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  • 1.
    Mehmed, Ayhan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. TTTech Auto AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Antlanger, Moritz
    TTTech Auto AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Auto AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Forecast Horizon for Automated Safety Actions in Automated Driving Systems2019In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 11698, 2019, p. 113-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future Automated Driving Systems (ADS) will ultimately take over all driving responsibilities from the driver. This will as well include the overall safety goal of avoiding hazards on the road by exe- cuting automated safety actions (ASA). It is the purpose of this paper to address the general properties of the ASA. One property in particu- lar interest is the forecast horizon that defines how early in advance a hazard has to be identified in order to ensure the execution of an ASA. For the estimation of the forecast horizon, we study the fault-tolerant time interval concept defined by the ISO 26262 and extend it for the use case of fail-operational ADS. We then perform a thorough study on all parameters contributing to the forecast horizon, assign exemplary values for each parameter for a running example, and formalize our work by a set of equations. The set of equations are then applied to two specific driving scenarios, and based on the running example values, the fore- cast horizon is estimated. We conclude our work with a summary of the estimated forecast horizon for each of the specific driving scenarios at different road conditions and the recommended road speed limits.

  • 2.
    Mehmed, Ayhan
    et al.
    TTTech Computertechnik, Vienna, Austria.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik, Vienna, Austria.
    Deterministic Ethernet: Addressing the Challenges of Asynchronous Sensing in Sensor Fusion Systems2017In: 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops, DSN-W 2017; Denver; United States; 26 June 2017 through 29 June 2017, 2017, p. 22-28, article id 8023693Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the cause of out-of-sequence measurements (OOSM) and their effect on Kalman filter based multi-sensor fusion systems. We explore the current available solutions for handling of OOSM and pinpoint how the absence of precise measurement timestamps does not allow the correct chronological order of sensor measurements. The processing of such, out-of-order measurements, leads to negative-time measurement updates in the sensor fusion process, which in turn leads to a wrong representation of the environment.Furthermore, we present methods for achieving precise measurement timestamps. We explore the suitability of set of communication standards for improving the timestamp precision. In particular we focus on IEEE 802.1AS, IEEE 802.1Qav, Qbv and SAE AS6802 standards that enable deterministic communication over IEEE802.3 standard Ethernet. We present theoretical performance studies and comparison of the said communication standards.

  • 3.
    Mehmed, Ayhan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. TTTech Auto AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Steiner, Wilfried
    TTTech Computertechnik AG, Austria.
    Antlanger, Moritz
    TTTech Auto AG, Vienna, Austria.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    System Architecture and Application-Specific Verification Method for Fault-Tolerant Automated Driving System2019In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium workshops IEEE IVS 2019 WS, 2019, p. 39-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated vehicles come with promises for higher comfort and safety compared to the standard human-driven vehicles. Various demonstrator vehicles with fully automated driving capabilities have been already presented with success. Yet, there is a large number of technical challenges to be solved until the safety levels comply with those required from safety standards, and most importantly with those for public acceptance. In this paper, we introduce the technical challenges resulting from the need for fault-tolerant capabilities of automated vehicles with no fallback-ready drivers. We then propose a concrete solution to these challenges. This includes a fault-tolerant architecture for automated driving systems. Also, the safety co-pilot, that is a safety mechanism that ensures the coordinated operation of two or more redundant ADS, by means of novel application-specific verification methods. We conclude our work with experimental proof of concept results of the proposed solution.

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