informat, Kruislaan 413,POB 94079, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Haehnle, Reiner
    Tech Univ Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany..
    Henrio, Ludovic
    Univ Cote dAzur, Nice, France..
    Rochas, Justine
    Univ Cote dAzur, Nice, France..
    Din, Crystal Chang
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Johnsen, Einar Broch
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Fernandez-Reyes, Kiko
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Yang, Albert Mingkun
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    A Survey of Active Object Languages2017In: ACM Computing Surveys, ISSN 0360-0300, E-ISSN 1557-7341, Vol. 50, no 5, article id 76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To program parallel systems efficiently and easily, a wide range of programming models have been proposed, eachwith different choices concerning synchronization and communication between parallel entities. Among them, the actor model is based on loosely coupled parallel entities that communicate by means of asynchronous messages and mailboxes. Some actor languages provide a strong integration with object-oriented concepts; these are often called active object languages. This article reviews four major actor and active object languages and compares them according to carefully chosen dimensions that cover central aspects of the programming paradigms and their implementation.

  • 8.
    Jafari, A.
    et al.
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Nair, Jayasoorya Jayanthi Surendran
    Mälardalen University.
    Baumgart, S.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Safe and efficient fleet operation for autonomous machines: An actor-based approach2018In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 2018, p. 423-426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we formally model and verify run-time requirements of an application consisting of complex electrified machines called HX autonomous haulers, developed by Volvo Construction Equipment. To model the fleet control, we use Timed Rebeca, an actor-based modeling language, and to analyze the system performance, we use Afra, an integrated environment for modeling and verifying distributed systems modeled by Rebeca or Timed Rebeca language. We run a set of experiments to find the improved configuration in which the total time for machines to complete one operating cycle is minimized. 

  • 9.
    Jahandideh, I.
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Ghassemi, F.
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Hybrid rebeca: Modeling and analyzing of cyber-physical systems2019In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2019, p. 3-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In cyber-physical systems like automotive systems, there are components like sensors, actuators, and controllers that communicate asynchronously with each other. The computational model of actor supports modeling distributed asynchronously communicating systems. We propose Hybrid Rebeca language to support modeling of cyber-physical systems. Hybrid Rebeca is an extension of actor-based language Rebeca. In this extension, physical actors are introduced as new computational entities to encapsulate physical behaviors. To support various means of communication among the entities, the network is explicitly modeled as a separate entity from actors. We derive hybrid automata as the basis for analysis of Hybrid Rebeca models. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach through a case study in the domain of automotive systems. We use SpaceEx framework for the analysis of the case study. 

  • 10.
    Khamespanah, E.
    et al.
    School of Electrical an Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Khosravi, R.
    School of Computer Science, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An efficient TCTL model checking algorithm and a reduction technique for verification of timed actor models2018In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 153, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NP-hard time complexity of model checking algorithms for TCTL properties in dense time is one of the obstacles against using model checking for the analysis of real-time systems. Alternatively, a polynomial time algorithm is suggested for model checking of discrete time models against TCTL≤,≥ properties (i.e. TCTL properties without U=c modalities). The algorithm performs model checking against a given formula Φ for a state space with V states and E transitions in O(V(V+E)⋅|Φ|). In this work, we improve the model checking algorithm of TCTL≤,≥ properties, obtaining time complexity of O((Vlg⁡V+E)⋅|Φ|). We tackle the model checking of discrete timed actors as an application of the proposed algorithms. We show how the result of the fine-grained semantics of discrete timed actors can be model checked efficiently against TCTL≤,≥ properties using the proposed algorithm. This is illustrated using the timed actor modeling language Timed Rebeca. In addition to introducing a new efficient model checking algorithm, we propose a reduction technique which safely eliminates instantaneous transitions of transition systems (i.e. transition with zero time duration). We show that the reduction can be applied on-the-fly during the generation of the original timed transition system without a significant cost. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the reduction technique via a set of case studies selected from various application domains. Besides, while TCTL≤,≥ can be model checked in polynomial time, model checking of TCTL properties with U=c modalities is an NP-complete problem. Using the proposed reduction technique, we provide an efficient algorithm for model checking of complete TCTL properties over the reduced transition systems.

