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  • 1.
    Enghag, Margareta
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Context Rich Problems and Miniprojects in Physics for Upper Secondary School2004Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th IOSTE symposium Lublin, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Enghag, Margareta
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Context Rich Problems in Physics for Upper Secondary School2004Ingår i: Science Education International, ISSN 1450-104X, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 293-302Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports observations from one of several case studies of students working with con­ text rich problems (CRP) and mini projects (MP) in an upper secondary school class. This small group work concerns the problem-solving of a context rich problem during an 80-minute lesson of physics. We have videofilmed a group of girls during their work, thereafter we have transcribed and analysed the videotape from how group discussions in physics influence the students' learning. Interactions between students during the group discussion are of different types. When it comes to development of conceptual understanding the girls go into exploratory talks, a kind of talks described by Douglas Barnes in the 1970s. The amount of talk within different categories of talk, how the amount of talk in different cate­ gories is divided amongst the girls, and their steps in the problem-solving  are specified.  The importance of timefor reflective talks in physics to enhance learning is high-lighted by quotations from the girls ' dis­cussions.

  • 3.
    Enghag, Margareta
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    From everyday life experiences to physics understanding occurring in small group work with context rich problems during introductory physics work at university2007Ingår i: Research in Science Education, ISSN 0157-244X, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 449-467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How do students bridge everyday life views into physics understanding? We report from in-depth analysis of one group of four students, video-recorded over 135 min solving a context rich problem (CRP). Through transcripts of the group's conversations and from flow-charts made of thegroup talk we have categorised how students' experiences develop into physics reasoning. The conversations in the cooperative group are sometimes carried out by 'exploratory talks', but there are also parts of the conversation where the students develop their own thoughts without response from the others. Some evidence is given of: 1) how the students use exploratory talks to reach consensus about the boundary conditions of the task; 2) how the students state the problem more precisely by starting to talk about experiences they have had and to use their experiences as arguments, and 3) how individual questions are formulated in a process of meaning making. We find in this case-study that students' personaleveryday life experience develops into physics reasoning during group talk. We argue accordingly for more time in the physics classroom to solve open ended physics problems which promote group discussions taking departure from own experiences and enhance physics understanding.

  • 4.
    Enghag, Margareta
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Talking physics during small-group work with context-rich problems - Analysed from an ownership perspective2009Ingår i: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 455-472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides analyses of the conversations when university students work in small groups solving context-rich physics problems. We constructed context-rich, open-ended physics problems related to everyday life situations that lack some information required to solve and complete the tasks. The students' ownership of learning, their actions of choice and control, was analyzed in two dimensions: group and individual. Conversation analyses and flowcharts of the conversation were constructed from the complete transcripts of three groups. The theoretical framework for student ownership of learning demonstrated that it was possible to show that even if students have group ownership of the task, the individual student ownership of learning is not self-evident. The study also demonstrates the methodological power and value of the flowchart to identify conversation patterns in the groups that were effective in the search for exploratory talks and individual questions. We discuss implications for teacher development to enhance group work.

  • 5.
    Enghag, Margareta
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Niedderer, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Student ownership of learning: Context rich problems in physics2007Ingår i: ESERA 2007, 2007, s. 130-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    ARE THERE DIFFERENT TYPES OF PHYSIC TEACHERS?: ABOUT TEACHING SUSTAINABLE ENERGY IN AN UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL PHYSICS COURSE2010Ingår i: In Proceedings of International Organization for Science and Technology Education. Symposium (14; 2010; Bled) Socio-cultural and human values in science and technology education., Ljubljana: Institute for Innovation and Development of University , 2010, s. 418-430Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     

    ABSTRACT

     

    The declining interest for science and technology among pupils in the Western world is a threat against economical growth, the welfare system and also a democratic problem. A key person for a change is the teacher. We must therefore, as a start, identify what and how teachers in science teach. Results from a survey of physics teacher in Sweden who teach energy in the course Physics A in upper secondary school are presented. Through a questionnaire the teachers were asked what they choose to teach and what methods they use. We found that a majority of them focus on basic physics concepts, their relations and text book problems solving. Overall they teach in a traditional manner, without valuating content and without connecting to the environment, society or future technologies. From a cluster analysis of the answers three different groups of physics teachers were revealed. A large group named the Mainstream Group, a second group, the Future Solution Group, and a third Challenger Group. The latter consist of teachers who, in addition to basic concepts and relationships, also teach with a more valuating content, allowing sustainable development to characterize the content and use a variety of teaching methods and material.

