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  • 1.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Challenges and areas of interest when developing gender mainstreaming teaching2013In: He Kupu, The Word, ISSN 1179-6812, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 75-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, the Swedish National Agency for Education initiated a national project to test and try out teaching methods that focused on achieving gender mainstreaming in preschools and schools in Sweden. With a mandate from the Swedish government, preschools and compulsory schools could apply to enhance gender equality in their institutions. The participating preschools and schools were required to cooperate with colleagues and other school staff in order to try out different methods aimed at achieving gender mainstream teaching. The national project was mainly carried out during the spring of 2012 and the project was completed that autumn. This paper presents the results from this national development endeavour and reflects on the educational, gender related challenges such a project raises. The aim of this paper is to show what a national project can achieve, and what effects a relatively short project can hope to have, in terms of teaching and teachers’ level of knowledge concerning gender mainstreaming.

  • 2.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Children's Gendered Play and Toys in Preschools2016In: Celebrating 40 Years of Play Research: Connecting Our Past, Present, and Future. Play & Culture Studies, Volume 13 / [ed] Michael Patte & John Sutterby, Lanham: Hamilton Books , 2016, p. 81-98Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this research is to develop updated knowledge on how gender is done in play and how toys can be seen as having an amplifying or moderating effect on gendered relations. In this article the use of toys as related to gender is taken into the analysis. Toys are a central aspect of children’s play and culture, or has become central since society has become more and more material and focused on technical tools and artefacts. The toy production has grown enormously during the last decades and toys have become more and more central in children’s lives. In this article the analysis focuses on what role toys play in children’s gendered play. The research reported in this article is an ethnographic study of the relation between gender, children, learning and toys/educational artefacts with a child perspective. The ethnographic work was done over six months from September 2013-March 2014. 19 children were included in the preschool group, and there was an equal mix of boys and girls. The children were 3.5 to 4.5 years old when I started the ethnographic process.

     

    One finding is that the toys can be placed in two main categories – interpreted toys and interpretable toys. The interpreted toys were such artefacts that we most commonly mean when we talk about toys – an artefact where an adult has decided what the artefact is an icon of, and what kind of play it should be used in/for, and also most often if it is meant for a girl or a boy.

     

    It is clear that gender negotiation is a very vivid part of children’s play. This study shows that what kind of toys children are using has an impact on how gender relations and play situations develop, and thereby on boys’ and girls’ learning boundaries.

  • 3.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Delmål 2: Ekonomisk jämställdhet (Utbildning)2015Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Finländska lärares deltagande i läroplansarbete: En studie av processen kring implementering av ny läroplan 20162017Report (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Forskning och utveckling för ökad jämställdhet: Följeforskning om Vinnovas regeringsuppdrag avseende behovsmotiverad forskning för ökad jämställdhet 2013-20152016Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Gender equality in preschools and schools in Sweden2016In: Promising Nordic Practies in gender equality promotion in basic education and kindergartens / [ed] Mervi Heikkinen, Oulu: University of Oulu, 2016, p. 105-119Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Genusperspektiv på teckningar av favoritleksaker2014In: Barn tecknar världen: Att förstå och tolka barns bilder. / [ed] yvonne Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, p. 145-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lärande och jämställdhet i förskola och skola2015Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    "Manliga" förebilder i förskolan: - hur ska det förstås?2015In: Fler män i förskolan: En antologi om breddad rekrytering, Stockholm: Sveriges kommuner och landsting , 2015, p. 85-98Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Män i förskolan och på förskollärarutbildningen: vilka är ni?2015In: Fler män i förskolan: En antologi om breddad rekrytering, Stockholm: Sveriges kommuner och landsting , 2015, p. 51-66Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Organisationsmodell för teamlärande: Tema: Fler män i förskolan2017In: Utbildning och lärande, ISSN 1653-0594, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 64-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study has been to examine a number of municipalities that, in different ways, work to recruit more men to work in preschools. The aim of the study has been to identify ways of working, initiatives and processes conducted by municipalities aiming to recruit more men to work in preschools. The concepts of agency and preparedness are central in this matter. The study includes seven municipalities, all included in one network specially aiming at raising the number of men working in preschool. Between 2014 and 2016, the network met ve times. Interviews and discussions were carried out with key persons involved in the local work to recruit more men to preschools. This analysis can show trends in initiating the concrete work to encourage more men to work in preschools. The results show that an organisation is needed, several measures are to be conducted and the formulation of objectives provides the organisation with a mandate and, ideally, also the time and resources for the work. The organisation and objectives contribute to continuity in the work, something that long-term areas for change often need. 

