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  • 1.
    Hånell, Sara Melen
    et al.
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sharma, Dharam Deo
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Continued Internationalization of the International New Venture2014In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 471-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore longitudinally a life sciences international new venture’s (INV’s) development of foreign market knowledge (FMK) and how this knowledge development relates to the firm’s entrepreneurial orientation (EO).

    Design/methodology/approach – The article adopts a longitudinal case study approach to investigate an INV in the life sciences industry.

    Findings – The findings show that the EO of an INV changes during its internationalisation. A strong EO, often considered to be synonymous with the early expansion of an INV, is not always able to guide the INV in its later developmental stages. In its continued internationalisation, an INV instead needs firm-specific FMK accumulated from a process of learning by doing. The knowledge development of an INV is a time-consuming process that cannot be rushed by grafting new and experienced employees.

    Research limitations/implications – Future research focusing on larger and broader samples of INVs is recommended to validate this study’s results.

    Practical implications – Life sciences managers need to develop their own firm-specific FMK by interacting with their foreign business partners.

    Originality/value – This study contributes further insights into the FMK development processes and EO of INVs in the life sciences industry during their internationalisation. Further understanding is also provided about how the industry-specific features of an INV in the life sciences industry influence internationalisation over time. The study’s theoretical implications are that international entrepreneurship frameworks and internationalisation process theory need to be integrated to understand the longitudinal development of INVs.

  • 2.
    Hånell, Sara Melen
    et al.
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, Sweden.
    Tolstoy, Daniel
    Stockholm Sch Econ, House Innovat,POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Exploring the prerequisites for long-term survival of internationalising and innovative SMEs: The case of the Swedish life-science industry2018In: The Routledge Companion to European Business / [ed] Gabriele Suder, Monica Riviere, Johan Lindeque, Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter complements the empirical research, highlighting that aspects such as network access and accesses to financial resources also impact the choices that innovative small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the life-science industry make during their internationalisation. However, focusing on life-science SMEs from one European country, does not yet permit broad generalisations to be made. The chapter presents the ideas that may build a basis for how future public policy instruments can be earmarked to support innovative SMEs in Europe, and possibly elsewhere, thus promoting innovation, entrepreneurship and economic growth. It contributes to the understanding of how innovative and international SMEs grow and survive from a long-term perspective. The chapter focuses on prior research within the emerging field of international entrepreneurship, which typically focuses on innovative and international SMEs. It contributes to international entrepreneurship literature by presenting a longitudinal study based on data of 26 innovative SMEs in the Swedish life-science industry.

  • 3.
    Hånell, Sara Melen
    et al.
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tolstoy, Daniel
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    New product development in foreign customer relationships: A study of international SMEs2017In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This  study  identifies  a  gap  in  research  concerning  how  small  and  medium-sized  enterprises  (SMEs)  can  benefit  from  pursuing  locally  (rather    than    globally)    oriented    internationalization    strategies.    Becoming  overly  dependent  on  one  single  foreign  market  could  potentially   reduce   the   inflow   and   diversity   of   new   knowledge   that  can  serve  as  input  for  new  product  development.  This  study  discusses  how  this  risk  can  be  minimized.  In  this  endeavour  we  create  a  theoretical  model  that  investigates  how  the  local  sales  concentration and relationship-specific commitment of SMEs relates to new product development. To do this we draw on the behavioural internationalization  process  framework.  The  theoretical  model  is  tested on an effective sample of 188 Swedish SMEs. The results show that  relationship-specific  commitment  mediates  the  effect  of  local  sales concentration on new product development. The implication is that investments which enable collaboration in important business relationships are crucial requisites for keeping firms innovative and in  pace  with  market  fluctuations.  The  findings  thus  contribute  to  international business literature by showing that a local market scope of operations combined with a relationship orientation are beneficial for new product development in international SMEs.

