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  • 1.
    Astvik, Wanja
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Larsson, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Welander, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillit i styrning och ledning för en hållbar arbetsmiljö inom socialtjänsten – en fallstudie av Nyköpings kommun.2018In: Styra och leda med tillit: Forskning och praktik / [ed] Louise Bringselius, Stockholm: Regeringskansliet/Norstedts Juridik , 2018, p. 139-165Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet syftar till att beskriva hur en mer tillitsbaserad styrning och ledning kan gestalta sig inom socialtjänstens verksamheter genom en analys av individ- och familjeomsorgen i Nyköpings kommun. Resultaten visar att grunduppdraget, det vill säga det ansvar som verksamheten förväntas ta gentemot medborgarna utifrån lagstiftningen har stort utrymme i styrningen snarare än mål, som de för tillfället styrande politikerna formulerar. Kvantitativa mått kompletteras med kvalitativa verksamhetsbeskrivningar och kontinuerlig dialog om verksamhetens kvalitet, brister och utvecklingsbehov. Ansvarsavgränsningar som inte gynnar klientens bästa kan motverkas genom hur ekonomistyrningen används. Här framstår det som väsentligt att undvika konkurrens, incitament och repressalier i styrningen som leder till fokus på den egna enhetens ekonomi snarare än verksamhetens kvalitet. Styrning och ledning som söker säkerställa förmåga, integritet och hjälpvillighet hänger intimt samman med arbetsmiljöfrågorna. När organisationen identifierar och åtgärdar reella hinder som försvårar ett professionellt socialt arbete är det tydligt att organisation tar ansvar för både verksamhetskvalitet och arbetsmiljö. Att säkerställa integritet och hjälpvillighet innebär också en konsekvent hållning till principer och värderingar som speglar ett offentligt ämbetsmannaetos. Via öppenhet och dialog i organisationen är det de gemensamma värdena som bidrar till ett gemensamt ansvar för verksamhetens kvalitet och en hållbar arbetsmiljö.

  • 2.
    Blomberg, Helena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Welander, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    ”Kör tills du brakar, sedan kastar vi ut dig om du inte flyr innan”: Socialsekreterares berättelser om uppbrottet från arbetsplatsen.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Larsson, Robert
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Astvik, Wanja
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Welander, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Hållbar socialtjänst – en fallstudie om relationen mellan arbetsmiljö och verksamhetsstyrning2018In: / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 64-65Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Flera studier gjorda under senare år visar att socialtjänsten framträder som särskilt problematisk vad gäller den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön med bland annat hög arbetsbelastning, rollkonflikter, låg grad av personalorientering liksom bristande öppenhet och dialog i organisationerna. Arbetsmiljöproblemen i socialtjänsten visar sig också genom hög personalomsättning, stressrelaterad ohälsa och sjukfrånvaro, vilket också får betydelse för socialtjänstens förmåga att tillhandahålla välfärdstjänster av hög kvalitet. Mot denna bakgrund är det motiverat att studera hur en mer hållbar organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö i socialtjänsten kan åstadkommas.

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka relationen mellan styrsystem och arbetsmiljöarbete med fokus på hur verksamhetsstyrningen bättre kan harmoniera med och integrera arbetsmiljöfrågor.

