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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Overview on the Internet of Things for Health Monitoring Systems2016In: 2nd EAI International Conference on IoT Technologies for HealthCare HealthyIoT2015, 2016, Vol. 169, p. 429-436Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aging population and the increasing healthcare cost in hospitals are spurring the advent of remote health monitoring systems. Advances in physiological sensing devices and the emergence of reliable low-power wireless network technologies have enabled the design of remote health monitoring systems. The next generation Internet, commonly referred to as Internet of Things (IoT), depicts a world populated by devices that are able to sense, process and react via the Internet. Thus, we envision health monitoring systems that support Internet connection and use this connectivity to enable better and more reliable services. This paper presents an overview on existing health monitoring systems, considering the IoT vision. We focus on recent trends and the development of health monitoring systems in terms of: (1) health parameters, (2) frameworks, (3) wireless communication, and (4) security issues. We also identify the main limitations, requirements and advantages within these systems.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Run-Time Assurance for the E-care@home System2018In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, Volume 225, 2018, p. 107-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the software for a run-time assurance infrastructure in the E-care@home system. An experimental evaluation is conducted to verify that the run-time assurance infrastructure is functioning correctly, and to enable detecting performance degradation in experimental IoT network deployments within the context of E-care@home.

  • 3.
    Aisa, J.
    et al.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain .
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Villarroel, J. L.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain .
    Almeida, L.
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Soft real-time traffic communication in loaded Wireless Mesh Networks2016In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2016, article id Article number 7496503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial applications have been shifting towards wireless multi-hop networks in recent years due to their lower cost of deployment and reconfiguration compared with their wired counterparts. These wireless networks usually must support real-time communication to meet the application requirements. For this reason, Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are potential candidates for industrial applications as they support a fixed infrastructure of static nodes for relaying packets. To meet the application demands, we modify the wireless chain network protocol (WICKPro) to support soft real-time traffic in WMNs with chain topologies over IEEE 802.11. We employ tele-operation of mobile robots as our case study, and perform extensive simulation and laboratory experiments. We show that the data delivery ratio is increased up to 42% in a scenario with 7 nodes, when the maximum end-to-end delay tolerated by the application is doubled. This is particularly suited to soft real-time applications that can trade longer delays by higher reliability. Moreover, when compared with a distributed priority-based token-passing protocol (RT-WMP), the lower overhead of WICKPro allows, in an error-free scenario, obtaining a throughput improvement of 33.42% on average.

  • 4.
    Aisa, Jesus
    et al.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Villarroel, José Luis
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    DoTHa - A Double-threshold Hand-off Algorithm for Managing Mobility in Wireless Mesh Networks2016In: 21st IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'16, 2016, article id 7733511Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication will play an increasingly important role in future factory automation and process control, where the presence of mobile autonomous devices is expected to grow. However, wireless links are prone to errors due to shadowing and multi-path fading, which is even more severe in dynamic environments. These problems can be attenuated by using a mesh backbone to which mobile node connect to, using a hand-off algorithm. This solution is particularly important under real-time requirements typically found in factory automation. In this paper, we devise the Double-Threshold Hand-off (DoTHa) algorithm, a novel hand-off mechanism that triggers a hand-off in various environmental conditions. As a case study, we carry out the tele-operation of a mobile robot through a wireless mesh network in an indoor setting, using a wireless chain network protocol (WICKPro-SRT) that supports soft real-time traffic. We empirically compared DoTHa with two existing hand-off algorithms based on single and double hysteresis margin. The results revealed that DoTHa achieves Data Delivery Ratio (DDR) close to 100% whereas the single hysteresis-based hand-off suffers from frequent disconnections, dropping DDR to 88%. The double hysteresis-based hand-off shows higher ping-pong effect than DoTHa, doubling the number of hand-offs in some scenarios.

