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  • 1.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bugs and Debugging of Concurrent and Multicore Software2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 2.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Concurrency Bugs: Characterization, Debugging and Runtime Verification2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent software has been increasingly adopted in recent years, mainly due to the introduction of multicore platforms. However, concurrency bugs are still difficult to test and debug due to their complex interactions involving multiple threads (or tasks). Typically, real world concurrent software has huge state spaces. Thus, testing techniques and handling of concurrency bugs need to focus on exposing the bugs in this large space. However, existing solutions typically do not provide debugging information to developers (and testers) for understanding the bugs.

    Our work focuses on improving concurrent software reliability via three contributions: 1) An investigation of concurrent software challenges with the aim to help developers (and testers) to better understand concurrency bugs. We propose a classification of concurrency bugs and discuss observable properties of each type of bug. In addition, we identify a number of gaps in the body of knowledge on concurrent software bugs and their debugging. 2) Exploring concurrency related bugs in real-world software with respect to the reproducibility of bugs, severity of their consequence and effort required to fix them. Our findings here is that concurrency bugs are different from other bugs in terms of their fixing time and severity, while they are similar in terms of reproducibility. 3) A model for monitoring concurrency bugs and the implementation and evaluation of a related runtime verification tool to detect the bugs. In general, runtime verification techniques are used to (a) dynamically verify that the observed behaviour matches specified properties and (b) explicitly recognize understandable behaviors in the considered software. Our implemented tool is used to detect concurrency bugs in embedded software and is in its current form tailored for the FreeRTOS operating system. It helps developers and testers to automatically identify concurrency bugs and subsequently helps to reduce their finding and fixing time.

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  • 3.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cyberattacks: Modeling, Analysis, and Mitigation2022Ingår i: Proceedings - 2022 6th International Conference on Computer, Software and Modeling: ICCSM 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, s. 80-84Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial cybersecurity has risen as an important topic of research nowadays. The heavy connectivity by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the growth of cyberattacks against industrial assets cause this risen and attract attention to the cybersecurity field. While fostering current software applications and use-cases, the ubiquitous access to the Internet has also exposed operational technologies to new and challenging security threats that need to be addressed. As the number of attacks increases, their visibility decreases. An attack can modify the Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) quality to avoid proper quality assessment. They can disrupt the system design process and adversely affect a product’s design purpose. This working progress paper presents our approach to modeling, analyzing, and mitigating cyberattacks in CPS. We model the normal behavior of the application as well as cyberattacks with the help of Microsoft Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) and threat modeling approach (STRIDE). Then verify the application and attacks model using a model checking tool and propose mitigation strategies to decrease the risk of vulnerabilities. The results can be used to improve the system design to overcome the vulnerabilities.

  • 4.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Runtime Verification based Concurrency Bug Detector for FreeRTOS Embedded Software2018Ingår i: Proceedings - 17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018, 2018, s. 172-179, artikel-id 8452035Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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    fulltext
  • 5.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Towards Classification of Concurrency Bugs Based on Observable Properties2015Ingår i: Proceedings - 1st International Workshop on Complex Faults and Failures in Large Software Systems, COUFLESS 2015, 2015, s. 41-47Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In software engineering, classification is a way to find an organized structure of knowledge about objects. Classification serves to investigate the relationship between the items to be classified, and can be used to identify the current gaps in the field. In many cases users are able to order and relate objects by fitting them in a category. This paper presents initial work on a taxonomy for classification of errors (bugs) related to concurrent execution of application level software threads. By classifying concurrency bugs based on their corresponding observable properties, this research aims to examine and structure the state of the art in this field, as well as to provide practitioner support for testing and debugging of concurrent software. We also show how the proposed classification, and the different classes of bugs, relates to the state of the art in the field by providing a mapping of the classification to a number of recently published papers in the software engineering field.

  • 6.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Inam, Rafia
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Survey on Testing for Cyber Physical System2015Ingår i: Testing Software and Systems: 27th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2015, Sharjah and Dubai, United Arab Emirates, November 23-25, 2015, Proceedings, 2015, s. 194-207Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) bridge the cyber-world of computing and communications with the physical world and require development of secure and reliable software. It asserts a big challenge not only on testing and verifying the correctness of all physical and cyber components of such big systems, but also on integration of these components. This paper develops a categorization of multiple levels of testing required to test CPS and makes a comparison of these levels with the levels of software testing based on the V-model. It presents a detailed state-of-the-art survey on the testing approaches performed on the CPS. Further, it provides challenges in CPS testing.

