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  • 1.
    Gaetana, Sapienza
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hardware/Software Partitioning Methodology for Embedded Applications using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The new hardware technologies enable execution of embedded systems applications on heterogeneous execution platforms. These platforms consist of different execution processing units, for example of CPUs, and FPGAs, that enable the application execution of software (SW) components, typically implemented as C/C++ code, and hardware (HW) components, implemented as VHDL code. This heterogeneity enables building dedicated components which can significantly improve the application performance. This, however, requires decisions on which components will be implemented as SW and which as HW execution units. This decision process in known as HW/SW partitioning, and is a subject of research of more than 20 years. Typical goals of this research was to find the optimal partitioning with respect to the system performance, and possibly a couple of other properties such as power consumption, or resource utilization (e.g. related to CPU memory footprint and FPGA area). However, by significant increase in complexity of the applications, and inclusion of different requirements, the partitioning decisions become more complex, as well as the entire development process with an integrated partitioning decision process. Today there is a lack of a systematic approach for partitioning complex applications. This thesis addresses this challenge. The main objective of the thesis is to design and build a systematic partitioning decision process that includes many requirements of different types. The thesis describes a new method MULTIPAR that includes the partitioning decision process for component-based embedded systems. The method is based on model-based engineering principles; components are analysed as models which can be implemented either as a SW or HW components, and the implementation itself is performed at a late stage of the development process. The partition is based on the optimisation of the application’s and components’ extra-functional properties (EFPs) that are derived from the requirements and project constraints. For the optimization a Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) method is used. As a part of the main contribution, the thesis includes several independent contributions that are of a more general character: a) modeling principles for component-based applications which consists of SW and HW components, and a component can be implemented as SW or/and HW code; b) a classification and analysis of EFPs in respect to the dependency on their HW or SW implementation; c) composition rules for some of EFPs for SW and HW components; d) suitability and limitations of MCDA methods in their usage for the partitioning decisions. MULTIPAR is also implemented in a form of a tool that enables a selection of components and analysis of the system in respect to the selected EFPs. The feasibility of MULTIPAR was validated through two industrial cases. The thesis is organized in two parts; the first part includes an introduction summarizing the overall work and discussing the research approach, and the second part collect the most relevant papers published in different venues.

  • 2.
    Gaetana, Sapienza
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Goran, Brestovac
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Robi, Grgurina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Tiberiu, Seceleanu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    On applying multiple criteria decision analysis in embedded systems design2016Inngår i: Design automation for embedded systems, ISSN 0929-5585, E-ISSN 1572-8080, Vol. 20, s. 211-238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We focus here on the application of multi critera decision analysis (MCDA) techniques in hardware/software partitioning activities to be used in the design and deployment of embedded systems. Our goal is to identify the best existing methods and tools suitable to support the approach we have taken for the partitioning process. We provide this via a survey of the most well-known MCDA methods and tools (for a specific class of MCDA methods called multi attribute decision making. We identify a set of criteria that need to be addressed, in some way, by the methods, and implemented by related tools. These "11-suitability criteria" help us in deciding the appropriateness of the analysed methods and tools for the envisaged partitioning approach. In brief, we are interested that the MCDA methods are taking into account multiple extra-functional properties, expressed by a variety of types, with possible missing values, should enable dependency handling, decision traceability, etc. The conclusion is that there are criteria that are not fulfilled by any of the methods, and hence there is no method or tool that can directly used for the partitioning. However, the results shows the potential of using MCDA in the partitioning process and provide a good starting point for future research activities.

  • 3.
    Gaetana, Sapienza
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Meli, Nunzio
    University of Catania, Italy.
    Eriksson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Sweden..
    Methodology for Embedded Systems Partitioning based on Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Platforms with different computation resource, e.g. CPUs and FPGAs, known as heterogeneous platforms, are becoming one of the first choices to deploy performance-requiring embedded applications. On this technology, functionalities can be implemented either as hardware (HW) or software (SW) components. In this paper, we propose a new methodology, called MultiPar, which is able to provide optimal partitioning solution(s) with respe system properties based on Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis. We provide an overview of the methodology. MultiPar is based on a bottom-up principle, first, to find the most suitable SW and HW implementations based on their properties, and then applying compositional rules and other means uses the system properties to find the best partitioning solutions. In addition, we show the feasibility of the proposed methodology through an industrial case, and in particular validation of the compositional rules for some properties used in the partitioning decision process. MultiPar methodology is implemented as a tool, which is used in the validation process.