  • 5.
    Causevic, Aida
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Data Security and Privacy in Cyber-Physical Systems for Healthcare2017In: Security and Privacy in Cyber-Physical Systems: Foundations, Principles, and Applications / [ed] Houbing Song D, Glenn A. Fink PhD, and Sabina Jeschke Dr. rer. nat., Wiley-IEEE Press , 2017, p. 305-320Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Causevic, Aida
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Enabling Safe, Secure and Reliable Data Communication in IoT AAL Healthcare Applications2017In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2017 MTD 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Faragardi, H. R.
    et al.
    University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fahringer, T.
    University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    An efficient placement of sinks and SDN controller nodes for optimizing the design cost of industrial IoT systems2018In: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 1893-1919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a growing trend has emerged toward using Internet of Things (IoT) in the context of industrial systems, which is referred to as industrial IoT. To deal with the time-critical requirements of industrial applications, it is necessary to consider reliability and timeliness during the design of an industrial IoT system. Through the separation of the control plane and the data plane, software-defined networking provides control units (controllers) coexisting with sink nodes, efficiently coping with network dynamics during run-time. It is of paramount importance to select a proper number of these devices (i.e., software-defined networking controllers and sink nodes) and locate them wisely in a network to reduce deployment cost. In this paper, we optimize the type and location of sinks and controllers in the network, subject to reliability and timeliness as the prominent performance requirements in time-critical IoT systems through ensuring that each sensor node is covered by a certain number of sinks and controllers. We propose PACSA-MSCP, an algorithm hybridizing a parallel version of the max-min ant system with simulated annealing for multiple-sink/controller placement. We evaluate the proposed algorithm through extensive experiments. The performance is compared against several well-known methods, and it is shown that our approach outperforms those methods by lowering the total deployment cost by up to 19%. Moreover, the deviation from the optimal solution achieved by CPLEX is shown to be less than 2.7%.

  • 8.
    Faragardi, Hamid Reza
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rahmani, Rahim
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Cost Efficient Design of a Multi-Sink Multi-ControllerWSN in a Smart Factory2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 19th Intl Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, HPCC 2017, 2017 IEEE 15th Intl Conference on Smart City, SmartCity 2017 and 2017 IEEE 3rd Intl Conference on Data Science and Systems, DSS 2017, 2017, p. 594-602Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT), one of the key elementsof a smart factory, is dubbed as Industrial IoT (IIoT). Softwaredefined networking is a technique that benefits network managementin IIoT applications by providing network reconfigurability.In this way, controllers are integrated within the networkto advertise routing rules dynamically based on network andlink changes. We consider controllers within Wireless SensorNetworks (WSNs) for IIoT applications in such a way to providereliability and timeliness. Network reliability is addressed for thecase of node failure by considering multiple sinks and multiplecontrollers. Real-time requirements are implicitly applied bylimiting the number of hops (maximum path-length) betweensensors and sinks/controllers, and by confining the maximumworkload on each sink/controller. Deployment planning of sinksshould ensure that when a sink or controller fails, the networkis still connected. In this paper, we target the challenge ofplacement of multiple sinks and controllers, while ensuring thateach sensor node is covered by multiple sinks (k sinks) andmultiple controllers (k' controllers). We evaluate the proposedalgorithm using the benchmark GRASP-MSP through extensiveexperiments, and show that our approach outperforms thebenchmark by lowering the total deployment cost by up to24%. The reduction of the total deployment cost is fulfilled notonly as the result of decreasing the number of required sinksand controllers but also selecting cost-effective sinks/controllersamong all candidate sinks/controllers.

  • 9.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fog computing in clinical health monitoring applications2017In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2017 MTD 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    et al.
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto (ISEP-IPP), Portugal .
    Alves, Mário
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto (ISEP-IPP), Portugal .
    Koubaa, Anis
    Al-Imam Muhammad bin Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Baccour, Nouha
    National school of Engineers of Sfax, Tunisia .
    On a Reliable Handoff Procedure for Supporting Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks2010In: 9th International Workshop on Real-Time Networks RTN, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11. Fotouhi, Hossein
    et al.
    Alves, Mário
    Zuniga, Marco
    Baccour, Nouha
    Noda, Claro
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Romer, Kay
    Boano, Carlo
    Radio Link Quality Estimation in Low-Power Wireless Networks2013Book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    et al.
    CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portuga.
    Alves, Mário
    CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portuga.
    Zuniga, Marco
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Koubâa, Anis
    CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portuga.
    Reliable and fast hand-offs in low-power wireless networks2014In: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, ISSN 1536-1233, E-ISSN 1558-0660, Vol. 13, no 11, p. 2620-2633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hand-off (or hand-over), the process where mobile nodes select the best access point available to transfer data, has been well studied in wireless networks. The performance of a hand-off process depends on the specific characteristics of the wireless links. In the case of low-power wireless networks, hand-off decisions must be carefully taken by considering the unique properties of inexpensive low-power radios. This paper addresses the design, implementation and evaluation of smart-HOP, a hand-off mechanism tailored for low-power wireless networks. This work has three main contributions. First, it formulates the hard hand-off process for low-power networks (such as typical wireless sensor networks - WSNs) with a probabilistic model, to investigate the impact of the most relevant channel parameters through an analytical approach. Second, it confirms the probabilistic model through simulation and further elaborates on the impact of several hand-off parameters. Third, it fine-tunes the most relevant hand-off parameters via an extended set of experiments, in a realistic experimental scenario. The evaluation shows that smart-HOP performs well in the transitional region while achieving more than 98 percent relative delivery ratio and hand-off delays in the order of a few tens of a milliseconds.