     

     

  • 7.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Niedderer, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    CONTENT FOR TEACHING SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS IN PHYSICS AT UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL2011Ingår i: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 1281-1304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding energy with a focus on sustainable development requires further knowledge beyond traditional conceptual understanding. This paper presents the result from one main investigation and two smaller follow-up studies. The main study (step 1) consists of an interpreting, iterative analysis of statements made by experts on contents for physics education on energy with focus on sustainable energy systems gathered from a questionnaire, which results in subject-specific contents for physics teaching presented as a category system of objectives. The categories from step 1 are used as means for analyses in steps 2 and 3, which involve the study of educational material and one physics class. The results show that the content of physics for upper secondary, in order for students to reach insight, should comprise certain physical concepts and relations not only in ‘limited contexts’ but also in relation to greater contextual connections, in which problematisation and insight in solutions for the future is necessary. These parts should have a similar weight according to the statements of the experts. This is not to be found in either the typical educational material (textbooks) or in one physics class, which has been studied.

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 8.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Niedderer, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Content objectives and intentions with teaching - physics teachers and sustainable energy education in secondary school.Ingår i: ESERA 2009 CONFERENCE 31 august - 4 september 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Niedderer, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    How students discuss and explain sustainable energy2007Ingår i: ESERA 2007, 2007, s. 131-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Svenson, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Education for sustainable development and the relation to learning for entrepreneurship in the national technology program in the Swedish upper secondary school – is it a “happy couple”?2012Ingår i: IOSTE XV Symposium: Science & Technology Education for Development, Citizenship and Social Justice / [ed] Mondher Abrougui, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decades have seen a grooving insight in the need of development towards a sustainable society. This manifests in several political statements but also reveals the problem with realization. In this study we investigate how the concept of education in sustainable development is presented in steering documents for the Swedish upper secondary school and especially the national technology programme. This choice of programme is made because its content easily can be connected to the three categories in sustainable development: environment, social and economic issues. Another perspective that has became current in the educational system in Sweden and also manifested in political documents is Entrepreneurship. Inspired by both discourse analysis and by Bourdieu’s theories about social practices in society we have studied the Swedish national steering documents for the technology programme out from writings of sustainable development and entrepreneurship. The result is remarkable in that even if writings about sustainable development exist, they get more diminished and less committing the closer you get to the actual teaching situation. In documents, that steer and signals especial values for teaching in the programme, we find interesting diverges in statements. Sustainable development seems to be valued lower compared with for example entrepreneurship and product development for economic growth. Both sustainable development and entrepreneurship are highlighted in the steering documents and a political aim is to connect them, but it is interesting to see how different they are emphasized in the different documents especially in the more concrete course syllabi. One

    conclusion can be that Sweden on an international level has ambitions to be seen as a nation taking responsibility for the future but has not been able to transmit this into action in the educational system.

  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Gender inclusive physics education - a distance case2005Ingår i: European Journal of Physics, ISSN 0143-0807, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 843-849Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In earlier studies, it has been demonstrated that cooperative work has a positive influence on physics distance learning at university entrance level. In this paper, it is shown clearly that this teaching method in physics is advantageous for both genders. In fact, the collaboration seems to help male students more than female students to manage the course and to complete it. No difference was seen between the genders either in performance, measured in throughput (productivity) for the course, or in intrinsic motivation. Without cooperative work, the productivity for male students is far lower than for female students.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    How Physics Teaching is Presented on YouTube Videos2013Ingår i: Educational Research for Social Change, ISSN 2221-4070, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 117-129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One hundred and twenty videos on YouTube were selected and investigated in terms of content relating to physics and science teaching. This video material was used to generate categories that were then applied to three investigations: physics as taught in upper secondary school and in the introductory level at university, physics projects in upper secondary school, and science in preschool. The results revealed different practices for the use of YouTube in physics and science teaching. One practice, in upper secondary school and at the introductory level at university, was to display physics based on traditional lectures that were video recorded. Another practice was the presenting of students’ projects, and a third was support for preschool teachers as a means of promoting science material for their teaching needs.

