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  • 1.
    Dag, Munir
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Employment officers' assessments of employment prospects for persons with physical disability: Structural discrimination on the basis of gender and country of birth2016In: Disability Studies Quarterly (DSQ), ISSN 1041-5718, E-ISSN 2159-8371, Vol. 36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article concerns employment officers' assessments of persons with physical disabilities. The aim was to investigate the assessments made by employment officers of the motivation and ability to obtain, keep, and successfully perform a job, when young women and men, of Swedish and foreign country of birth, seek employment. The study is qualitative and data were collected via interviews supported by the vignette method. The respondents were eight employment officers working in employment offices in a large and a medium-sized municipality in Sweden. The results show that the employment officers assess the job seekers born in a foreign country (Iran) as less motivated to find a job and less motivated to work compared to those born in Sweden. The results also show that the applicants born in a foreign country are recommended to seek less-qualified jobs, and that women born in Sweden are recommended for more professional assistance and support to further education than other applicants. The study reveals the existence of negative ethnic discrimination in employment officers' assessments of employment prospects for persons with physical disabilities and indicates that improvements may be needed in the officers' understanding of how unconscious stereotypical expectations concerning disabilities, gender and ethnicity can affect their assessments and decisions. It is suggested that careful consideration should be given to whether pedagogic models that have been used in other contexts, for instance education, could be used as a complement in the management of cases in order to detect biases in assessments.

  • 2.
    Dag, Munir
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Unga människor med rörelsehinder: förankring, marginalisering och social exkludering2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to describe the specific barriers young people with disabilities experience in their ambition to get a job. The aim was also to investigate how these young people’s social and economic situation has been affected by their disability.

    The results are based on two reports: one qualitative, consisting of interviews with 12 individuals with physical disabilities, and one quantitative in the form of a questionnaire answered by 706 persons. In the case of the questionnaire, the response rate was 48 per cent. Both reports are based on the same criteria, namely, that the respondents should have a physical disability, be 20–35 years of age and be participating in some form of employment policy program.

    The results from both studies show that individuals with physical disabilities encounter different types of barriers on the labour market, which can be categorised as being either at the individual level or at the social level. The barriers at the individual level are low education, long-term unemployment, grave physical disability and lack of work experience. The barriers identified at the social level are primarily poorly adapted workplaces, a too high working pace, employers’ negative attitudes, insufficient knowledge of the competence of disabled persons and an overly generous social welfare system. All these factors constitute a direct obstacle to employing persons with a physical disability.

    The results from the interview study show that the respondents have few social relations. The majority of the respondents have social intercourse solely with family members or parents. Most of the respondents in the questionnaire study state that they have frequent social relations with friends and acquaintances. Both the interview study and the questionnaire study reveal that the respondents’ financial position has worsened as a result if their physical disability.

    Conclusions that can be drawn from this thesis are that young people with physical disabilities encounter different barriers in their attempts to get a job and to maintain social relations. Based on the results, some of the respondents can be regarded as being socio-economically marginalised.

  • 3.
    Dag, Munir
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Unga människor med rörelsehinder utanför arbetsmarknaden: om barriärer, sociala relationer och livsvillkor2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the specific barriers which young individuals (20-35 years) with physical disabilities experience that they encounter in their ambition to become part of the labour market. Furthermore, the aim was to describe the everyday life of the individuals in unemployment and to compare this with the situation in some kind of employment. The method used is qualitative, consisting of interviews with 12 individuals with physical disabilities.

    The results from the interviews show that individuals with physical disabilities en-counter barriers in different areas. The barriers arise through a complex interaction be-tween the social and physical environment, legislation and the individual. The study implies that individuals with physical disablities encounter different barriers in their attempts to find work. Examples of such obstacles are the disability itself, the level of adaptation in the physical environment, prejudices in society and existing laws. From this perspective, three main categories of barriers are distinguished in the study – those related to the individual, the environment and legislation.

    The result shows that barriers on an individual level are low level of education, lack of work experience, long-term unemployment and poor knowledge of legislation. Another barrier on an individual level is low motivation to look for work.

    The identified barriers related to the environment were mainly poorly accomodated work places, lack of technical aids and unsatisfactory transportation services, lack of information as well as prevailing attitudes in society about people with disabilities. These aspects imply direct obstacles for people with physical disabilities to find em-ployment.

    Moreover, the study indicates that legislation can be considered a barrier. The group of informants points out that they have insufficient knowledge about existing rules, but also that it is not profitable to work since their income does not improve by working.