    Metod

    Studien är en kvalitativ fallstudie av individ- och familjeomsorgen i en kommun i Stockholm-Mälarregionen. Valet av fall gjordes utifrån forskningsprojektets avsikt att identifiera goda exempel på socialtjänstverksamheter som strävar efter att skapa goda arbetsvillkor och en hållbar arbetsmiljö. Datainsamlingen baseras på semistrukturerade intervjuer med kommunpolitiker, chefer på olika nivåer, socialsekreterare, fackliga företrädare och personer som arbetar med verksamhetsstöd såsom personalarbete (HR) och verksamhetsutveckling. Sammantaget har 18 personer intervjuats. Policy- och styrdokument (t.ex. verksamhetsplaner) och olika typer av personal- och arbetsmiljöstatistik används som kompletterande data. Intervjumaterialet har analyserats genom en tematisk analys.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att styrningen och ledningen av socialtjänsten har ett tydligt fokus på verksamhetens syfte och brukarnas behov, vilket innebär att socialtjänstlagen och andra lagar som reglerar verksamheten ges en framträdande plats i verksamhetsstyrningen. I resultaten framkommer också betydelsen av att kunna utföra ett "gott socialt arbete" och verksamhetens förmåga att kunna leverera en god kvalitet i sina välfärdstjänster. En god kvalitet är också något som relateras till socialarbetarnas villkor och förutsättningar att kunna utföra ett professionellt socialt arbete. I detta sammanhang beskrivs även betydelsen av en god organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö. Resultaten visar således att det, generellt sett, finns god medvetenhet bland politiker, chefer och socialarbetare om relationen mellan kvalitet och arbetsmiljö. Öppenhet och dialog i organisationen framträder här som särskilt betydelsefullt, vilket kan exemplifieras av att det görs kvalitativa dialogbaserade uppföljningar inom socialtjänsten där både verksamhetskvalitet och arbetsmiljöfrågor kopplas ihop, diskuteras och kan bli föremål för konkreta förbättringar (t.ex. resursförstärkning). Samtidigt som detta görs på verksamhetsnivå indikerar resultaten att det fortfarande finns "stuprörstänkande" på högre nivåer i kommunen där personal- och verksamhetsfrågor separeras och hanteras av olika politiska nämnder och organisatoriska enheter.

  • 4.
    Larsson, Robert
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Astvik, Wanja
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Welander, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Towards sustainable social services? A case study of work environment and management control integration in a municipal organisation2018In: Proceedings of the 13th European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today's workplace / [ed] Kevin Teoh, Nathalie Saade, Vlad Dediu, Juliet Hassard, and Luis Torres, Nottingham: EAOHP , 2018, p. 249-249Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Welander, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Astvik, Wanja
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholms universitet, Sweden.
    Stressrelaterad ohälsa och arbetstrivsel hos medarbetare och chefer i socialtjänsten2017In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 8-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Situationen inom svensk socialtjänst framstår som särskilt problematisk med svåra arbetsvillkor, stressrelaterad ohälsa och höga ohälsotal. Baserat på en nationell enkätstudie med myndighetsutövande medarbetare och chefer i socialtjänsten undersöks betydelsen av arbetsvillkor och organisatoriska faktorer för ohälsa och arbetstrivsel. Resultaten visar bland annat att rimliga arbetskrav, i synnerhet kvantitativa krav, samt organisationens öppenhet har stor betydelse för ohälsa och arbetstrivsel hos både medarbetare och chefer inom socialtjänsten.

  • 6.
    Welander, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Astvik, Wanja
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Corrosion of trust: Violation of psychological contracts as a reason for turnover amongst social workers2017In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 67-79, article id ISSN: 2156-857XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staff shortage in the social sector is a serious problem in several countriesand the high turnover rate of professional social workers presents a majorchallenge to the professional field. Social workers distinguish themselves asa particularly exposed occupational group, reporting higher workloads andmore difficult demands in comparison with other human service workers.Inspired by psychological contract theory, the objective of this study wasto describe social workers’ turnover processes that lead to a decision to quitafter a perceived violation of a psychological contract. Thirty-one interviewswere conducted with former statutory social workers who had voluntarilyresigned from their jobs during the preceding year. The analysis identifiedfour themes in the turnover processes stemming from perceptions oforganisational failure to fulfil promises concerning the provision of: (1) abalance between demands and resources at work, (2) a balance betweenefforts and rewards, (3) organisational professional ethics, and (4) responsiblehuman resource practices. The results highlight how organisational responsesto work-related dissatisfactions by social workers seem to enhance theirconviction of psychological contract breaches and perceptions of contractviolations, resulting in turnover. An important conclusion is that public sectoremployers need to reconsider their personnel strategies and practices inorder to start rebuilding trust and creating a more positive work climate.

