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  • 1.
    Azimoh, C. L.
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg, Department of Quality and Operations Management, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Mbohwa, C.
    University of Johannesburg, Department of Quality and Operations Management, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Replicability and scalability of mini-grid solution to rural electrification programs in sub-Saharan Africa2017In: Renewable Energy, ISSN 0960-1481, Vol. 106, p. 222-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of off-grid electrification programs in developing countries largely based on mini-grid and solar home system (SHS) has shown that they are faced with low development imparts and sustainability challenges, which has resulted in failure of many projects. This study provides solutions on how to surmount these challenges, leaning on the experience of a hybrid solar-diesel mini-grid at Tsumkwe village in Namibia. It provides analyses of a case study based on empirical evidence from field studies, interviews of representatives of households, public institutions and energy providers. In addition, it investigates the technical challenges and economic impacts of the electrification program. HOMER™ and MATLAB™ models were used in the analysis and investigations. The findings show that despite the challenges, the system has been sustained because it keyed into an existing structure with growth potentials. The progressive tariff system adopted by the government helped to cushion costs and allow low income households in the energy matrix. Adoption of strict maintenance measures, and implementation of energy efficiency measures prior to the commissioning of the program, resulted in the reduction of costs. The success elements identified in this study could be extrapolated in other sub-Saharan African countries if the challenges are properly addressed.

  • 2.
    Azimoh, Chukwuma Leonard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Illuminated but not electrified: An assessment of the impact of Solar Home System on rural households in South Africa2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 155, p. 354-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of the off-grid electrification program in South Africa using the Solar Home System (SHS) was a central component of the government policy aimed at bringing development to un-electrified households. An assessment of the performance of SHS in many countries provided little evidence to support the development impact of the system. The general perception is that the SHS program is wasting government funds and has no hope of achieving the set objectives. Previous scientific reports have concluded that SHS is the most viable technology for bringing about socio-economic development to rural households. Most of these conclusions have been based on one sided arguments and largely on anecdotal evidence. This study provides a pluralistic view of the subject from the perspective of the energy service companies (ESCOs) and the households using the equipment. The development impact of SHS is subjected to scientific analysis by investigating the economic and social dimensions of the program. Additionally, the sustainability of the South African SHS program is assessed by investigating the challenges facing the ESCOs and the households. The study reveals that illumination provided by SHS electricity has profound impact on the livelihoods of rural households. Due to the limited capacity of SHS for productive and thermal use, there are limited direct economic benefits to the households. The associated economic impact is peripheral to the secondary usage of SHS electricity. SHS has improved the productivity of small scale business owners who utilize the light from SHS to do business at night. Irregularities in payment of subsidy funds and energy bills, high operation cost, non-optimal use of SHS, grid encroachment, and lack of customer satisfaction contribute to make the business unsustainable for the ESCOs.

  • 3.
    Azimoh, Chukwuma Leonard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The burden of shading and location on the sustainability of South African solar home system program2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 308-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most contributions on the issues of sustainability of rural electrification projects have focused on the technology and business models used to drive the projects. The issues of user education and environmental impact on the technology have received little attention, despite the fact that these challenges affect lives of projects after commissioning. The usage pattern of solar home systems (SHS) by most users that placed their solar panels close to obstructing objects, results in shading of the panels, and geographic location of households in the concession areas of the South African SHS program affects the performances of the system. The non-optimal use of SHS is mainly due to lack of user education. Therefore this paper reports on the impact of geographic location and shading of panels on the economics and technical performance of SHS. The study was done by investigating the performance of 75 WP solar panels operated at two sites in South Africa (Upington in Northern Cape Province and Thlatlaganya in Limpopo Province), the performance of an optimized shaded SHS and a non-shaded one was also investigated. The results show that both geographic location and shading compromise the performance of the systems, the energy output of a solar panel located at Upington is increased by 19% and the state of charge of the battery (SOC) increased by 6%, compared to the panel situated at Thlatlaganya village. Also the life span of the battery is increased by about one year. The SOC of the partially shaded SHS is reduced by 22% and loss of power to the load increased by 20%. The geographical location of the SHS concession areas in South Africa and lack of adherence to the manufacturer's installation specification affects the economics of SHS and the energy output vis-a-vis the sustainability of the program due to reduction in life cycle of the batteries. 