  • 4.
    Dag, Munir
    Örebro universitet, Sweden.
    Unga människor med rörelsehinder utanför arbetsmarknaden: om individ- och samhällsrelaterade faktorers betydelse för individens ställning i samhälletManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5. Dag, Munir
    et al.
    Kullberg, Christian
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Can they work it out and do they get any satisfaction?: Young Swedish physically disabled men's and women's work involvement and job satisfaction2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 287-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, results are reported from a study of what value young (20-35 years) disabled men and women ascribe to a job and the job satisfaction they have. Data for the study were collected via a survey questionnaire. The results show that both the men and the women attach great psychosocial value to work and that they have a high level of job satisfaction. The results also show that the men tend to ascribe higher economic value to paid work than the women do and that the women ascribe a higher psychosocial value to paid work than the men. Finally, there is a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the results of the social policy measures taken for men and women in the group in question.

  • 6.
    Kullberg, Christian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dag, Munir
    Fernström, Maria
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Discrimination of young women and men with physical disabilities: Enhancing the understanding of how to study "sensitive" or value-laden topics2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Kullberg, Christian
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dag, Munir
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Viktig Intressant Person (VIP) i användning: - En resultatutvärdering med programteoretisk ansat2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar resultaten från en utvärdering av det våldsförebyggande programmet Viktig intressant person (VIP). VIP är ett strukturerat målgruppsanpassat utbildningsprogram med pedagogiska inriktning som bedrivits i Eskilstuna kommun sedan 2014. Insatsen utgör en arbetsmetod som har utvecklats för att hjälpa personer med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar. Målgruppen för insatsen kvinnor och män som har insatser med stöd av Socialtjänstlagen (SoL) eller Lagen om stöd och service (LSS). Syftet med VIP-insatsen är att minska våldsutsattheten för denna grupp genom att ge dem det stöd de behöver och har rätt till.Utvärderingens övergripande syfte kan konkretiseras i tre delar. Del ett att undersöka; giltigheten i VIP-programmet, det vill säga insatsens programteori. Del två att undersöka hur insatsen genomförts, det vill säga programtroheten i insatsen. Del tre att utvärdera programmets resultat, det vill säga om deltagande i VIP leder till positiv förändring avseende psykisk hälsa, utsatthet för våld och Känsla av sammanhang (KASAM).Utvärderingen har genomförts under perioden hösten 2016 till våren 2018 genom en kombination av olika utvärderingssteg. Det första steget utgörs av ett programteoretiskt arbete och en forskningsöversikt. Fokus i forskningsöversikten har varit på vilka våldspreventiva insatser som finns för gruppen samt vilken förändringspotential dessa har. Det andra steget består i att studera insatsen programtrohet. Det tredje steget har sökt fånga den förändring som sker för brukarna före (T1) och efter (T2) insatsens genomförande. Detta har skett genom att med hjälp av skattningsskalor göra mätningar av KASAM, psykisk hälsa och utsatthet för våld- och konflikter. Utöver detta har även semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer kring upplevda förändringar i relation till de nämnda områdena genomförts med brukarna.Utvärderingens empiriska underlag utgörs av skattningar och intervjuer före- och efter insatsen med totalt 26 brukare, två intervjuer med skaparna av programmet, sex intervjuer med VIP-ledare samt material hämtade från tre forskningsseminarier som genomförts med VIP-ledare, styrgruppen för VIP samt andra intressenter.Det empiriska underlaget för utvärderingen är relativt begränsat för att i alla avseenden, kunna säkerställa förändringar som sker hos brukarna. När det gäller KASAM visar resultatet emellertid att det sker signifikanta förändringar till det bättre för brukarna. Resultaten är inte lika tydliga när det gäller deltagarnas psykiska hälsa. När det gäller detta område är emellertid ett viktigt resultat att för de deltagare som innan insatsen hade måttlig till hög3grad av psykisk ohälsa så minskade denna efter insatsen. Förändringar i relation till våld och konflikter visar en likande tendens som psykisk hälsa. Även i detta hänseende sker en positiv förändring. Resultatet bygger på ett begränsat antal brukare vilket gör att de förändringar som sker i relation till psykisk ohälsa samt våld och konflikter inte går att säkerställa statistiskt. Det tydligaste tecknet på att det skett en positiv förändring för brukarna erhålls när resultaten från samtliga tre undersökta områden (KASAM, psykisk hälsa samt våld- och konflikter) summeras. Resultatet visar då att samtliga brukare fått en positiv utveckling på minst ett av de nämnda områdena och att merparten av deltagarna fått en positiv förändring på flera av dem. Det finns också brukare som visar en negativ utveckling över tid. Exempelvis uppger några av brukarna att den psykiska ohälsan ökat över tid. Det finns flera olika förklaringar till att det sker en negativ utveckling för några brukare över tid men det mesta pekar på att detta inte kan hänvisas till insatsen.Utvärderingen belyser vidare insatsen programteoretiska antaganden. När det gäller dessa dras slutsatsen att programmet har en rimlig logiskt-teoretisk utgångspunkt som följs genom hela dess genomförande. I förhållande till programteorin identifieras emellertid även behovet av att ytterligare tydliggöra insatsen teoretiska antagande. Programtroheten i programtroheten belyses också i utvärderingen. Resultatet av detta arbete tyder på en hög grad av följsamhet, det vill säga att andel centrala behandlingsmoment (kärnkomponenter) som genomförs med skicklighet och noggrannhet. Denna slutsats gäller för merparten av de totalt 12 lektionerna. Några lektioner visar på lägre grad av följsamhet. För dessa utbildningstillfällen finns det således möjlighet att ytterligare förbättra följsamheten.Den sammantagna bedömningen av utvärderingen är att våldspreventionsprogrammet VIP skapat en positiv utveckling för deltagarna. Förutom att insatsen visar att Känslan av sammanganhang ökat signifikant vittnar flertalet brukare om både kunskapsmässig, attitydmässiga och beteendemässiga förändringar som ett direkt resultat av insatsen. I det fall det sker en negativ utveckling för brukarna är det möjligt att hänvisa detta till insatsen.Samtidigt som detta sägs kan det emellertid konstateras att det föreligger ett behov av fortsatt kunskapsutveckling, genom systematisk uppföljning och utvärdering av VIP-insatsen.