  • 7.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. RISE Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    GholamHosseini, Hamid
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Naber, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ortiz-Catalan, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Evaluation of surface EMG-based recognition algorithms for decoding hand movements2020Ingår i: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, E-ISSN 1741-0444, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 83-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) to decode limb movements is an important advancement regarding the control of powered prostheses. However, this technology is not yet in wide clinical use. Improvements in MPR could potentially increase the functionality of powered prostheses. To this purpose, offline accuracy and processing time were measured over 44 features using six classifiers with the aim of determining new configurations of features and classifiers to improve the accuracy and response time of prosthetics control. An efficient feature set (FS: waveform length, correlation coefficient, Hjorth Parameters) was found to improve the motion recognition accuracy. Using the proposed FS significantly increased the performance of linear discriminant analysis, K-nearest neighbor, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), and support vector machine by 5.5%, 5.7%, 6.3%, and 6.2%, respectively, when compared with the Hudgins’ set. Using the FS with MLE provided the largest improvement in offline accuracy over the Hudgins feature set, with minimal effect on the processing time. Among the 44 features tested, logarithmic root mean square and normalized logarithmic energy yielded the highest recognition rates (above 95%). We anticipate that this work will contribute to the development of more accurate surface EMG-based motor decoding systems for the control prosthetic hands.

  • 8.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    SICS Swedish ICT, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Model for Systematic Monitoring and Debugging of Starvation Bugs in Multicore Software2016Ingår i: 2016 ASE Workshop on Specification, Comprehension, Testing and Debugging of Concurrent Programs SCTDCP2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of multicore hardware, concurrent, parallel and multicore software are becoming increasingly popular. Software companies are spending a huge amount of time and resources to nd and debug the bugs. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are also important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. In this position paper, we propose a model for monitoring and debugging Starvation bugs as a type of concurrency bugs in multicore software. The model is composed into three phases: monitoring, detecting and debugging. The monitoring phase can support detecting phase by storing collected data from the system execution. The detecting phase can support debugging phase by comparing the stored data with starvation bug's properties, and the debugging phase can help in reproducing and removing the Starvation bug from multicore software. Our intention is that our model is the basis for developing tool(s) to enable solving Starvation bugs in software for multicore platforms.

  • 9.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eldh, S.
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Runtime Verification Tool for Detecting Concurrency Bugs in FreeRTOS Embedded Software2018Ingår i: Proceedings - 17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 172-179, artikel-id 8452035Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a runtime verification tool for embedded software executing under the open source real-time operating system FreeRTOS. The tool detects and diagnoses concurrency bugs such as deadlock, starvation, and suspension based-locking. The tool finds concurrency bugs at runtime without debugging and tracing the source code. The tool uses the Tracealyzer tool for logging relevant events. Analysing the logs, our tool can detect the concurrency bugs by applying algorithms for diagnosing each concurrency bug type individually. In this paper, we present the implementation of the tool, as well as its functional architecture, together with illustration of its use. The tool can be used during program testing to gain interesting information about embedded software executions. We present initial results of running the tool on some classical bug examples running on an AVR 32-bit board SAM4S. 

  • 10.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eldh, S.
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Concurrency bugs in open source software: a case study2017Ingår i: Journal of Internet Services and Applications, ISSN 1867-4828, E-ISSN 1869-0238, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent programming puts demands on software debugging and testing, as concurrent software may exhibit problems not present in sequential software, e.g., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixing-times would be helpful. Similarly, to design effective tools and techniques for testing and debugging concurrent software, understanding the differences between non-concurrency and concurrency bugs in real-word software would be useful. This paper presents an empirical study focusing on understanding the differences and similarities between concurrency bugs and other bugs, as well as the differences among various concurrency bug types in terms of their severity and their fixing time, and reproducibility. Our basis is a comprehensive analysis of bug reports covering several generations of five open source software projects. The analysis involves a total of 11860 bug reports from the last decade, including 351 reports related to concurrency bugs. We found that concurrency bugs are different from other bugs in terms of their fixing time and severity while they are similar in terms of reproducibility. Our findings shed light on concurrency bugs and could thereby influence future design and development of concurrent software, their debugging and testing, as well as related tools.

  • 11.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Afza, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    10 Years of research on debugging concurrent and multicore software: a systematic mapping study2017Ingår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 49-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Debugging – the process of identifying, localizing and fixing bugs – is a key activity in software development. Due to issues such as non-determinism and difficulties of reproducing failures, debugging concurrent software is significantly more challenging than debugging sequential software. A number of methods, models and tools for debugging concurrent and multicore software have been proposed, but the body of work partially lacks a common terminology and a more recent view of the problems to solve. This suggests the need for a classification, and an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the area. 