  • 12.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Transkription som del av kvalitativ analys – ett utforskande2017In: Barn och unga i skola och samhälle.  / [ed] Anders garpelin & Anette Sandberg, Västerås: Mälardalen university , 2017, p. 221-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transkriptioner används av många forskare som använder kvalitativa metoder. Ofta förpassas transkriptionen till ett konstaterande att transkriptioner har gjorts, och den meningen placeras ofta i metodavsnittet under rubriken genomförande. Syftet med det här kapitlet är att granska och utforska transkriptionen och dess betydelse i kvalitativa studier med utgångspunkt i tidigare forskning och med hjälp av att diskutera två autentiska exempel. Forskningsfrågan i kapitlet är: Hur kan transkriptioner förstås som en praktik i kvalitativ forskning? För den diskussionen, kommer två typer av transkriptioner – transkription av intervju och transkription av videomaterial att diskuteras och analyseras. Kapitlets slutsats är att forskare i stor utsträckning behöver förhålla sig reflexivt till transkriptionsprocessen och se transkriptionen som nära sammanlänkad med forskningsfrågan och de teoretiska perspektiv som studien bygger på.

  • 13.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Transkription som del av kvalitativ analys: - ett utforskande2017In: Barn och Unga i Skola och Samhälle / [ed] Anders Garpelin och Anette Sandberg, Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2017, 1, p. 221-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transkriptioner används av många forskare som använder kvalitativa metoder. Ofta förpassas transkriptionen till ett konstaterande att transkriptioner har gjorts, och den meningen placeras ofta i metodavsnittet under rubriken genomförande. Syftet med det här kapitlet är att granska och utforska transkriptionen och dess betydelse i kvalitativa studier med utgångspunkt i tidigare forskning och med hjälp av att diskutera två autentiska exempel. Forskningsfrågan i kapitlet är: Hur kan transkriptioner förstås som en praktik i kvalitativ forskning? För den diskussionen, kommer två typer av transkriptioner – transkription av intervju och transkription av videomaterial att diskuteras och analyseras. Kapitlets slutsats är att forskare i stor utsträckning behöver förhålla sig reflexivt till transkriptionsprocessen och se transkriptionen som nära sammanlänkad med forskningsfrågan och de teoretiska perspektiv som studien bygger på.

  • 14.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Working to bring more men into preschools: What are Swedish municipalities doing?2018In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 188, no 10, p. 1454-1467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study has been to examine a number of municipalities that work to recruit more men to work in preschools. The aim of the study has been to identify ways of working conducted by municipalities aiming to recruit more men to work in preschools. The study includes seven municipalities, all included in one network specifically aiming at the raising the number of men working in preschool. Interviews and discussions were carried out with key persons involved in the local work to recruit more men to preschools. This analysis can show trends in initiating the concrete work. The results show that an organization is needed and the formulation of objectives provides the organization. The organization and objectives contribute to continuity in the work, something that long-term areas for change often need.

  • 15.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Andersson Tengner, Lisa
    Arbeta med jämställdhet i förskolan: Med normmedveten pedagogik2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Hellman, Anette
    Göteborgs universitet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Male preschool teacher students negotiating masculinities: a qualitative study with men who are studying to become preschool teachers2017In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 187, no 7, p. 1208-1220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall interest is to understand how men who study preschool teaching negotiate masculinities. Earlier research shows how male teachers negotiate masculinities when being in and entering a predominantly feminine work area, such as early childhood education [see, for example, Brody, D. L. (2015). The construction of masculine identity among men who work with young children, an international perspective. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal23(3), 351–361; Pirard, F., Schoenmaeckers, P., & Camus, P. (2015). Men in childcare services: From enrolment in training programmes to job retention. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal23(3), 362–369; Simpson, R. (2014). Doing gender differently. Men in caring occupations. In S. Kumra, R. Simpson, & R. J. Burke (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of gender in organizations (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press)]. It this article Connell's notion on hegemonic masculinity is reflected on in terms of negotiation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 men attending the preschool teacher-training programmes at three Swedish universities. The result shows two main themes for negotiation that were called ‘Becoming and being a “breaker”’ and ‘Coping with sticking out’.