  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Improved method in distance teaching of physics2004Ingår i: European Journal of Physics, ISSN 0143-0807, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 185-191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of introducing cooperative working methods on a distance learning course in physics are reported. This has increased the throughput of students in the course as measured in the number of ECTS points generated by the students. There is no significant indication that students more experienced in academic studies manage to complete the course more often than those with less experience. In student groups where the cooperative concept was fully realized a larger gain of knowledge was achieved, as measured by the force concept inventory test. Hence, it is important for the tutor to monitor activities in the groups by follow-up questions during the course and to stress the importance of all students participating actively.

  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Physics teaching at a distance2002Ingår i: European Journal of Physics, ISSN 0143-0807, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 469-474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A subject such as physics which relies heavily on practical experiments is a challenge to teach in the form of a distance course. You must make choices as to whether the course includes experiments and if so on what level. With an objective that it is more important to establish concepts than to verify physical laws through precise measurements, it is possible for students to conduct experiments in their homes. Four years' experience of this kind of introductory physics course (mechanics and thermal physics) at distance is covered. The understanding of mechanical concepts as measured by the force concept inventory test shows that distance education does work in the subject of physics. The problem that some students do not complete their distance course is noted and it is suggested that this problem can be addressed by transforming established methods used in campus courses to encourage interactivity among students. A probable result of applying these methods would be an enhanced understanding of the concept of physics and problem-solving skills.

  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    YouTube as an educational tool in physics teaching2012Ingår i: : Science & Technology Education for development, citizenship and social justice / [ed] Mondher Abrougui, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A review based on literature studies and searches on YouTube gives a scheme over how YouTube is used and also how it can be used as an educational tool in physics teaching. This scheme gives a rather traditional picture dominated by videos of lectures and physics demonstrations. Even though there are advantages with this for some purposes, the capacity of interactivity connected to YouTube as a platform for communication is not used to it full extent. Furthermore, the materials are mainly produced for use in higher secondary school and for college teaching. Materials produced for use in preschool, primary school and lower-secondary school are rare.

    There are also examples of how YouTube is used for gathering information of physics as subject. Here the interactivity is important. Also some innovative ideas and examples are presented where YouTube can be a tool for, if not to reform teaching, at least to develop teaching to a more student oriented domain.

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Enghag, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Using Context Rich Problems as a Path to Problem Solving Skills and Content Knowledge in Physics2016Ingår i: Problem-Solving: Strategies, Challenges and Outcomes / [ed] Karla Newton, Hauppauge NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives an overview of the research on the use of narrative Context Rich Problems (CRP) in physics education at the upper secondary and higher education levels. After a presentation of the CRP concept, the benefits and risks of using CRP are investigated. The focus here is on learning physics concepts and problem solving, which includes bridging everyday experiences and physics modelling. How CRP stimulate discussions about physics and aid the development of problem solving skills is also discussed. The research findings include the selection and formulation of problems that help students to take ownership, i.e., take actions of choice and control. Other aspects of CRP are investigated too, such as whether there is a difference between giving too much or too little information in the problem solving context. How the teaching should be organised regarding the use of CRP and the functionality of the student group are also discussed. As engagement and good discussions in randomly organised groups are not always possible, we look at how the groups could be formed in order to be constructive. Being aware of students’ inabilities to work together and having the knowledge to deal with this can make the use of CRP more relevant and valuable.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Engström, Susanne
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Svenson, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Teachers’ View of Sustainable Development in Swedish Upper Secondary School2015Ingår i: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 167, s. 7-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the importance of sustainable development (SD) can be traced in political documents from the fundamental law down to the curriculum for different school levels. To investigate how this political objective is demonstrated in knowledge and activities among the teachers, eleven upper secondary school teachers from different subjects have been interviewed to map out their views of SD, their own beliefs and how they teach SD. The interviews have been analysed in terms of content with the Knowledge – Value – Practice model as theoretical frame. The results showed that among the interviewed teachers there existed a spectrum of views of what SD stands for, from a narrow view to a well-developed view. There were also differences in their teaching practice. All teachers stated that teaching for SD is of great importance and that they all did it in terms of their own personal definition. All of them also pointed out that even if the steering documents present SD as important, the local management of the issue is weak. The differences between the teachers’ view of SD and the weak local management generate a fundamental problem. Depending on the teachers’ own definition and content choice the pupils may get different content knowledge, perhaps not even consistent with the recognized definition of sustainable development. The schools cannot therefore be said to give the pupils an equal education in the area of SD.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Eriksson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    A Tool to support lecturers’ Course Development at Introductory Undergraduate Level in Physics2017Ingår i: Journal of Baltic Science Education, ISSN 1648-3898, E-ISSN 2538-7138, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 56-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With more diversified studentgroups entering the university, thedevelopment and planning of coursesbecome more pedagogically challenging.In earlier studies, a validated tool, contentrepresentation (CoRe), has been usedin teacher education to help pre-serviceteachers identify and promote pedagogicalcontent knowledge in limited teachingsequences. In the present research the aimis to explore whether CoRe, when applied toan introductory university course in physics, can (i) promote the pedagogical contentknowledge of the course as a whole and (ii)serve as an operative tool to identify problematicareas or areas that need furtherdevelopment in the course. The CoRe toolis based on given questions to be answeredin relation to the “big ideas” of the course.In the present research, the questions havebeen answered by a lecturer and by usinga content analysis of the answers severalcategories of development could be identified.For a specific category, the tool alsoprovided information about what kind ofdevelopment was necessary. The conclusionis that CoRe has a potential to be ofservice at higher education level, it can beapplied to parts of a course as well as toa course as a whole, and it may provide auseful tool to help a lecturer in the developmentand planning of a course.