  • 4.
    Gaetana, Sapienza
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Extra-Functional Properties Composability for Embedded Systems Partitioning2016Inngår i: Proceedings - 2016 19th International ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Component-Based Software Engineering, CBSE 2016, 2016, s. 69-78Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern embedded systems utilize the advances in heterogeneous platforms that enable implementing functions in software (SW) and hardware (HW) components. A proper configuration of SW and HW components can significantly improve the values of the extra-functional properties such as performance and energy savings. However, due to increasing application complexity, it is difficult to find the best combination of HW and SW components. The problem basically boils down to calculate, for a given architecture, the system properties from the components' ones. In this paper, we address the problem of composability of EFPs at system level. Although in general this is not a solvable problem, we present that, under strictly specified constraints, it is possible to compose the system EFPs starting from the component ones. We start by detailing constraints related to the system architecture, platform and process development and, based on these constraints, we provide composition rules for different types of EFPs. We demonstrate the results through an industrial example.

  • 5.
    Lednicki, L.
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Johansson, M. E.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Hallmans, D.
    ABB Power Systems HVDC, Sweden.
    Integrating Version Control in a Standardized Service-Oriented Tool Chain2016Inngår i: Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2016, s. 323-328Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of modern embedded systems most often requires multiple specialized tools to be used during the development process. These tools are commonly integrated into tool chains. An efficient way of achieving such integration is through the use of an tool integration framework, with one of the most prominent of such frameworks being Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC). However, at present time OSLC does not provide an established way for fully integrating version control systems. This paper presents how version control systems can be integrated into a tool chain based on OSLC. The integration is enabled by defining a version control domain based on the OSLC core specification, describing how to represent versioned artifacts and perform version control operations. The proposed approach is implemented and its feasibility is proven on a case study tool chain, which integrates the Team Foundation Server version control system and an industrial design tool for the power distribution domain.

  • 6.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Multiple Property-based Partitioning for Embedded Applications2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The new development of different types of computation units, such as FPGAs and multicore CPUs, enables a tremendous improvement in performance of applications that utilize the dedicated types of computations. For complex applications this however introduces a new challenge - what is the optimal deployment configuration of their components?

    Today the application deployment is based on ad-hoc architectural decisions taken in an early design phase, when many design details are unknown, and as a consequence they often change in a later phase, increasing so the development costs. In addition, the decisions are taken based on a limited number of requirements, mostly related to runtime properties such as performance, resource utilization and power consumption, but do not consider many other aspects related to lifecycle properties, or to the project constraints. This approach increases the risk that a decision has a negative impact on a runtime or a lifecycle system property and may lead to the mentioned changes. This thesis addresses the problem of optimal hardware/software deployment of an application. The main objective is to define a process in which the deployment decisions are taken in a systematic way in a later phase of the design process, and the partition decision process takes into account all artifacts on which the decisions have direct impact. These artifacts include the application’s runtime properties, the properties related to the application lifecycle, the business goals, and the development project constraints. To achieve this objective we have a) defined a development process model that addresses the deployment explicitly in the late design phase, b) designed a metamodel of component-based applications deployed as hardware or software executable units, and c) analyzed the suitability of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis methods for providing partitioning decisions based on a large number of criteria. In addition we have analysed which properties are affected by the partitioning decisions in the Control and Automation domains. The feasibility of the proposed process is demonstrated throughout an industrial case study.