    This paper presents the results of a systematic mapping study in the field of debugging of concurrent and multicore software in the last decade (2005– 2014). The study is guided by two objectives: (1) to summarize the recent publication trends and (2) to clarify current research gaps in the field.

    Through a multi-stage selection process, we identified 145 relevant papers. Based on these, we summarize the publication trend in the field by showing distribution of publications with respect to year , publication venues , representation of academia and industry , and active research institutes . We also identify research gaps in the field based on attributes such as types of concurrency bugs, types of debugging processes , types of research  and research contributions.

    The main observations from the study are that during the years 2005–2014: (1) there is no focal conference or venue to publish papers in this area, hence a large variety of conferences and journal venues (90) are used to publish relevant papers in this area; (2) in terms of publication contribution, academia was more active in this area than industry; (3) most publications in the field address the data race bug; (4) bug identification is the most common stage of debugging addressed by articles in the period; (5) there are six types of research approaches found, with solution proposals being the most common one; and (6) the published papers essentially focus on four different types of contributions, with ”methods” being the type most common one.

    We can further conclude that there is still quite a number of aspects that are not sufficiently covered in the field, most notably including (1) exploring correction  and fixing bugs  in terms of debugging process; (2) order violation, suspension  and starvation  in terms of concurrency bugs; (3) validation and evaluation research  in the matter of research type; (4) metric  in terms of research contribution. It is clear that the concurrent, parallel and multicore software community needs broader studies in debugging.This systematic mapping study can help direct such efforts.

  • 12.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Paul Enoiu, Eduard
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Study on Concurrency Bugs in an Open Source Software2016Ingår i: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol. 472, 2016, Vol. 472, s. 16-31Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent programming puts demands on software debugging and testing, as concurrent software may exhibit problems not present in sequential software, e.g., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixingtimes would be helpful. Similarly, to design effective tools and techniques for testing and debugging concurrent software understanding the differences between non-concurrency and concurrency bugs in real-word software would be useful.

  • 13.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Runtime Verification for Detecting Suspension Bugs in Multicore and Parallel Software2017Ingår i: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2017, 2017, s. 77-80Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicore hardware development increases the popularity of parallel and multicore software, while testing and debugging the software become more difficult, frustrating and costly. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are both important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue, particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. Suspension-based-locking bug is one type of concurrency bugs. This position paper proposes a model based on runtime verification and reflection technique in the context of multicore and parallel software to monitor and detect suspension-based-locking bugs. The model is not only able to detect faults, but also diagnose and even repair them. The model is composed of four layers: Logging, Monitoring, Suspension Bug Diagnosis and Mitigation. The logging layer will observe the events and save them into a file system. The monitoring layer will detect the presents of bugs in the software. The suspension bug diagnosis will identify Suspension bugs by comparing the captured data with the suspension bug properties. Finally, the mitigation layer will reconfigure the software to mitigate the suspension bugs. A functional architecture of a runtime verification tool is also proposed in this paper. This architecture is based on the proposed model and is comprised of different modules. 

  • 14.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Masud, Abu Naser
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Comprehensive Exploration of Languages for Parallel Computing2023Ingår i: ACM Computing Surveys, ISSN 0360-0300, E-ISSN 1557-7341, Vol. 55, nr 2, artikel-id 21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software-intensive systems in most domains, from autonomous vehicles to health, are becoming predominantly parallel to efficiently manage large amount of data in short (even real-) time. There is an incredibly rich literature on languages for parallel computing, thus it is difficult for researchers and practitioners, even experienced in this very field, to get a grasp on them. With this work we provide a comprehensive, structured, and detailed snapshot of documented research on those languages to identify trends, technical characteristics, open challenges, and research directions. In this article, we report on planning, execution, and results of our systematic peer-reviewed as well as grey literature review, which aimed at providing such a snapshot by analysing 225 studies.