  • 19.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Karlstads universitet, Sweden.
    Enghag, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Sweden.
    The problem-solving process in physics as observed when engineering students at university level work in groups2015Ingår i: European Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0304-3797, E-ISSN 1469-5898, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 380-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem-solving process is investigated for five groups of students when solving context-rich problems in an introductory physics course included in an engineering programme. Through transcripts of their conversation, the paths in the problem-solving process have been traced and related to a general problem-solving model. All groups exhibit backward moves to earlier stages in the problem-solving process. These earlier stages are revisited by the groups for identifying sub-problems, setting parameter values or even restating the goal. We interpret this action as coming from the fact that the students have not yet developed a knowledge base and a problem-solving scheme. Connected to the backward moves in the process are opportunities for the group members to build such a knowledge base from contributions and experiences from all group members. Problem contents that induce such moves are identified and can thus be considered by science teachers when constructing problems for group work.

  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Nilsson, Tor
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Teknikämnet i svensk grundskolas tidiga skolår sett genom forskningscirkelns lupp.2018Ingår i: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 113-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology has been a compulsory subject in the Swedish school curriculum since 1980. However,many primary school teachers say that they do not feel comfortable with teaching technology. Thisoften results in a teaching time that is a (too) small part of the total teaching time of science andtechnology. In addition, studies show that pupils are probably not given equivalent education asthe syllabi may be interpreted in different ways. Against this background, we have conducted threeresearch circles under the guidance of researchers, in three municipalities in the Mälardalen region,addressing teachers working in preschool class to grade 6. Each circle had up to five participants andhad five meetings during one year. Based on the teachers’ own questions and needs we have studieddidactic literature connected to the subject of technology, discussed the syllabi for technology anddifferent forms of teaching support. An existing model for pedagogical content knowledge in technologyhas been used to interpret the activities in the research circles. The teachers experienced and appreciatedthe opportunities to work with the subject content linked to the syllabi for technology andsaw ways to integrate technology with other school subjects.