  • 7.
    Welander, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Astvik, Wanja
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Exit, silence and loyalty among social workers and managers in the Swedish social services2017Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Staff shortage in the social sector is a serious problem in several countriesand the high turnover rate of professional social workers presents a majorchallenge to the professional field. Social workers distinguish themselves asa particularly exposed occupational group, reporting higher workloads andmore difficult demands in comparison with other human service workers.Inspired by psychological contract theory, the objective of this study wasto describe social workers’ turnover processes that lead to a decision to quitafter a perceived violation of a psychological contract. Thirty-one interviewswere conducted with former statutory social workers who had voluntarilyresigned from their jobs during the preceding year. The analysis identifiedfour themes in the turnover processes stemming from perceptions oforganisational failure to fulfil promises concerning the provision of: (1) abalance between demands and resources at work, (2) a balance betweenefforts and rewards, (3) organisational professional ethics, and (4) responsiblehuman resource practices. The results highlight how organisational responsesto work-related dissatisfactions by social workers seem to enhance theirconviction of psychological contract breaches and perceptions of contractviolations, resulting in turnover. An important conclusion is that public sectoremployers need to reconsider their personnel strategies and practices inorder to start rebuilding trust and creating a more positive work climate.

  • 8.
    Welander, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Astvik, Wanja
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Exit, silence and loyalty in the Swedish social services – the importance of opennessIn: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, article id .Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of New Public Management in Sweden has affected thesocial services in terms of increased workload, more conflicting demandsand a reduction in professional autonomy. This study contributes to theunderstanding of how various job demands, job resources and theorganisational factor of openness influence the exit, silence and loyaltystrategies amongst social workers and managers in the Swedish socialservices. Regression analyses of national web questionnaire data gatheredfrom 4,068 social workers and 432 managers have revealed that: (1)role conflicts associated positively with exit and negatively with loyalty,(2) job autonomy was negatively related to silence and positively relatedto loyalty in both groups, (3) openness had a high explanatory value inall of the outcome variables for both groups and (4) openness was apotential mediator between role conflicts and all of the dependentvariables. A conclusion is that if organisations want social workers andmanagers to stop considering exit, want to counteract silence and wantto improve loyalty, management strategies need to be developed thatreduce the conflicting demands and create organisational structures thatfacilitate a continuous and open dialogue between the strategic andoperational levels of the organisation.

  • 9.
    Welander, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Blomberg, Helena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Exceeded expectations: building stable psychological contracts among newly recruited social workers in a Swedish contextIn: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for a stable competence provision in the Swedish publicsector in order to ensure the continuity, quality and stability of the socialservices that are provided to citizens. As the turnover rate of newcomersgenerally reaches a peak between three and six months after entry, it isimportant to understand how organisations can retain their newlyrecruited social workers. From a psychological contract theory standpoint,the aim of this exploratory qualitative case study is to describe the processthat leads to relatively stable psychological contracts amongst newlyrecruited social workers. Three focus group interviews (consisting of fournew social worker recruits, six co-workers and two supervisors from thesame department) were conducted to retrospectively capture theexchange relationship between these agents during the newcomers’first year of employment. The analysis identified two themes in theexchange process that shaped the employment relationship: pre-entryexpectations and post-entry experiences. The results showed that theorganisational promises that were kept over time, mostly by supervisorsand also due to co-worker influences, ultimately resulted in fulfilled andstabilized psychological contracts amongst the newcomers. An importantconclusion is that a co-worker-organisation relationship of a good qualityneeds to have been established in order to enable a successful qualitativenewcomer-organisation relationship. High organisational investment isthus required by an employing organisation that wants to builda trustworthy long-term relationship with all its employees.

  • 10.
    Welander, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Wallin, Juliska
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Job Resources to Promote Feelings of Pride in the Organization: The Role of Social Identification2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 2002-2867, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employees are assumed to obtain job resources from and identify with the organization they work for. Previously, the concepts of job resources and social identification have mostly been studied holistically, that is, on one general organizational level. This study contributes to the understanding of how job resources, operationalized at two different levels in two organizations, influence the amount of group-based pride that employees feel for their workgroups and for their organizations. Social identification is purported to intervene in this relationship on respective level, and its inclusion is expected to contribute to different kinds of pride. Regression analyses of questionnaire data gathered from 436 employees in two middle-sized municipalities in Sweden revealed that: (1) a workgroup’s resources and identification explained additional variance in workgroup pride beyond the effects of resources and identification at the organizational level, (2) leader and organizational resources and identification explained additional variance in organizational pride beyond that of workgroup resources and identification, and (3) social identification in both these areas partially mediated these relationships. Theoretical contributions include the addition of emotional outcomes of job resources and that these effects are foci-specific. This emphasizes the need to distinguish between workgroup and organizational levels regarding both independent and dependent variables. The clarification of the multiple identifications and group-based pride dynamics that exist has practical implications for Human Resource (HR) managers.

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