  • 15.
    Derakhshan, M.
    et al.
    University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Hassanzadeh, M.
    Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    E. Higgins, S.
    University of Arizona, Vail, AZ, United States.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    The pedagogical challenges of creating information literate librarians2017Ingår i: Library Review, ISSN 0024-2535, E-ISSN 1758-793X, Vol. 66, nr 6-7, s. 570-583Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the challenges of developing information literacy (IL) competencies and approaches to overcome the challenges among library and information science (LIS) students in Iran. Design/methodology/approach: Taking an exploratory approach, the study used semi-structured interviews to gather the data. Using the 2000 ACRL standards as a framework, the fieldwork questions were designed around the five areas of IL competencies. A total of 15 academics teaching 18 different LIS courses from six universities were interviewed. They were asked the challenges they faced in teaching these competencies and the approaches they took or suggested in overcoming the challenge(s). A thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Findings: Some of the challenges for students mentioned by the interviewees were ambiguity about the discipline, inability to match subject relevance with appropriate sources of information and lack of familiarity with databases. Research limitations/implications: This study is limited to LIS academics; studying students’ reflections can bring broader perspectives to IL education in LIS programs. Owing to the nature of the design of this study, which is a single case study, the teaching experiences of IL are limited to the ones which emerged and were addressed in the context of the case. Although the case selection was made in a way that can be representative of the “general” in the “particular” bounded system of the case (Stake, 1998), studying more cases could certainly have brought broader perspectives to IL which could have been to wider contexts. Originality/value: The results of this study contribute to our understanding of challenges in teaching IL in the LIS discipline, an area that has not been researched directly. This contributes to IL teaching in disciplinary areas and it brings new perspectives to the elements of IL teaching which emerged from the experiences of people who are directly experienced in the context of the discipline. 

  • 16.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Systematic Literature Study on Definition and Modeling of Service-Level Agreements for Cloud Services in IoT2020Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, s. 134498-134513, artikel-id 9146632Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The cloud computing paradigm provides remote computing resources to the cloud service consumers and businesses. When combined with Internet of Things (IoT), both technologies open up a wide range of new possibilities for more agile and flexible applications. However, guaranteed quality of service is essential in provisioning of cloud services, which makes Service Level Agreements (SLAs) a focal point in the cloud computing and IoT ecosystem. The SLA definition and modeling phase is crucial in establishing SLAs between service providers and consumers. This paper identifies that the research on definition and modeling of SLAs for cloud services in IoT is widely dispersed and there is a lack of a systematic and comprehensive literature review. Thus, in this paper we build on top of a previously conducted systematic mapping study on management of SLAs for cloud computing and IoT to perform a comprehensive systematic review and discuss sub-categorization of the definition and modeling aspects of SLAs for cloud services in IoT. Furthermore we analyze the extracted relevant literature, present commonalities in the studies, identify gaps and discuss opportunities for further research in the area. 

  • 17.
    Moradi, Fereidoun
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering. Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pourvatan, Bahman
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Moezkarimi, Zahra
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    CRYSTAL framework: Cybersecurity assurance for cyber-physical systems2024Ingår i: The Journal of logical and algebraic methods in programming, ISSN 2352-2208, E-ISSN 2352-2216, ISSN 2352-2208, Vol. 139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose CRYSTAL framework for automated cybersecurity assurance of cyber-physical systems (CPS) at design-time and runtime. We build attack models and apply formal verification to recognize potential attacks that may lead to security violations. We focus on both communication and computation in designing the attack models. We build a monitor to check and manage security at runtime and use a reference model, called Tiny Digital Twin, in detecting attacks. The Tiny Digital Twin is an abstract behavioral model that is automatically derived from the state space generated by model checking during design-time. Using CRYSTAL, we are able to systematically model and check complex coordinated attacks. In this paper we discuss the applicability of CRYSTAL in security analysis and attack detection for different case studies, Temperature Control System (TCS), Pneumatic Control System (PCS), and Secure Water Treatment System (SWaT). We provide a detailed description of the framework and explain how it works in different cases.

  • 18.
    Moradi, Fereidoun
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sedaghatbaf, Ali
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Talcott, Carolyn
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    An Actor-based Approach for Security Analysis of Cyber-Physical Systems2020Ingår i: Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems, FMICS 2020, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 12327, Springer, 2020, s. 130-147, artikel-id 12327Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Moradi, Fereidoun
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bagheri, M.
    Tehran Institute for Advanced Studies, Khatam University, Tehran, Iran.
    Rahmati, Hanieh
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Yazdi, Hamed
    Chavoosh ICT, Isfahan, Iran.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Monitoring Cyber-Physical Systems Using a Tiny Twin to Prevent Cyber-Attacks2022Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 13255, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2022, s. 24-43Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a method to detect attacks on sensors and controllers in cyber-physical systems. We develop a monitor that uses an abstract digital twin, Tiny Twin, to detect false sensor data and faulty control commands. The Tiny Twin is a state transition system that represents the observable behavior of the system from the monitor point of view. At runtime, the monitor observes the sensor data and the control commands, and checks whether the observed data and commands are consistent with the state transitions in the Tiny Twin. The monitor produces an alarm when an inconsistency is detected. We model the components of the system and the physical processes in the Rebeca modeling language and use its model checker to generate the state space. The Tiny Twin is built automatically by reducing the state space, keeping the observable behavior of the system, and preserving the trace equivalence. We demonstrate the method and evaluate it in detecting attacks using a temperature control system. 