  • 21.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Enghag, Margareta
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Context rich problems - an educational tool in physics teaching2005Ingår i: ESERA 2005 - CRESILS, Barcelona, Spain, 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Enghag, Margareta
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Context rich problems as an educational tool in physics teaching – a case study2007Ingår i: Journal of Baltic Science Education, ISSN 1648-3898, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 26-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Karlstad Universitet, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Enghag, Margareta
    Karlstad Universitet, Sweden.
    Discussing Physics in Groups Using Quantitative and Qualitative Problems2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Rich Problems (CRPs) are used in order to discuss Physical phenomena on many different education levels from secondary upper school to university level (Heller & Hollabaugh, 1992; Heller, Keith, & Anderson, 1992; Benckert et. al., 2005). CRP solving sessions are found to help the students to deepen their understanding of the physical concepts and their ability to express them selfcorrectlyin a scientific language. Earlier findings have also shown that their conversationtake departurestartfrom personal experiences (Enghag, Gustafsson, & Jonsson, 2007). The aim of this study is to compare group discussions in physics using two different types of CRPs, the first with solutions of qualitative and the second with quantitative character. We present results from a comparative study using CRP in video recorded group discussions.Especially, video recordings from tTwo problemsused,are analyzed and presented in this paper. In the analysisfirstthe timeline wasfirstconstructed and the discourse moves (Barnes & Todd, 1995)[were]analyzed, after that interesting parts of the conversation were transcribed. In the first problemthe setting is thatyou have a trainee job at an air reconnaissance company, looking for whales from the air. The question is in what direction from the water surface you can see the whale, all over the surface or with some restrictions. This problem aims at qualitative reasoning and conclusion. In the other problem you here a rock concert 5 km away and has to calculate if it is theoretically possible to hear the sound. This problem is more quantitative, with calculations of dB-levelsand so onfor example.It seems that how the CRP are constructed influence the dynamics of the groups. If problems more of quantitative type are used and the knowledge levelofphysics forofthe group members are too disparate, the most capable member of the group often takes over and solve the problem more or less single handed (Jonsson, Gustafsson, & Enghag, 2007). Thiswe see evenis found alsoin this study, buttheourresultsfrom this studyalso indicate that, if problems are more of qualitative types, the less capable students will also contributeintothe discussions. It is therefore tempting to draw the conclusion that how to formatthe groups depend on the type of CRP used. In this study we also discover that, even though most of the students in an early state of their education learn how to calculate refraction angles with Snells law of refraction, they do not really understand the concepts behind the calculations. They also have a tendency to start calculating what is possible to calculate rather than to reason, even when the problem is of qualitative type. One can therefore question the passion for calculations instead of understanding of the physical concepts. Especially, since these easy examples often create problems in understanding even for the educators.

  • 24.
    Nilsson, Tor
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Sundqvist, Pernilla
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    A Pilot Study of the Technological Literacy among Primary School Teachers in Sweden2016Ingår i: PATT32: Technology Education for 21st Century skills, Utrecht, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot study focused on technological literacy and the nature of technology was undertakenamong 30 Swedish primary school teachers. This research utilised a study-specificquestionnaire based on previous findings and was comprised of 62 items answered by theteachers using a Likert-type scale. The answers were analysed statistically to determineinternal consistency and for further development of the questionnaire. In addition, a group of 6teachers gave their views on why some of the items deviated. The results indicate that, in total,at least 7 of the 14 categories need further development, especially the 5 newly designedcategories covering the critical aspects of technological literacy for which no descriptivecategories were found in previous research. Factor analyses were also performed to exploredata and look for indications of how these teachers’ views of technology can be described.One 3-factor solution covered 2 dimensions (how technology is conceived and interaction withartefacts) as well as one 4-factor solution covering both of these dimensions and backgroundvariables. Although the sample size limits our conclusions, it is evident that some backgroundvariables explain more of the variation than would be possible if the sample had been larger.Even so, the analyses provide valuable input for the development of our ongoing researchproject.

  • 25.
    Nilsson, Tor
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Sundqvist, Pernilla
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Kompetens för teknik i förskola2019Ingår i: Forum för forskningsbaserad NT-undervisning / [ed] Karin Stolpe, Gunnar Höst och Andreas Larsson, Linköping, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Sundqvist, Pernilla
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Nilsson, Tor
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Finns det ett glapp i förskolans praktik när det kommer till teknik?2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning indikerar att förskolepedagogers beskrivning av teknik som område generellt inte återfinns i förskolans arbete. Här undersöks om ett sådant glapp kan påvisas. Studien har bedrivits som forskningscirklar med 19 förskolepedagoger. Utgångspunkten var en enkät vars resultat beskriver teknik i fem kategorier. Därefter har pedagogerna dokumenterat exempel med tekniklärande för barnen och angett vilken av teknikkategorierna som bäst beskriver tekniken i händelsen. I enkäten dominerade kategorierna att ”teknik är lösning på att problem” och ”processen i vilken artefakter utvecklas”. I exemplen finns omvänt aktiviteter som knyter an till att identifiera artefakter och att använda teknikord och artefakter. Skillnaden mellan pedagogernas beskrivning av teknik och praktiken ger de själva en relevant förklaring till.