  • 4.
    Azimoh, Chukwuma Leonard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Mbohwa, Charles
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Electricity for development:: Mini-grid solution for rural electrificationin South Africa2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, no 110, p. 268-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of most rural electrification programs in the developing world is to bring about socioeconomicdevelopment to households. Governments have put in place a number of measures to achievethis goal. Previous studies on rural electrification programs in developing countries show that solar homesystems and mini-grid systems are the dominant technologies. Assessments of a pilot hybrid mini-gridproject at Lucingweni village have concluded that mini-grid projects are not feasible due to high electricityproduction costs. As a result efforts toward rural electrification have been focused on the solar homesystem. Nevertheless, previous studies of the South African solar home system program have shown thatthe development objectives of the program are yet to be met more than a decade after commissioning.Therefore, this study investigates the viability of a hybrid mini-grid as a solution for rural developmentin South Africa. Investigations were based on Lucingweni and Thlatlaganya, two rural Villages where themini-grid and solar home system have been introduced. The mini-grid systems were designed taking intoconsideration available natural resources and existing load profiles. The results show that a village of 300households needs about 2.4 kW h/household/day of electricity to initiate and sustain income generatingactivities and that the solar home system is not capable of supporting this level of demand. We also showthat in locations with hydro resources, a hybrid mini-grid system has the most potential for meeting theenergy needs of the households in a cost effective manner. The assessment shows that with adequateplanning and optimization of available resources, the cost of electricity production can be reduced.

  • 5.
    Azimoh, Chukwuma Leonard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    An assessment of unforeseen losses resulting from inappropriate use of solar home systems in South Africa2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 136, p. 336-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges to the sustainability of the Solar Home System (SHS) electrification program in South Africa is equipment theft. In response to this, communities susceptible to solar panel theft resort to mounting their panels flat on the ground so they can be looked after during the day and taken indoors at night for safe keeping. Other households use their security lights to illuminate their environment and provide security for pole and roof mounted solar panels at night. These actions have consequential effects on the performance of the SHS. Several studies have detected resentment from households regarding the low power quality from these systems. Most scientific contributions on the issue of low power from SHS have focused on the challenges based on the technical designs of the systems. The power losses due to the usage pattern of the system has not received much attention. This study therefore reports on the technical losses as a result of the deviation from the designed and installed specification of the system by the users in order to protect their systems. It also investigates the linkage between the technical and economic losses which affects the sustainability of SHS program. A case study was performed in Thlatlaganya village within Limpopo province in South Africa. Technical analysis using PVSYST solar software revealed that the energy output and performance of the battery is compromised as a result of these practices. Economic analysis indicates that the battery life and the economics of owning and operating SHS are affected negatively. The study recommends solutions to mitigate these losses, and proposes a cost effective way of optimizing the operation of SHS using a Bench-Rack system for mounting solar panels.

  • 6.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Holmberg, Aksel
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Pettersson, Oscar
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Hangula, A.
    Namibia Energy Institute, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Araoz, F. B.
    School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhang, Y.
    School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An open-source optimization tool for solar home systems: A case study in Namibia2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 130, no 15, p. 106-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar home systems (SHSs) represent a viable technical solution for providing electricity to households and improving standard of living conditions in areas not reached by the national grid or local grids. For this reason, several rural electrification programmes in developing countries, including Namibia, have been relying on SHSs to electrify rural off-grid communities. However, the limited technical know-how of service providers, often resulting in over- or under-sized SHSs, is an issue that has to be solved to avoid dissatisfaction of SHSs’ users. The solution presented here is to develop an open-source software that service providers can use to optimally design SHSs components based on the specific electricity requirements of the end-user. The aim of this study is to develop and validate an optimization model written in MS Excel-VBA which calculates the optimal SHSs components capacities guaranteeing the minimum costs and the maximum system reliability. The results obtained with the developed tool showed good agreement with a commercial software and a computational code used in research activities. When applying the developed optimization tool to existing systems, the results identified that several components were incorrectly sized. The tool has thus the potentials of improving future SHSs installations, contributing to increasing satisfaction of end-users.