  • 13.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Communication and Security in Health Monitoring Systems - A Review2016In: Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2016, p. 545-554Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast development of sensing devices and radios enables more powerful and flexible remote health monitoring systems. Considering the future vision of the Internet of Things (IoT), many requirements and challenges rise to the design and implementation of such systems. Bridging the gap between sensor nodes on the human body and the Internet becomes a challenging task in terms of reliable communications. Additionally, the systems will not only have to provide functionality, but also be highly secure. In this paper, we provide a survey on existing communication protocols and security issues related to pervasive health monitoring, describing their limitations, challenges, and possible solutions. We propose a generic protocol stack design as a first step toward handling interoperability in heterogeneous low-power wireless body area networks.

  • 14.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Interoperability in heterogeneous Low-Power Wireless Networks for Health Monitoring Systems2016In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, ICC 2016, 2016, p. 393-398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring interoperability in the future Internet of Things applications can be a challenging task, especially in mission-critical applications such as Health Monitoring Systems. Existing low-power wireless network architectures are designed in isolated networks, and ensure a satisfying level of performance in homogeneous networks. However, with co-existence of different low-power networks, the interoperability related problems arise. To bridge this gap in this paper, we study various protocol stacks (i.e., Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy, IEEE 802.15.4, ZigBee, 6LoWPAN and IEEE 802.15.6), and explain their specific features. Furthermore, we provide a generic protocol stack design that facilitates multiple radios with different protocol stacks, regardless of being IP-based or non-IP-based networks. We see this approach as a possibility to enhance network performance in terms of reliability, timeliness, and security, while providing higher levels of scalability and connectivity.

  • 15.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Politecn Porto ISEP IPP, CISTER INESC TEC, Oporto, Portuga.
    Moreira, Daniel
    Politecn Porto ISEP IPP, CISTER INESC TEC, Oporto, Portugal.;Truphone, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Alves, Mario
    Politecn Porto ISEP IPP, CISTER INESC TEC, Oporto, Portugal..
    Yomsi, Patrick Meumeu
    Politecn Porto ISEP IPP, CISTER INESC TEC, Oporto, Portugal..
    mRPL plus: A mobility management framework in RPL/6LoWPAN2017In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 104, p. 34-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation Internet (also known as Internet-of-Things - IoT), will ubiquitously integrate trillions of computing devices of all kinds, shapes and sizes. For this ubiquity to materialize, a key aspect will certainly be interoperability, the capability of different technologies (e.g. different communication protocols at both horizontal and vertical levels, different hardware platforms, different operating systems, fixed and mobile nodes, etc) to talk to and understand each other. A major enabler for this interoperability is the use of standard and commercial-off-the-shelf technologies (e.g. communication protocols, hardware platforms, operating systems). As IPv6 has become the de-facto communication technology for the Internet, 6LoWPAN has recently started paving the way for extending the Internet to low-power low-cost wireless devices. However, while mobility support will be a requirement (or at least beneficial) in many applications contexts, the support of mobile nodes in the default 6loWPAN/RPL protocol leads to excessive packet loss and delays. In this work, we show that interoperability between fixed and mobile nodes can be successfully achieved through the use of appropriate hand-off and topology management techniques. We propose a mobility management framework (dubbed mRPL+) unifying two hand-off models: (1) hard hand-off, where a mobile node has to break a link before finding a new link, and (2) soft hand-off, where a mobile node selects the new link before disconnecting from the current one. Importantly, mRPL+ is integrated in the 6LoWPAN/RPL stack in a backward compatible manner. Simulation results indicate that in a network with mobile nodes, packet delivery ratio with mRPL+ is nearly 100%, where RPL achieves 80% in best case. Hand-off process has a disconnected period of few milliseconds (hand-off delay = 4 ms), while RPL experiences few seconds of disconnection during node's mobility (3 - 10 s). (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    et al.
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto, CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal .
    Moreira, Daniel
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto, CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal .
    Alves, Mário
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto, CISTER/INESC-TEC, ISEP, Portugal .
    MRPL: Boosting mobility in the Internet of Things2015In: Ad hoc networks, ISSN 1570-8705, E-ISSN 1570-8713, Vol. 26, p. 17-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 6loWPAN (the light version of IPv6) and RPL (routing protocol for low-power and lossy links) protocols have become de facto standards for the Internet of Things (IoT). In this paper, we show that the two native algorithms that handle changes in network topology – the Trickle and Neighbor Discovery algorithms – behave in a reactive fashion and thus are not prepared for the dynamics inherent to nodes mobility. Many emerging and upcoming IoT application scenarios are expected to impose real-time and reliable mobile data collection, which are not compatible with the long message latency, high packet loss and high overhead exhibited by the native RPL/6loWPAN protocols. To solve this problem, we integrate a proactive hand-off mechanism (dubbed smart-HOP) within RPL, which is very simple, effective and backward compatible with the standard protocol. We show that this add-on halves the packet loss and reduces the hand-off delay dramatically to one tenth of a second, upon nodes’ mobility, with a sub-percent overhead. The smart-HOP algorithm has been implemented and integrated in the Contiki 6LoWPAN/RPL stack and validated through extensive simulation and experimentation.

