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  • 1.
    Khan, Sikander
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Fudan University, School of Management, Shanghai, China.
    Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan: "In the Shadow of War on Terror"2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper looks at how Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) can be attracted to Pakistan in the shadow of war on terror. The political and economic situation drastically changed in Pakistan with the 11 September 2001 events. Pakistan decided to join hands with the US and its allies in combating terrorism.

    The population of Pakistan is estimated to be about 170 million. Pakistan is at war with Taliban in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The country is facing tremendous economic crises. The war is being waged in the northern part of Pakistan in close cooperation with the USA and its allies, including NATO. Pakistan armed forces are considered to be contracted troops or missionaries for the West.

    The political situation is very unstable. The judiciary is not functioning with wide spread corruption, extra-judicial killings, missing persons,  and target killings are common and every where. Several five stars hotels have been completely destroyed by suicide bombers with very high casualties including foreigners. Several UN officials and diplomats have been kidnapped or killed in various encounters.

    This uncertain political environment, wide spread corruption, suicide bombings with extreme poverty, bonded child labour, and high level of illiteracy is creating a time bomb which can explode at any time and lead to a civil war. Very few foreigners dare to visit Pakistan. Tourism industry is non existent in Pakistan. Very few international airlines fly to Pakistan. Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) is making huge losses with out-dated aircrafts.  Shortage of energy is common and load shading is widespread in the country. Crime rate is one of the highest in the world.

    Under these conditions, how can Pakistan attract FDI? An empirical study has been carried out in order to find out what are the costs and benefits in attracting FDI to Pakistan in the shadow of war on terror. Interviews have been carried out with government and military officials, international agencies, enterprises in the public and private sectors.

    Finally, advice is given to the Government of Pakistan, international agencies and donors, foreign and local companies in measures to be taken in attracting FDI to Pakistan.

  • 2.
    Khan, Sikander
    Superior University, Lahore, Pakistan.
    SAARC, The Road-Map for Economic Cooperation: South Asian Perspective2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the road-map for economic cooperation among South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) member countries. A South Asian perspective is used. In terms of population, SAARC with its 8 member states is the largest of any regional organization with over 23% of world population. However, the total GDP of the SAARC member states is only 3% of the world total GDP.

    India’s economy is disproportionately larger than other SAARC members, i.e. 80% of SAARC total GDP. On the other hand India’s trade with its two big neighbours is low (Bangladesh and Pakistan). Moreover, SAARC trade with the rest of the world is also low. 

    The reason for small share in trade is that most of the SAARC members’ economy are not so open, and they do not trade much with each other. SAARC members have not been as aggressive in attracting FDI (foreign direct investment) as ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations). 

    The paper examines the reason for low level of trade and regional integration among SAARC member states. Despite the political issues which will take a long time to resolve, India and Pakistan can continue with trade liberalization and free movement of people. We can see that China and India have had unresolved disputes since 1962 and the total trade between the two countries was just $1 billion in 1990s. In 2011 it has reached to US$ 74 billion. Similarly, China and Taiwan trade has reached US$100 billion, although China has territorial claim over Taiwan. 

    If India and Pakistan open up their borders, harbours, railway lines, and airports, and continue with the liberalization of trade then, it is estimated that the trade potential will increase from the present US$ 2.6 billion to maybe US$ 50 to 100 billion.

    Recently, there are some positive signs that India and Pakistan are improving their economic cooperation.

    Assuming that the bilateral relations between India and Pakistan improves, then SAARC will become one of the largest trading block in the world. The expectations are that successful outcome of SAFTA (South Asian Free Trade Area) could play an important role in strengthening trade ties within the region. With the reduction in tariff and non-tariff barriers, the informal trade will be also reduced. By eliminating or reducing the impediments to economic cooperation, SAARC will become one of the fast growing region with full of economic vitality.

  • 3.
    Khan, Sikander
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Fudan University, School of Management, Shanghai, China.
    STRATEGIES FOR ATTRACTING FDI TO VIETNAM2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vietnam has been following an open-door policy regarding foreign direct investment (FDI) since the early 1990s. FDI plays a major role in the Vietnam economy.

    It has been a latecomer in Southeast Asia for attracting FDI. The Asian financial crises of 1997 badly effected Vietnam. The FDI was less then US$ 4 billion per year during the period 1997 to 2002. However, since 2003 Vietnam has been successful in attracting a large amount of FDI.

    In 2008, the FDI is expected to reach a record level of US$ 55 - 60 billion. This amount of FDI will be the second highest in Asia after China despite the present global economic meltdown.

    Most of FDI is concentrated in the areas around Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and Hanoi. Vietnam has developed a system of industrial parks and export processing zones (EPZs) all over the country in order to provide suitable infrastructure and various other facilities to investors.

    Vietnam's low labour costs and young, highly literate workforce from a population of over 85 million have made the country a popular manufacturing hub in Asia.

    Despite many challenges in doing business faced by foreign investors in Vietnam, it is highly recommended to make FDI in Vietnam. However, investors must have a long-term perspective of this market.

    This paper examines the following: overview of FDI into Vietnam; results of FDI implemented strategies (1988 – 2008); challenges faced by Vietnam; suggestions for investment improvement measures to be taken by Vietnam in the context of fierce competition, especially from China, India and Thailand.

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