  • 7.
    Freidank, Tim
    et al.
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Drescher-Hartung, Silvia
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Behnsen, Andreas
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ahrens, Thorsten
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    MIDTERM OUTPUT REPORT – PILOT B IN SWEDEN2014Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hakalehto, E.
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Heitto, A.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Andersson, Henny
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jansson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Reijonen, T.
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Suhonen, A.
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Jääskeläinen, A.
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Laatikainen, R.
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Some remarks on processing of slaughterhouse wastes from ecological chicken abattoir and farm2016In: Microbiological Industrial Hygiene, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , 2016, p. 271-293Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the meat industries, it is always of high importance to follow up the zoonotic and other hazardous micro-organisms, and to prevent their risky distribution, emission and dissemination. Besides proper hygiene control, as well as organized exploitation of the side streams and slaughterhouse wastes helps in the hygienization of the biomasses, processes, and the entire industry. During this experimentation it turned out that it was possible to produce gases and chemical goods, not only from the carboxylates, but also from the more tedious protein and lipid containing wastes. Moreover, these promising results were obtained from a substrate mix with manure and wood chips. These results implied to the high versatility and flexibility of the bioprocess during Pilot A tests within the European Union Baltic Sea region project ABOWE. In Sweden these tests were carried out using the combined wastes from the ecological chicken farm and abattoir as the raw materials. This is a report of the practical set up during intensive experimentation conducted jointly by the Swedish and Finnish personnel. The report of the runs in Sweden is presented also in the public report of the European Union funded project (www.abowe.eu).

  • 9.
    Huopana, Tuomas
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Niska, Harri
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Antikainen, Eero
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hakalehto, Elias
    Finnoflag, Finland.
    Ahrens, Thorsten
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Sustainability assessment of biorefinery and dry digestion systems: Case:Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jamieson, M.
    Tranås Utbildningscentrum, Sweden .
    Kinyaga, V.
    Desert Research Foundation of Namibia, Namibia.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Assessing biogas potential of slaughter waste: Can biogas production solve a serious waste problem at abattoirs?2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 2600-2603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of solid waste and wastewater in Namibia is a growing concern. This study investigated the biogas potential of slaughter waste at a small stock abattoir in southern Namibia. Laboratory experiments with five different mixes of blood; stomach content and manure from sheep were tested. Preliminary findings suggest that the most optimum mixture of slaughter waste was relatively large amounts of stomach and intestine content. The blood proportion should be kept relatively low, since the high nitrogen contents in the blood may inhibit the biogas production. The substrate mixture reflecting the actual ratio of waste generated in the slaughter process resulted in the highest methane production. This suggests that it is possible to produce viable amounts of biogas only using the waste produced at the abattoir, without adding other green substrate. Findings presented here together with results from a larger biogas digester, will be elaborated in the full paper.

  • 11.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Eskelinen, Tuomo
    Huopana, Tuomas
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    INVESTMENT MEMO ABOWE PILOT B SWEDEN2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is one output of ABOWE project (Implementing Advanced Concepts for Biological Utilization of Waste), which belongs to EU Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. ABOWE works with two promising technologies to unlock investments. Two mobile pilot plants have been built and will be tested in several Baltic Sea regions. These pilots are based on a novel biorefinery concept from Finnoflag Oy, Finland, known as Pilot A as well as a German dry fermentation process, known as Pilot B. The pilots form the basis for compilation of Investment Memos and organizing Investor Events. Also a regional model is used to evaluate the new processes’ economic and climatic impacts in each region. The desired outcome from ABOWE is implementer/investor driven continuation projects targeting full-scaleplant investments of the two technologies.

    The purpose of ABOWE Work Package 2 is to gather and communicate information from many aspects of technologies which are piloted with Pilot A and Pilot B to support investment decisions for full scale plants. In practice, a demo full scaleplant would be needed in order to convince the commercial investors and implementers to full scale plants. This means that ABOWE provides with profound information and a step forward regarding the two technologies. After ABOWE, the technology will need development for full-scale, and the feasibility will need further analysis. An implementer and investor should be found to conduct development further towards full-scale demo plant.

  • 12.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Eskelinen, Tuomo
    Lappi, Mervi
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kauppinen, Marja
    Huopana, Tuomas
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Hakalehto, Elias
    INVESTMENT MEMO ABOWE PILOT A SWEDEN2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report was compiled by the ABOWE project (Implementing Advanced Concepts for Biological Utilization of Waste) funded by the EU Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. This report presentsresults and information of relevance for the up-scaling of the Finnoflag biorefinery technology, piloted in Finland, Poland and Sweden, to support investment decisions towards full-scale implementation.

    The piloting of the technology done by the ABOWE project provides valuable information and a step forward regarding the technology. The next step, after the pilot phase, would be to construct a full-scalede monstration plant to showcase the potential of the technology to potential commercial investorsor implementers. The bioprocess will need to be further designedand optimized through longer testing with selected waste materials to produce targeted products. This will all0w for full-scaleoperationsand further feasibility analysis. This falls beyond the scope of the ABOWE project. This report forms the basis of an investment memo that provides decision support topossible implementers and investors that are interested in taking the lead in the development of the technology further to a full-scale demo plant.