  • 20.
    Moradi, Fereidoun
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pourvatan, Bahman
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tiny Twins for detecting cyber-attacks at runtime using concise Rebeca time transition system2024Ingår i: Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISSN 0743-7315, E-ISSN 1096-0848, Vol. 184, artikel-id 104780Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for detecting cyber-attacks in cyber-physical systems using a monitor. The method employs an abstract model called Tiny Twin, which is built at design time and is used at runtime to detect inconsistencies. Tiny Twin is a state transition system that represents the observable behavior of the system from the monitor point of view. We model the behavior of the system in the Rebeca modeling language and use Afra model checker to generate the state space. The Tiny Twin is built automatically, by abstracting the state space while keeping the observable actions and preserving the trace equivalence. For doing that we had to solve the complexities in the state space introduced by time-shifts, nondeterministic assignments and abstraction of internal actions. We formally define the state space as Concise Rebeca Timed Transition System (CRTTS), and then map CRTTS to an LTS. The LTS is then fed to a tool to abstract away the non-observable actions.

  • 21.
    Moradi, Fereidoun
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sedaghatbaf, Ali
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    On-Off Attack on a Blockchain-based IoT System2019Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 1768-1773Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in using the Blockchain for resolving IoT security and trustworthiness issues existing in today's complex systems. Blockchain concerns trust in peer to peer networks by providing a distributed tamper-resistant ledger. However, the combination of these two emerging technologies might create new problems and vulnerabilities that attackers might abuse.In this paper, we aim to investigate the trust mechanism of Lightweight Scalable BlockChain (LSB), that is a Blockchain specifically designed for Internet of Things networks, to show that a malicious participant in a Blockchain architecture have possibility to pursue an On-Off attack and downgrade the integrity of the distributed ledger. We choose a remote software update process as an instance to represent this violation. Finally, using the actor-based language Rebeca, we provide a model of a system under attack and verify the described attack scenario.

  • 22.
    Mubeen, Saad
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pei-Breivold, Hongyu
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Management of Service Level Agreements for Cloud Services in IoT: A Systematic Mapping Study2018Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, s. 30184-30207Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) are computing technologies that provide services to consumers and businesses, allowing organizations to become more agile and flexible. Therefore, ensuring Quality of Service (QoS) through Service Level Agreements (SLAs) for such cloud-based services is crucial for both the service providers and service consumers. As SLAs are critical for cloud deployments and wider adoption of cloud services, the management of SLAs in cloud and IoT has thus become an important and essential aspect. This paper investigates the existing research on the management of SLAs in IoT applications that are based on cloud services. For this purpose, a Systematic Mapping study (a well-defined method) is conducted to identify the published research results that are relevant to SLAs. The paper identifies 328 primary studies and categorizes them into seven main technical classifications: SLA management, SLA definition, SLA modeling, SLA negotiation, SLA monitoring, SLA violation and trustworthiness, and SLA evolution. The paper also summarizes the research types, research contributions, and demographic information in these studies. The evaluation of the results show that most of the approaches for managing SLAs are applied in academic or controlled experiments with limited industrial settings rather than in real industrial environments. Many studies focus on proposal models and methods to manage SLAs, and there is a lack of focus on the evolution perspective and a lack of adequate tool support to facilitate practitioners in their SLA management activities. Moreover, the scarce number of studies focusing on concrete metrics for qualitative or quantitative assessment of QoS in SLAs urges the need for in-depth research on metrics definition and measurements for SLAs.