  • 7.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Brestovac, Goran
    Grgurina, Robi
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Assessing Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis Suitability for HW/SW Deployment in Embedded Systems DesignInngår i: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Potena, Pasqualina
    Universita’ degli Studi di Bergamo Dalmine, Italy.
    Architectural Decisions for HW/SW Partitioning Based on Multiple Extra-Functional Properties2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing advances in hardware technologies are enabling significant improvements in application performance by the deployment of components to dedicated executable units. This is particularly valid for Cyber Physical Systems in which the applications are partitioned in HW and SW execution units. The growing complexity of such systems, and increasing requirements, both project- and product-related, makes the partitioning decision process complex. Although different approaches to this decision process have been proposed during recent decades, they lack the ability to provide relevant decisions based on a larger number of requirements and project/business constraints. A sound approach to this problem is taking into account all relevant requirements and constraints and their relations to the properties of the components deployed either as HW or SW units. A typical approach for managing a large number of criteria is a multicriteria decision analysis. This, in its turn, requires uniform definitions of component properties and their realization in respect to their HW/SW deployment. The aim of this paper is twofold: a) to provide an architectural metamodel of component-based applications with specifications of their properties with respect to their partitioning, and b) to categorize component properties in relation to HW/SW deployment. The metamodel enables the transition of system requirements to system and component properties. The categorization provides support for architectural decisions. It is demonstrated through a property guideline for the partitioning of the System Automation and Control domain. The guideline is based on interviews with practitioners and researchers, the experts in this domain.

  • 9.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Potena, Pasqualina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Universita’ degli Studi di Bergamo .
    Technical Report: Extra-Functional Properties for HW/SW Deployment of Cyber-Physical Applications2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Modelling for Hardware and Software Partitioning based on Multiple Properties2013Inngår i: Proceedings - 39th Euromicro Conference Series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2013, 2013, s. 189-194Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many embedded systems types the separation process for deploying the applications as software and hardware executable units, called partitioning is crucial. This is due to the fact that partitioning decisions impact the overall life cycle of the systems. In industry it is common practice to take partitioning decisions in an early stage of the design, based on hardware and software designers expertise. We propose a new methodology as a combination of modelbased and component-based approaches which enables a late partitioning decisions based on high level system requirements and project constrains. The final partitioning is decided based on a multi-property analysis approach. Here, we focus on the formalization of the overall process and in particular on the definition of a comprehensive system metamodel. This is meant to support modelling approaches suitable for enabling both the partitioning and reuse. An industrial case study is used to illustrate the approach.

  • 11.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Technical Report: Modelling for hardware and software deployment based on multiple properties selection2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report is an appendix to a paper Gaetana Sapienza, Ivica Crnkovic, Tiberiu Seceleanu, Modelling for hardware and software deployment based on multiple properties selection, 2012 The report contains (1) a full specification of a embedded component-based system model using in MultiPart approach, and (2) a full specification of the Wind Turbine controller model generated by Simulink.

  • 12.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Towards a Methodology for Hardware and Software Design Separation in Embedded Systems2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Software Engineering Advances (ICSEA 2012), 2012, s. 557-562Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of embedded systems in automation industry often includes development of both software and hardware, which requires both software and hardware expertise. In the current practice these expertise are not often completely combined in synergic ways. Traditionally, design gets separated into hardware design and software design at very early stage which negatively impacts the overall application development process due to design flow interruption and redesign. In order to overcome to the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a new design methodology that provides platform independent design first, and pushes hardware- and software-dependent design to a later stage. This enables “software-independent” hardware and “hardware-independent” software development after the separation stage, which collectively improve the overall development process.

  • 13.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Inclusion of Ethical Aspects in Multi-criteria Decision Analysis2016Inngår i: Proceedings - 2016 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, MARCH 2016, 2016, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision process is often based on multi-faceted and mutually opposing criteria. In order to provide rigorous techniques for problem structuring and criteria aggregation used for classification and ranking of alternatives, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) has been used as a method to achieve architectural decisions. Even though it has already been argued in literature that MCDA essentially depends on value systems of decision-makers, it is a question how the decision result reflects a particular criterion, requirement or a particular decision. This is especially true if a criterion is not precisely specified. In this paper we analyse the ethical aspects of MCDA. In our analysis we argue that it is in the long run necessary to make value basis of decision-making and ethical considerations explicit and subject for scrutiny. As a support to encourage introduction of transparent value-based deliberation we propose an extended MCDA scheme that would explicitly take into account ethical analysis. As an illustration, we present an industrial case study for the Software (SW)/Hardware (HW) partitioning of a wind turbine application in which different decisions can be taken, depending on the ethical aspects. 