  • 17.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lillvist, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Flerspråkig identitetsutveckling som pedagogisk grund för en multietnisk förskola2017In: Flerspråkighet för lärande i förskola, förskoleklass och årskurs ett: Perspektiv från tre samproduktionsprojekt / [ed] Mia Heikkilä, Anne Lillvist, Mälardalens högskola , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lillvist, AnneMälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Flerspråkighet för lärande i förskola, förskoleklass och årskurs ett: Perspektiv från tre samproduktionsprojekt2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lillvist, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Norling, Martina
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Wetso, Gun-Marie
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Perspektiv från tresamproduktionsprojekt, en introduktion2017In: Flerspråkighet för lärande i förskola, förskoleklass och årskurs ett.: Perspektiv från tre samproduktionsprojekt / [ed] M. Heikkilä & A. Lillvist, Västerås: Mälardalen Studies in Educational Sciences , 2017, p. 10-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Ärlemalm-Hagsér, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Places and spaces in preschool – positions and representations of children, gender and age in the indoor environment2015In: Children and Young People in School and in Society / [ed] Anette Sandberg och Anders Garpelin, Hauppauge NY: Nova Science Publishers , 2015, p. 59-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early childhood institutions (hereafter Swedish preschools) can be understood as places and spaces where the cultural, social and physical worlds intersect in educational practices. In this chapter preschools are seen as practices that play an important part in shaping children's identities and offering them possibilities for learning. In this chapter we will present a small scale study with an explorative approach of indoor environments at ten preschools from different parts of Sweden inspired by Birkeland's (2012) study in which artefacts displayed on the walls in preschools in Norway and China were analyzed. The material in this study is constructed from photographs accompanied by short descriptions of the indoor environment. The photographs were taken by preschool teachers from different preschools. The photographs were analyzed similar to texts of indoor environments that tell narratives where children are represented, categorized and positioned in certain ways. Additionally they speak of how a good childhood is constructed in preschool and in what ways gender and age - explicitly or implicitly - inform the preschool practices. This study shows the necessity to recognize the complexity of the institutional educational practices and highlights how critical theoretical studies and analytical concepts such as place and space have the potential to elucidate hidden structures of positions and meanings. 

  • 21.
    Hellman, Anette
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Sweden.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Negotiations of Gender in Early Childhood Settings2014In: International Journal of Early Childhood, ISSN 0020-7187, E-ISSN 1878-4658, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 313-316Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hellman, Anette
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Sweden.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Sundhall, Jeanette
    Göteborgs universitet, Sweden.
    'Don't be Such a Baby!': Competence and Age as Intersectional Co-markers on Children's Gender2014In: International Journal of Early Childhood, ISSN 0020-7187, E-ISSN 1878-4658, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 327-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to show how norms about age intersect with gender and thus create social positions about incompetent and competent children. The paper also analyzes the relationship between gender, incompetence, and notions of ‘the baby.’ The theoretical framework uses concepts taken from gender theory (Butler, Gender trouble. Feminism and the subversion of identity, 1990, Bodies that matter. On the discursive limits of ‘sex,’ 1993; Thure ́n, Kvinnovetenskaplig Tidskrift 3–4:69–85, 1996) and the data are analyzed from an intersectional perspective with regard to gender and age. The material is taken from ethnographic observations conducted over the course of two years at two Swedish preschools. The result shows that norms about age and competence in early childhood are stressed in different ways at preschools. Norms about age often manifest in relation to incompetence. In the study, older preschool children understood the meaning of ‘incompetence’ as lacking control and acting in ways that could be disciplined in various ways depending on the child’s gender. Age is also a marker of status among children and all the children we observed wanted to be identified as ‘big.’ We conclude that when age is emphasized, gender 

    norms are also stressed. The notion of ‘being a baby’ constitutes a powerful way to police the border between those who are and are not gendered subjects. This study highlights the importance that age holds even for young children as they negotiate and naturalize the notions of two different genders. It also shows how important it is to be clearly gendered in order to be understood and be considered normal. 

  • 23.
    Lillvist, Anne
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    En fallstudie om föräldrasamverkan kring barns språkutveckling på en multietnisk förskoleavdelning2017In: Flerspråkighet för lärande i förskola, förskoleklass och årskurs ett: Perspektiv från tre samproduktionsprojekt / [ed] Mia Heikkilä, Anne Lillvist, Mälardalens högskola , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
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