  • 17.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ray, Apala
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ABB Corporate Research, India.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Reliable Communication in Health Monitoring Applications2016In: The 3rd EAI International Conference on IoT Technologies for HealthCare HealthyIoT'16, Västeraås, Sweden, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote health monitoring is one of the emerging IoT applications that has attracted the attention of communication and health sectors in recent years. We enable software defined networking in a wireless sensor network to provide easy reconfiguration and at run-time network management. In this way, we devise a multi-objective decision making approach that is implemented at the network intelligence to find the set of optimal paths that routes physiological data over a wireless medium. In this work, the main considered parameters for reliable data communication are path traffic, path consumed energy, and path length. Using multi-objective optimization technique within a case study, we find the best routes that provide reliable data communication.

  • 18.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ray, Apala
    ABB Corporate Research, India.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    SDN-TAP: An SDN-based Traffic Aware Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks2016In: 18th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applictions and Services Healthcom'16, 2016, article id 7749527Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion control is a challenging issue in wireless sensor networks with limited channel bandwidth. Thus, many protocols have been designed to provide a distributed traffic control during packet forwarding. However, all these approaches are applied to single-hop communication networks, ignoring the multi-hop restrictions. In this work, we take advantage of software defined networking paradigm by devising a controller node in such a way that it collects all the necessary information from wireless sensor network nodes. Thus, based on hop count and local traffic information, controller decides for possible flow path changes to evenly distribute the traffic. The evaluations revealed that the SDN-TAP outperforms conventional routing protocols by reducing packet loss rate up to 46%.

  • 19.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. ES (Embedded Systems).
    IPv6 connectivity in eHealth IoT networks2018In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2018 MTD 2018, Umeå, Sweden, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Gardasevic, Gordana
    et al.
    University of Banja Luka, Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Heterogeneous IoT-based Architecture for Remote Monitoring of Physiological and Environmental Parameters2018In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, Volume 225, 2018, p. 48-53Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A heterogeneous Internet of Things (IoT) architecture for remote health monitoring (RHM) is proposed, that employs Bluetooth and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless connectivity. The RHM system encompasses Shimmer physiological sensors with Bluetooth radio, and OpenMote environmental sensors with IEEE 802.15.4 radio. This system architecture collects measurements in a relational database in a local server to implement a Fog node for fast data analysis as well as in a remote server in the Cloud. 

  • 21. Leonardi, Luca
    et al.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    University of Catania, Italy.
    A Proposal Towards Software-Defined Management of Heterogeneous Virtualized Industrial NetworksIn: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics INDIN'19Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22. Maleki, Neda
    et al.
    Loni, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Conti, Mauro
    University of Padua, Italy .
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    SoFA: A Spark-oriented Fog Architecture2019In: IEEE 45th Annual Conference of the Industrial Electronics Society IECON'19, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fog computing offers a wide range of service levels including low bandwidth usage, low response time, support of heterogeneous applications, and high energy efficiency. Therefore, real-time embedded applications could potentially benefit from Fog infrastructure. However, providing high system utilization is an important challenge of Fog computing especially for processing embedded applications. In addition, although Fog computing extends cloud computing by providing more energy efficiency, it still suffers from remarkable energy consumption, which is a limitation for embedded systems. To overcome the above limitations, in this paper, we propose SoFA, a Spark-oriented Fog architecture that leverages Spark functionalities to provide higher system utilization, energy efficiency, and scalability. Compared to the common Fog computing platforms where edge devices are only responsible for processing data received from their IoT nodes, SoFA leverages the remaining processing capacity of all other edge devices. To attain this purpose, SoFA provides a distributed processing paradigm by the help of Spark to utilize the whole processing capacity of all the available edge devices leading to increase energy efficiency and system utilization. In other words, SoFA proposes a near- sensor processing solution in which the edge devices act as the Fog nodes. In addition, SoFA provides scalability by taking advantage of Spark functionalities. According to the experimental results, SoFA is a power-efficient and scalable solution desirable for embedded platforms by providing up to 3.1x energy efficiency for the Word-Count benchmark compared to the common Fog processing platform.