  • 13.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Azimoh, Chukwuma Leonard
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Successful technology transfer: What does it take?2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 130, p. 807813-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology transfer from developed to developing countries is often problematic. Insufficient resources for operation and maintenance after project finalization are common challenges. Findings from assessments of two projects in rural Botswana and Namibia where different renewable energy technologies were introduced to improve access to electricity are presented. In Tsumkwe, a Namibian off-grid settlement with about 4000 inhabitants, a large solar-diesel hybrid system has been constructed. A smaller system using photovoltaic and biogas is piloted in the off-grid settlement Sekhutlane in Botswana. In Sekhutlane beneficiaries' ability to pay for services is addressed by supporting local entrepreneurs to establish electricity-based businesses. Functionality of installations was inspected and semi-structured interviews were held with key stakeholders. In Tsumkwe local service providers were unprepared to take charge of operations and maintenance after completion of the project and users have difficulties paying for the services. Too strong focus on technology and insufficient efforts made to involve local institutions and beneficiaries throughout the project are main causes. The promotion of local entrepreneurship in Sekhutlane has resulted in 17 local businesses being established, likely to strengthen the cash economy and improved ability to pay for services, and thereby contributing financial resources towards operation and maintenance of systems. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 14.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Desert Research Foundation of Namibia.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    RECIRCULATION OF BIOGAS RESIDUE TO AGRICULTURAL LAND IN NAMIBIA– RISKS AND POTENTIALS IN FULL UTILIZATION OF ORGANIC WASTE2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current situation of waste disposal in Namibia is under developed. The country has a large meat and dairy industry as well as some breweries and wineries and today, none of the organic wastes are reused, recycled or utilized for energy utilization. Little has been done in order to collect and utilize the resources in the organic waste from these industries but there is currently some early stage projects in planning related to biogas production from organic wastes. This study aims at evaluating the potential for some three planned biogas projects in Namibia at early stage, especially regarding the management of the biogas residue. In this processes, a first screening of the potential biogas substrate in the southern part of Namibia (south of Windhoek) was conducted. Moreover, the paper aims to point out the potentials in using organic waste for biogas production and thereafter recycling the nutrient rich residue to the farmland of Namibia. The risks in such utilization will be touched upon, such as the toxic effects of the alkali rich liquid phase or the NO2-emissions. Of which the first can be considered a risk but also a potential if the alkali residue partly can replace the use of pesticide. We conclude that the availability of substrates, i.e. organic wastes, is sufficient for supplying one or several biogas plants to the area. According to our conclusions, fertilization with biogas residue should be promoted in Namibia as an alternative to the current fertilization. 

  • 15.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jääskelainen, A
    Savonia Univ Appl Sci, Environm Engn, Kuopio, Finland.
    Suhonen, A.
    Savonia Univ Appl Sci, Environm Engn, Kuopio, Finland.
    Laatikainen, R.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Pharm, Kuopio, Finland.
    Hakalehto, E.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Pharm, Kuopio, Finland.
    Using slaughterhouse waste in a biochemical-based biorefinery – results from pilot scale tests2017In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, p. 1275-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel biorefinery concept was piloted using protein-rich slaughterhouse waste, chicken manureand straw as feedstocks. The basic idea was to provide a proof of concept for the production ofplatform chemicals and biofuels from organic waste materials at non-septic conditions. Thedesired biochemical routes were 2,3-butanediol and acetone–butanol fermentation. The resultsshowed that hydrolysis resulted only in low amounts of easily degradable carbohydrates.However, amino acids released from the protein-rich slaughterhouse waste were utilized andfermented by the bacteria in the process. Product formation was directed towards acidogeniccompounds rather than solventogenic products due to increasing pH-value affected by ammoniarelease during amino acid fermentation. Hence, the process was not effective for 2,3-butanediolproduction, whereas butyrate, propionate,γ-aminobutyrate and valerate were predominantlyproduced. This offered fast means for converting tedious protein-rich waste mixtures intoutilizable chemical goods. Furthermore, the residual liquid from the bioreactor showedsignificantly higher biogas production potential than the corresponding substrates. Thecombination of the biorefinery approach to produce chemicals and biofuels with anaerobicdigestion of the residues to recover energy in form of methane and nutrients that can beutilized for animal feed production could be a feasible concept for organic waste utilization.

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