  • 14.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    High-level design of an orchestrator for embedded systems tools2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Partitioning decision process for embedded hardware and software deployment2013Inngår i: Proc Int Comput Software Appl Conf, 2013, s. 674-680Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many types of embedded systems applications are implemented as a combination of software and hardware. For such systems the mapping of the application units into hardware and software, i.e. The partitioning process, is a key phase of the design. Although there exist techniques for partitioning, the entire process, in particular in relation to different application requirements and project constraints, is not properly supported. This leads to several unplanned iterations, redesigns and interruptions due to uncontrolled dependencies between hardware and software parts. In order to overcome these problems, we provide a design process that enables the partitioning based on a multiple criteria decision analysis in a late design phase. We illustrate the proposed approach and provide a proof-of concept on an industrial case study to validate the approach applicability.

  • 16.
    Seceleanu, Cristina Cerschi
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Johansson, M.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Suryadevara, J.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Ellevseth, S. -E
    ABB Corporate Research, Norway.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Analyzing a wind turbine system: From simulation to formal verification2017Inngår i: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 133, s. 216-242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial systems are hybrid by nature, most often being made of a discrete controller that senses and regulates the execution of a plant characterized by continuous dynamics. Examples of such systems include wind turbines that convert wind energy into electrical energy. Designing industrial control systems is challenging, due to the mixed nature of requirements (functional, timing, etc.) as well as due to the complexity stemming from the interaction of the controller with the plant. Model-based techniques help in tackling the design challenges, whereas methods such as simulation with tools like MATLAB/Simulink can be employed for analysis. Although practical, these methods alone cannot ensure full predictability, due to the fact that they cannot guarantee system properties for all possible executions of the system model. In order to ensure that the system will behave as expected under any operational circumstance, formal verification and validation procedures need to be added to the actual development process. In this paper, we propose an extension of the iFEST (industrial Framework for Embedded Systems Tools) process and platform for embedded systems design with model-based testing using MaTeLo, and model checking time-dependent requirements with the UPPAAL tool, as means of increasing the confidence in the system's behavior. To show the feasibility of the techniques on industrially-sized systems, we analyze a wind turbine industrial prototype model against functional and timing requirements. We capture the execution semantics of the plant and controller components of the wind turbine via logical clocks and constraints expressed in the clock constraint specification language (CCSL) of UML MARTE, after which we construct real-time models amenable to model checking, by mapping the timed behavior (expressed in CCSL) of the real-time components of the wind turbine, onto timed automata. Our work is a first application on an industrial wind turbine system of complementary methods for formal analysis, that is, model-based testing, and model checking a mathematically tractable system abstraction based on data obtained by simulating the system with MATLAB/Simulink. We also discuss relevant modeling and verification challenges encountered during our experiences with the wind turbine system.

  • 17.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Tool Integration Framework for Sustainable Embedded Systems Development2013Inngår i: Computer, ISSN 0018-9162, E-ISSN 1558-0814, Vol. 46, nr 11, s. 68-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool integration in the context of embedded systems development and maintenance is challenging due to such systems' lengthy life cycles and adaptability to process specifications. The iFEST frameworkprovides flexibility in development processes and extends support for long product life cycles.

  • 18.
    Suryadevara, Jagadish
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sapienza, Gaetana
    ABB Corporate Research, Norway.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Seceleanu, Tiberiu
    ABB Corporate Research, Norway.
    Elleveseth, Stein-Erik
    ABB Corporate Research, Norway.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Wind Turbine System: An Industrial Case Study in Formal Modeling and Verification2014Inngår i: Communications in Computer and Information Science, Volume 419 CCIS, 2014, s. 229-245Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the development of embedded systems, the formal analysis of system artifacts, such as structural and behavioral models, helps the system engineers to understand the overall functional and timing behavior of the system. In this case study paper, we present our experience in applying formal verification and validation (V&V) techniques, we had earlier proposed, for an industrial wind turbine system (WTS). We demonstrate the complementary benefits of formal verification in the context of existing V&V practices largely based on simulation and testing. We also discuss some modeling trade-offs and challenges we have identified with the case-study, which are worth being emphasized. One issue is related, for instance, to the expressiveness of the system artifacts, in view of the known limitations of rigorous verification, e.g. model-checking, of industrial systems.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FTSCS2013
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