  • 23.
    Mousavi, Seyedeh Kosar
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Ramsar, Iran.
    Fazliahmadi, Saber
    Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Rasouli, Nayereh
    KaKaraj Branch, Technical and Vocational University, Alborz, Iran.
    Faragardi, Hamid Reza
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fahringer, Thomas
    The University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    A Budget-Constrained Placement of Controller Nodes for Maximizing the Network Performance in SDN-Enabled WSNsIn: The ISC International Journal of Information Security, ISSN 2008-2045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a novel technique to provide network reconfigurability in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). SDN is highly suitable to be applied in WSNs where high scalability and high reliability are required. To realize the SDN concept, a set of additional nodes, referred to as SDN-controller nodes (or controllers for short), are integrated into the network. Controllers are responsible to advertise routing rules dynamically based on network and link changes. Emerging controllers rises a new research challenge to determine the number and location of controller nodes in a WSN to maximize the network performance subject to both reliability and budget constraints. The budget constraint restricts the maximum number of controller nodes deployed in a WSN. In this paper, we first deal with the challenge to place SDN-controller nodes by introducing an ILP model for the problem which then is solved using the CPLEX ILP solver. We evaluate the results of the proposed method through comparison with the state-of-the-art method. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method reduces the maximum distance between sensors and controllers by 13% in average in comparison with the state-of-the-art method.

  • 24.
    Nikoueia, Reihaneh
    et al.
    Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.
    Rasouli, Nayereh
    Technical and Vocational University, Karaj Branch, Alborz, Iran.
    Tahmasebi, Shirin
    Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Zolfid, Somayeh
    University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Faragardi, Hamid Reza
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Quantum-Annealing-Based Approach to Optimize the Deployment Cost of a Multi-Sink Multi-Controller WSNIn: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) provides network significant reconfiguration capability to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). SDN is a promising technique for WSNs with high scalability and high reliability requirements. In SDN, a set of controller nodes are integrated into the network to advertise routing rules dynamically based on network and link changes. Determining the number and location of both sinks (are in charge of collecting the sensors data) and controller nodes in a WSN subject to both reliability and performance constraints is an important research challenge. In this paper, to address this research challenge, we propose a Quantum Annealing approach that improves the deployment cost of the system by minimizing the number of required sinks and SDN controller nodes. The experiments show that our approach improves the deployment cost of the network against the state-ofthe-art by 10.7% on average.

  • 25.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A remote health monitoring system featuring relational databases2017In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2017 MTD 2017, Västerås, Sweden, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote health monitoring (RHM) through the use of wearable wireless sensors, has drawn a lot of attention from academia and industry in the last decade [1,2]. The aging population, increasing cost of health-care, and lack of human resources in healthcare, are the three key motivators for the development of RHM [3,4]. The RHM systems should reduce health care costs and improve care quality. How to ensure a reliable and secure data collection from sensor devices to stake holders in RHM systems, is an open research question. The most established data storage technology that can ensure the security and privacy of data is the relational database management systems (RDBMSs). Besides security, RDBMSs provide a number of additional convenient features like querying the data, indexing, backups, replication, but are however in general slower than storing the data directly in a file system. Presented is a RHM system with a RDBMS in its core. The system was developed for the needs of ESS-H research profile [5] at Mälardalen University, Sweden. We also present a comprehensive system design which covers all the needs for the RHM application. The system is composed of four main components: (I) Shimmer sensors [6], (II) data acquisition layer (LabVIEW or C#.NET program), (III) RDBMS, and (IV) web service and web interface. The system communicates with the Shimmer sensors over Bluetooth and collects measurements in a relational database, either through a C#.NET or a LabVIEW program. The web service and a web interface are both written in PHP and are running on the Apache HTTP Server. The end-user is able to observe either real-time data (i.e. with insignificant delay) or processed historical data on any web browser. The advantage of using the web interface instead of a desktop application is that it makes the presentation layer easily accessible and platform independent. The RDBMSs provide data security and privacy in addition to other convenient features. Therefore, it is beneficial to incorporate RDBMSs in RHM systems. However, the RDBMSs provide no solution for security and privacy issues in wireless communication which is another research problem.