  • 4.
    Hånell, Sara Melen
    et al.
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, Sweden.
    Tolstoy, Daniel
    Stockholm Sch Econ, House Innovat,POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sharma, Dharam Deo
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pursuing Innovation: An Investigation of the Foreign Business Relationships of Swedish SMEs2018In: British Journal of Management, ISSN 1045-3172, E-ISSN 1467-8551, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 817-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the international business field and research on the innovativeness of international SMEs, by addressing the following research question: To what extent and under which circumstances does relationship connectedness affect perceived innovativeness in international SMEs? To answer this question, the authors create a model that examines the mediating effects of two types of foreign business relationship strategies: relationship differentiation and relationship investments. In order to create this model, the authors draw upon behavioural internationalization process theory, network theory and research into SMEs. The findings reveal that relationship investments mediate the effect relationship connectedness has on perceived innovativeness. This study contributes to research about the innovativeness of international SMEs by showing that being connected to resources in the network is not, in itself, a guarantee of becoming or remaining innovative in foreign markets.

  • 5.
    Lindh, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Information technology and performance in industrial business relationships: the mediating effect of business development2017In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 998-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study addresses a gap in research concerning the specific purpose of information technology (IT) in business relationships and how it impacts business development and relationship performance. To fill this gap, the purpose of this study is to investigate the prospective effects of IT on business development and relationship performance in the business relationships of industrial firms. Design/methodology/approach: Building on previous research from the industrial business relationship field, 353 relationships between Swedish industrial firms and their customers are analyzed with linear structural relations in LISREL. Findings: The findings show that the effect of IT on relationship performance is not direct but mediated by business development measured in terms of business creation and product development. Research limitations/implications: The study’s results imply that IT that is integrated in inter-firm operations has to be assigned a specific purpose to effectively influence relationship-specific performance. The results also indicate that more research is needed to provide additional insights about the relation between IT and performance in business relationships. Social implications: If the full potential of IT-based solutions could be reached, then this could lead to the generation of new products and technologies and more competitive companies, which in turn would create more jobs and greater wealth. Originality/value: In conclusion, this study fills a gap in research by highlighting that IT studied with a business relationship approach is particularly important under certain conditions. As such, the study contributes to the research stream seeking to understand the role of IT in industrial marketing and how IT should be used for increasing relationship performance. 

  • 6.
    Lindh, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    New Service Development and Digitalization: Synergies of Personal Interaction and IT Integration2018In: Services Marketing Quarterly, ISSN 1533-2969, E-ISSN 1533-2977, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 108-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of personal interaction and information technology integration (IT integration) on new service development in business-to-business (B2B) service firms' relationships. Personal interaction, IT integration and new service development are latent variables in a structural model tested with LISREL (N = 138). The relationship between personal interaction and IT integration is strong and indicates that both these constructs are drivers for new service development. Although both these constructs represent diverse ways of interacting, they both positively impact new service development. Hence, managers should not expect IT to replace personal interaction to a great extent in B2B-service contexts.

  • 7.
    Lindh, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Melén Hånell, Sara
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm, Sweden.
    Safari, Aswo
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Hadjikhani, Annoch Isa
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Digitalization in the global sales era: The analysis of a cross-national dataset2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers shop increasingly on-line without thinking of national borders. This circumstancehighlights the need to increase the understanding of consumers’ cross-national purchasing and e-commerce. This study focuses on consumers’ online purchasing behaviour, studying consumers’ internet skills, website perceived ease of use and web-trust as antecedents of purchase intent. By analysing a cross-national data set of 788 consumers from different countries, the results show that consumers which make online-purchases are skilled internet- users. Moreover, the lack of trust that consumers may feel when making online-purchases, canbe lessened by a website’s perceived ease of use. The results have implications for future studiesabout e-commerce as an international phenomenon.

  • 8.
    Melén Hånell, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    What geographical scope works best for rapidly internationalizing SMEs?In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to explore the benefits of a regional internationalization strategy and investigate how a rapidly internationalizing SME’s development of market knowledge relates to this strategy.

    Design/methodology/approach

    After a brief overview of the literature on international SMEs, the internalization approach and the IP-approach, a case study is introduced and analyzed.