  • 23.
    Papadopoulos, Alessandro
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Pei Breivold, Hongyu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    SLAs for Industrial IoT: Mind the Gap2017Ingår i: The 4th International Symposium on Inter-cloud and IoT (ICI 2017) ICI'17, 2017, s. 75-78Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) are computing technologies that provide services to consumers and businesses, allowing organizations to become more agile and flexible. The potential business values that cloud consumers can achieve depend a lot on the quality of service in the provided cloud services. Therefore, ensuring the quality of service through service-level agreements (SLA) for such cloud-based services is crucial for both the service providers and service consumers. As SLA is critical for cloud deployments and wider adoption of cloud services, the management of SLA in cloud and IoT has thus become an important and essential issue. In this paper we provide an understanding of the current status and maturity level of SLA management in industrial IoT and academic efforts in this field. We also conduct a preliminary survey of current research on SLA management in order to identify open challenges and gaps that need to be addressed in future research directions. In particular, we investigate how to provide useful SLA management support adapted to the maturity level and current industrial practices, and shorten the gap between academia and industry.

  • 24.
    Salimi, Maghsood
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Loni, Mohammad
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    SARAF: Searching for Adversarial Robust Activation Functions2023Ingår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2023, s. 174-182Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have received great attention in the computer vision domain. However, CNNs are vulnerable to adversarial attacks, which are manipulations of input data that are imperceptible to humans but can fool the network. Several studies tried to address this issue, which can be divided into two categories: (i) training the network with adversarial examples, and (ii) optimizing the network architecture and/or hyperparameters. Although adversarial training is a sufficient defense mechanism, they suffer from requiring a large volume of training samples to cover a wide perturbation bound. Tweaking network activation functions (AFs) has been shown to provide promising results where CNNs suffer from performance loss. However, optimizing network AFs for compensating the negative impacts of adversarial attacks has not been addressed in the literature. This paper proposes the idea of searching for AFs that are robust against adversarial attacks. To this aim, we leverage the Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm with a fast convergence time. This proposed method is called SARAF. We demonstrate the consistent effectiveness of SARAF by achieving up to 16.92%, 18.3%, and 15.57% accuracy improvement against BIM, FGSM, and PGD adversarial attacks, respectively, over ResNet-18 with ReLU AFs (baseline) trained on CIFAR-10. Meanwhile, SARAF provides a significant search efficiency compared to random search as the optimization baseline.

  • 25.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik University, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Mälardalens universitet, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Saadatmand, M.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Towards a Verification-Driven Iterative Development of Software for Safety-Critical Cyber-Physical Systems2021Ingår i: Journal of Internet Services and Applications, ISSN 1867-4828, E-ISSN 1869-0238, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software systems are complicated, and the scientific and engineering methodologies for software development are relatively young. Cyber-physical systems are now in every corner of our lives, and we need robust methods for handling the ever-increasing complexity of their software systems. Model-Driven Development is a promising approach to tackle the complexity of systems through the concept of abstraction, enabling analysis at earlier phases of development. In this paper, we propose a model-driven approach with a focus on guaranteeing safety using formal verification. Cyber-physical systems are distributed, concurrent, asynchronous and event-based reactive systems with timing constraints. The actor-based textual modeling language, Rebeca, with model checking support is used for formal verification. Starting from structured requirements and system architecture design the behavioral models, including Rebeca models, are built. Properties of interest are also derived from the structured requirements, and then model checking is used to formally verify the properties. This process can be performed in iterations until satisfaction of desired properties are ensured, and possible ambiguities and inconsistencies in requirements are resolved. The formally verified models can then be used to develop the executable code. The Rebeca models include the details of the signals and messages that are passed at the network level including the timing, and this facilitates the generation of executable code. The natural mappings among the models for requirements, the formal models, and the executable code improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the approach. 

  • 26.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Provenzano, Luciana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Moghadam, Mahshid Helali
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Västerås, Sweden..
    From Requirements to Verifiable Executable Models Using Rebeca2021Ingår i: SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND FORMAL METHODS, SEFM 2020 / [ed] Cleophas, L Massink, M, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2021, Vol. 12524, s. 67-86Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software systems are complicated, and the scientific and engineering methodologies for software development are relatively young. We need robust methods for handling the ever-increasing complexity of software systems that are now in every corner of our lives. In this paper we focus on asynchronous event-based reactive systems and show how we start from the requirements, move to actor-based Rebeca models, and formally verify the models for correctness. The Rebeca models include the details of the signals and messages that are passed at the network level including the timing, and can be mapped to the executable code. We show how we can use the architecture design and structured requirements to build the behavioral models, including Rebeca models, and use the state diagrams to write the properties of interest, and then use model checking to check the properties. The formally verified models can then be used to develop the executable code. The natural mappings among the models for requirements, the formal models, and the executable code improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the approach. It also helps in runtime monitoring and adaptation.

1 - 26 av 26
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