  • 11.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    et al.
    Univ Tehran, Sch ECE, Tehran, Iran.;Reykjavik Univ, Sch Comp Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Reykjavik Univ, CRESS, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik Univ, Sch Comp Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Mechitov, Kirill
    Univ Illinois, OSL, Champaign, IL USA..
    Agha, Gul
    Univ Illinois, OSL, Champaign, IL USA..
    Modeling and analyzing real-time wireless sensor and actuator networks using actors and model checking2018In: International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT), ISSN 1433-2779, E-ISSN 1433-2787, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 547-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmers often use informal worst-case analysis and debugging to ensure that schedulers satisfy real-time requirements. Not only can this process be tedious and error-prone, it is inherently conservative and thus likely to lead to an inefficient use of resources. We propose to use model checking to find a schedule which optimizes the use of resources while satisfying real-time requirements. Specifically, we represent a Wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN) as a collection of actors whose behaviors are specified using a Java-based actor language extended with operators for real-time scheduling and delay representation. We show how the abstraction mechanism and the compositionality of actors in the actor model may be used to incrementally build a model of a WSAN's behavior from node-level and network models. We demonstrate the approach with a case study of a distributed real-time data acquisition system for high-frequency sensing using Timed Rebeca modeling language and the Afra model checking tool.

  • 12.
    Lee, E. A.
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley, United States.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    What good are models?2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 11222, Springer Verlag , 2018, p. 3-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models are central to engineering. They are used for analysis, synthesis, and communication between humans. A given artifact or process may have multiple models with different purposes, modeling different aspects, or modeling at varying levels of abstraction. In this paper, we give a general overview of how models are used, with the goal of making the concepts clearer for different communities. We focus on the domain of track-based flow management of automated systems, and identify two different modeling styles, Eulerian and Lagrangian. Eulerian models focus on regions of space, whereas Lagrangian models focus on entities moving through space. We discuss how the features of the system, like having centralized or decentralized control or the ability to install fixed infrastructure, influence the choice between these styles. Although the choice between modeling styles is rarely made consciously, it affects modeling efficiency, and one style may be far better suited for certain modeling problems than another. For problems with a more global nature concerning the physical space, an Eulerian model is likely to be a better match. For problems that concern the moving objects specifically, where the identity of the individual objects is important, a Lagrangian view is the one to choose. In many cases, combining the two styles is the most effective approach. We illustrate the two styles using an example of an automated quarry. 

  • 13.
    Lohstroh, M.
    et al.
    University of California, US.
    Derler, P.
    National Instruments, Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Preface2018In: Principles of Modeling: Essays Dedicated to Edward A. Lee on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday / [ed] Lohstroh, Marten, Derler, Patricia, Sirjani, Marjan, Springer Verlag , 2018, p. VII-XChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lohstroh, M.
    et al.
    C Berkeley, United States.
    Schoeberl, M.
    TU Denmark, Denmark.
    Goens, A.
    TU Dresden, Germany.
    Wasicek, A.
    Avast, United States.
    Gill, C.
    Washington Univ., St. Louis, United States.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lee, E. A.
    C Berkeley, United States.
    Invited: Actors revisited for time-critical systems2019In: Proceedings - Design Automation Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programming time-critical systems is notoriously difficult. In this paper we propose an actor-oriented programming model with a semantic notion of time and a deterministic coordination semantics based on discrete events to exercise precise control over both the computational and timing aspects of the system behavior.

  • 15.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Power is Overrated, Go for Friendliness! Expressiveness, Faithfulness, and Usability in Modeling: The Actor Experience2018In: Principles of Modeling: Essays Dedicated to Edward A. Lee on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday / [ed] Lohstroh, Marten, Derler, Patricia, Sirjani, Marjan, Springer Verlag , 2018, p. 423-448Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expressive power of a language is generally defined as the breadth of ideas that can be represented and communicated in a language. For formal languages, the expressive power has been evaluated by checking its Turing completeness. In a modeling process, apart from the modeling language, we have two other counterparts: the system being modeled and the modeler. I argue that faithfulness to the system being modeled and usability for the modeler are at least as important as the expressive power of the modeling language, specially because most of the modeling languages used today are highly expressive. I call faithfulness and usability together “friendliness”. I show how we used the actor-based language Rebeca in modeling different applications, where it is friendly, and where it is not. I discuss how the friendliness of Rebeca may help in the analysis of models and allows for system synthesis on the basis of models. 

  • 16.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ghassemi, F.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Pourvatan, B.
    Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Reo connectors and components as tagged signal models2018In: It's All About Coordination: Essays to Celebrate the Lifelong Scientific Achievements of Farhad Arbab, Springer, 2018, p. 160-173Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tagged Signal Model (TSM) is a denotational framework and a meta-model to study certain properties of models of computation. To study the behavior of Reo connectors in a closed system, we propose two denotational semantics for Reo using TSM. TSM is very similar to the coalgebraic model of Timed Data Streams (TDS), the first formal semantics and the basis for most of the other formal semantics of Reo. There is a direct mapping between the time – data pairs of TDS, and tag – value of TSM. This work shows how treating tags to be either totally or partially ordered has a direct consequence on the results. We looked into five primitive connectors of Reo in both these settings and discuss the determinacy of systems. 

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