    Findings

    The case findings illustrate that market knowledge steers the investigated firm to follow a regional approach of operations. The regional strategy lessens perceived risks, saves costs and generates sufficient knowledge about one market at a time.

    Practical implications

    It is important for managers in rapidly internationalizing SMEs and for policymakers to recognize the benefits of supporting regional orientation initiatives for enhancing these firms’ internationalization.

    Originality/value

    This paper presents a longitudinal case study that contributes to further the understanding and insights into the operations of born regionals. By probing deeper into the ideas provided by the internalization approach, the IP-approach and research about international SMEs, the study contributes with a unified framework for understanding the benefits for rapidly internationalizing SMEs to operate on a regional scope.

  • 9.
    Melén Hånell, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tolstoy, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Özbek, Nurgül
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    “It’s a new game out there”: e-commerce in internationalising retail SMEsIn: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how market factors (pertaining to institutions, competition and resources) shape the international strategies of an online retailer. Design/methodology/approach – A single qualitative case study research design is employed to conduct in-depth analyses of a Swedish internationalising small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) in the retail business. Findings – The findings show that online retailers can use partnerships to tackle industry dynamics and break into foreign markets. This type of “piggy-back internationalisation” can be an effective strategy of handling foreign market dynamics in the entry phase: that is to say, the short term. Reliance upon relationships, however, may paradoxically inhibit retailers’ abilities to stay competitive in the post-entry phase (i.e. the long term) since they become cut-off from the first-hand market learning. Research limitations/implications – The authors provide propositions based upon the findings to support further research in the international marketing and international retailing literature. Practical implications – The findings enhance the understanding of how electronic commerce affects SME internationalisation. They also generate new insights into the use of possible international expansion strategies for managers in retail SMEs. Originality/value – This study introduces a new theoretical perspective to build upon international retail research and contributes to the international retail literature with relevant insights into both advantages and disadvantages of using partnerships to overcome challenges related to international online retailing

  • 10.
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    et al.
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy,POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tolstoy, Daniel
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy,POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Does relationship psychic distance matter for the learning processes of internationalizing SMEs?2014In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study builds on two theoretical assumptions: (1) Because SMEs tend to internationalize fast on a wide global scale, their market selections do not seem to be dictated by distance measures. (2) Business relationships seem to be vital for these firms when acquiring knowledge and developing their ongoing businesses in foreign markets. Based on these assumptions, this study applies Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) analysis to investigate the relationships of 314 Swedish SMEs and their most important foreign customers. In specific, we investigate what potential effects relationship psychic distance has on SMEs’ knowledge transfer in ongoing foreign customer relationships. The results demonstrate, rather counter-intuitively, that relationship psychic distance actually enhances knowledge transfer in the investigated customer relationships.

  • 11.
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    et al.
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tolstoy, Daniel
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy, POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The impact of opportunity connectedness on innovation in SMEs’ foreign market relationships.2016In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 57-58, p. 47-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) use of business networks has grown significantly during the last decades, partly due to increasingly complex innovation processes. This article investigates how different kinds of networks, depending on location, contextualize innovation in specific foreign market business relationships. Building on internationalization, network, and innovation research we develop a model that views opportunity connectedness in specific host-markets, home-markets, and other international markets as prerequisites to innovative collaboration and innovation outcomes in foreign business relationships. The resultsof ourlinear structural relations (LISREL) analysis of Swedish SMEs provide empirical evidence that the effect of opportunity connectedness on innovation outcomes in foreign business relationships is mediated by the level of innovative collaboration. These results indicate that SMEs need a relatively higher level of innovative collaboration in their partnerships with foreign market customers to convert opportunities conceived in home- and international- market networks into innovative outcomes in comparison to opportunities conceived in host-market networks. This finding implies that as opportunities become increasingly contextually remote, the importance of collaborative business relationships increases. By showing these results, the study contributes to research in the international small-business domain that seeks to identify important prerequisites of SME innovation.

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