  • 8.
    Olsson, Sylvia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dag, Munir
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Kullberg, Christian
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Deaf and hard-of-hearing adolescents' experiences of inclusion and exclusion in mainstream and special schools in Sweden2018In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 495-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the question of which school environment - special or mainstream school - is more favourable for deaf and hard-of-hearing students in Sweden, when it comes to their well-being, and their social and academic inclusion. The aim is threefold: first to compare the well-being of adolescents who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, who are deaf or hard-of-hearing and have additional disabilities, and who have no disabilities; second to compare the adolescents from the two deaf and hard-of-hearing groups and their experiences of inclusion and exclusion in school; and third to ascertain if any gender differences exist between the two groups of deaf and hard-of-hearing students concerning their experiences of inclusion and exclusion. A total of 7865 adolescents (13-18 years of age) answered a total survey about the life and health of young people in a county in Sweden. The results show that both boys and girls in the hard-of-hearing groups rated their well-being lower and were less satisfied with their lives than pupils without disabilities. They also show that the hard-of-hearing boys and girls attending special school were more satisfied with their lives and to a greater extent felt included both socially and academically than students in mainstream school.

  • 9.
    Ramsten, Camilla
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Martin, Lene
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Dag, Munir
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    A Balance of Social Inclusion and Risks: Staff Perceptions of Information and Communication technology in the Daily Life of Young Adults with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability in a Social Care ContextIn: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1741-1122, E-ISSN 1741-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Information and communication technology (ICT) has increased in importance and facilitates participation in several life areas throughout society. However, young adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability make less use ICT than the general population. Disability services staff play a central role in supporting and enabling service users in daily life, and their perceptions of ICT are important to their role in service provision.

    Aim: To describe staff perceptions of the role of ICT and how it affects daily life in young adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability living in residential homes.

    Method: Focus group interviews and individual interviews were conducted with staff working in residential homes in which young adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability live. All materials were transcribed verbatim and analysed using latent content analysis.

    Findings: Staff perceived ICT and, more specifically, the Internet as being supportive of both daily life and social relationships of these young adults, but they also viewed ICT as posing social risks. Perceptions of and support for ICT were related to staff perceptions about what is appropriate and manageable in relation to an individual resident’s functioning level. Staff members also considered the views of parents about appropriate content when providing support.

    Discussion: Staff in residential homes for young adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability use their implicit moral judgement about the use of ICT by residents. Their enablement of and support for ICT are not primarily based on the service user’s wishes or interests. This finding implies a risk that the organization of a conflict-free service provision is a higher priority than service users’ participation in social life.

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