  • 26.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    IoT enabled monitoring of patients’ environmental parameters supported by OpenWSN, OpenMote, and relational databases2018In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2018 MTD 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Data flow and collection for remote patients monitoring: From wireless sensors through a relational database to a web interface in real time2017In: IFMBE Proceedings, Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 89-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reliable, secure, and real-time data collection from sensor devices to the end-user is an open research problem. Many research works have been focusing on the wireless communication level to obtain quality of service. This paper widens the problem, and provides a comprehensive system design, where it covers all the elements in a remote health monitoring application. The system collects measurements in a relational database, either through a C#.NET or a LabVIEW program. The end-user is able to observe either real-time data (i.e. with insignificant delay) or processed historical data on any web browser. We have shown that the inclusion of the relational database may impose a need for the data to be buffered before inserting into the database within a single transaction, but the buffering does not entail delays bigger than 50 ms. 

  • 28.
    Urama, Ifeoma Helen
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Abdellatif, M. M.
    British University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt.
    Optimizing RPL Objective Function for Mobile Low-Power Wireless Networks2017In: Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications Conference, IEEE Computer Society , 2017, p. 678-683Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supporting mobility in wireless sensor networks is one of the major requirements for future Internet of Things (IoT) applications. This work focuses on optimizing the objective function of Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL) in mobile applications. RPL routing is the most common standard routing protocol designed for IoT applications. We optimized RPL objective function by combining several RPL parameters, such as (i) Expected Transmission Count (ETX), (ii) number of hops, and (iii) average Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) as inputs in a fuzzy logic model. These parameters are more influenced in mobile applications. We applied the fuzzy decision to the mRPL (a hand-off enabled RPL mechanism). We fine-tuned the weighting scheme by running extensive simulations to achieve reliable data communication. We found that the fuzzy-based hand-off approach provides high reliability by successfully delivering nearly 100% of data packets, while achieving a very short hand-off delay. 

  • 29.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Faragardi, H. R.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An analytical model for deploying mobile sinks in industrial Internet of Things2018In: 2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops, WCNCW 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 155-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) has the potential to be implemented in factories and supply chains to improve manufacturing efficiency. It is becoming more common to use mobile robots in such factories for further improvements. Adding data collection capability to the mobile robots would realize the mobile sink deployment in future factories. As it is important to reduce the deployment cost, we are aiming at a network with minimum number of mobile sinks while ensuring network reliability and timeliness. In this paper, we analytically model a given trajectory for the motion of mobile sinks and the routing of mobile sinks along the trajectory in an IIoT system. We introduce an optimization problem in the form of Integer Linear Programming (ILP) to specify the minimum number of required mobile sinks to reduce deployment cost of an IIoT system, and also to identify the routing of multiple mobile sinks along a given trajectory. The proposed ILP model can be solved by several existing off-the-shelf ILP-solvers. 

  • 30.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    FIREWORK: Fog orchestration for secure IoT networks2019In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, vol 284, 2019, p. 311-317Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in Internet of Things (IoT) connectivity have made IoT devices prone to Cyber attacks. Moreover, vendors are eager to provide autonomous and open source device, which in turn adds more security threat to the system. In this paper, we consider network traffic attack, and provide a Fog-assisted solution, dubbed as FIRE- WORK, that reduces risk of security attacks by periodically monitor- ing network traffic, and applying traffic isolation techniques to overcome network congestion and performance degradation.

  • 31.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Network Management in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network Applications2016In: 3rd Smart Cloud Networks & Systems Conference SCNS'16, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand in designing heterogeneous networks, where various low-power wireless radios such as ZigBee and Bluetooth devices coexist, while sensing devices may generate traffic with different intervals. In this work, we devise an architecture of a cross layer controller, encompassing a software defined radio at the data plane to manage radio access, and a software defined networking at the control plane to manage data flow, while considering the application requirements. The overall architecture aims at simplifying system management and network re-configuration, while providing better network performance.

  • 32.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Evaluating a Remote Health Monitoring Application Powered by Bluetooth2019In: 11th International Conference on e-Health e-Health'19, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 32 of 32
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