  • 27.
    Sundqvist, Pernilla
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Nilsson, Tor
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Is There a Gap to Mind in Preschool Practice When it Comes to Technology?2018Ingår i: XVIII IOSTE symposium.: Future Educational Challenges from Science and Technology Perspectives. / [ed] Anna Jobér, Maria Andrée and Malin Ideland, Malmö, 2018, s. 303-310Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that there may be a gap between preschool teachers’ general descriptions of technology and thetechnology content in their actual preschool practices. This study investigates this further and, if a gap is found, looks forpossible reasons for it. The study was conducted in the form of research circles in two Swedish municipalities with 19technology-minded preschool teachers. A mixed research design was used. The starting point for mapping the preschoolteachers’ descriptions of technology was an established questionnaire that placed technology into five categories. Followingthis, the teachers independently documented events at their preschools that they assessed as technology activities. The findingswere that the most commonly chosen category in the questionnaire was technology as a solution to a problem. However, intheir everyday examples the dominant activities related to the children’s attempts to use the artefacts. The preschool teacherssaid that the children had to be introduced to the artefacts, their names and functions, before moving on to more advancedlevels describing technology. There is thus a distinction between the preschool teachers’ descriptions of technology and theireveryday practices, where they themselves provide relevant explanations for the gap.

  • 28.
    Sundqvist, Pernilla
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Nilsson, Tor
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Svensk förskolepersonals beskrivningar av teknik2015Ingår i: LUMAT: Luonnontieteiden, matematiikan ja teknologian opetuksen tutkimus ja käytäntö, ISSN 2323-7104, E-ISSN 2323-7112, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 237-257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With regards to previous research results on how the teacher’s/preschool teacher’s understanding of a subject effects children’s learning and apprehending of the subject combined with the difficulties for the technology subject to take place in preschool this study aims at investigating how preschool staff (including preschool teachers and day care attendants) describe technology. A qualitatively designed questionnaire was sent out to 139 preschool teachers and day care attendants in a Swedish municipality, whereof 102 answered. The open question about what technology is thought to be was analyzed using a conventional content analysis resulting in nine categories, of which six interrelated hierarchically and one contained answers witch could not be categorized. Thus the result shows eight different ways in which technology is described, from a simple and naive description to a more complex description that implicates a deeper understanding of technology. A majority describes technology according to the latter. The result also shows that it is mainly the preschool teachers who describe technology in a more complex way. Many of the respondents have trouble separating technology from science, and quite a few describes technology as technique, which is another meaning for the word in the Swedish language.

  • 29.
    Sundqvist, Pernilla
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Nilsson, Tor
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    The Purpose of Technology Education in Preschool: Swedish Preschool Staff’s Descriptions2015Ingår i: Plurality and Complementarity of Approaches in Design and Technology Education: PATT29 conference proceedings / [ed] Marjolaine Chatoney, Marseille: École supérieure du professorat et de l’éducation, Aix-Marseille Université , 2015, s. 390-396Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010 technology became emphasized as a subject in the revised curriculum for the Swedish preschool. Two yearslater 42 preschools were scrutinized by the Swedish Schools Inspectorate. The resulting report revealed that thepreschool staff lacked knowledge about technology in general and felt insecure regarding the subject’s application inthe preschool practice. There is relatively little research on the area, but even so some studies have shown the sametendency. To increase the knowledge of the existing situation in the preschool the aim of this study was to investigatehow preschool staff describe the purpose of technology education in preschool. Data was collected through an openendedquestionnaire. A stratified sample of 10 % of all the preschools in the investigated municipality resulted in thequestionnaire being sent out to 139 preschool teachers and day care attendants. The return rate was 73 %. The datawas analyzed using a conventional content analysis to create categories from data. Five categories were formed todescribe the preschool staff’s descriptions of the purpose of technology education: 1) to develop children’s interestin technology, 2) to make children aware of the technology around them and through that making the technologyavailable for them, 3) to give children an awareness about how technology works, 4) for children to develop abilitiesand knowledge to be able to create, invent and solve problems using technology, 5) to prepare children for futurelearning. All together these categories cover all aims but one for sustainable development stated in the steeringdocuments for the preschool and it seems that these respondents have a more developed understanding oftechnology in preschool than the ones the Swedish Schools Inspectorate reported in 2012.

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