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  • 1.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Clegg, Kester
    University of York, UK.
    Corneo, Lorenzo
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hawkins, Richard
    University of York, UK.
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gulisano, Vincenzo
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nikolakopoulos, Yiannis
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Service Level Agreements for Safe and Configurable Production Environments2018In: International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation - Work in Progress Session ETFA-WiP'18, 2018, p. 1252-1255, article id 8502568Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on Service Level Agreements (SLAs) for industrial applications that aim to port some of the control functionalities to the cloud. In such applications, industrial requirements should be reflected in SLAs. In this paper, we present an approach to integrate safety-related aspects of an industrial application to SLAs. We also present the approach in a use case. This is an initial attempt to enrich SLAs for industrial settings to consider safety aspects, which has not been investigated thoroughly before.

  • 2.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    SŠljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards a Safety-oriented Process Line for Enabling Reuse in Safety Critical Systems Development and Certification2012In: Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE 35th Software Engineering Workshop, SEW 2012, 2012, p. 148-157Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety standards define development processes by indicating the set of partially ordered tasks that have to be executed to achieve acceptably safe systems. Process compliance constitutes a fundamental ingredient in safety argumentation for certification purposes. Certification is a very expensive, time-consuming and quality demanding activity. To increase quality and reduce time and cost, reusebased approaches are being investigated. In this paper, we adopt process line approach in the framework of safety processes. This means that we treat a family of processes as a product line, and we identify commonalities and variabilities between them. The resulting information guides developers in reusing parts of the process, the system and safety case, e.g. which parts to make more generic, isolating changes in others to avoid ripple effects etc..

  • 3.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Contract-Based Assurance for Wireless Cooperative Functions of Vehicular Systems2017In: IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2017, p. 8391-8396Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation of vehicular systems is the stepping stone towards both road and indoor smart transportation systems. It aims at increasing transportation efficiency and safety compared to the stand-alone vehicular systems. The usage of wireless communication as the foundation of such safety-critical cooperation needs to be embraced with all its benefits and flaws compared to the wired communication. The cooperative functions need to be designed to adapt to the varying reliability of the wireless communication channels such that both the stand-alone vehicles as well as the smart transportation system formed by their cooperation are deemed sufficiently safe. In this paper we build upon a contract-based runtime monitoring architecture and propose a methodology for assuring adaptive behaviour of transportation with respect to the wireless communication channel failures. More specifically, we elaborate how safety analysis of the interaction of the wirelessly connected vehicles can be used as the basis for derivation of the adaptive modes and the corresponding contracts. Furthermore, we discuss how such contracts can be used as the basis for assurance of the adaptive wireless cooperation. We illustrate the proposed methodology on a smart transportation system of a factory.

  • 4.
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Contracts-Based Maintenance of Safety Cases2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety critical systems are those systems whose failure could result in loss of life, significant property damage, or damage to the environment. System safety is a major property that shall be adequately assured to avoid any severe outcomes in safety critical systems. Safety assurance should provide justified confidence that all potential risks due to system failures are either eliminated or acceptably mitigated. System developers in many domains (e.g., automotive, avionics, railways) should provide convincing arguments regarding the safe performance of their systems to a national or international regulatory authority and obtain approvals before putting the system into service.  Building 'Safety cases' is a proven technique to argue about and communicate systems' safety and it has become a common practice in many safety critical system domains. System developers use safety cases to articulate claims about how systems meet their safety requirements and objectives, collect and document items of evidence, and construct a safety argument to show how the available items of evidence support the claims.

    Safety critical systems are evolutionary and constantly subject to preventive, perfective, corrective or adaptive changes during both the development and operational phases. Changes to any part of those systems can undermine the confidence in safety since changes can refute articulated claims about safety or challenge the supporting evidence on which this confidence relies. Hence, safety cases need to be built as living documents that should always be maintained to justify the safety status of the associated system and evolve as these systems evolve. However, building safety cases are costly since they require a significant amount of time and efforts to define the safety objectives, generate the required evidence and conclude the underlying logic behind the safety case arguments. Safety cases document highly dependent elements such as safety goals, assumptions and evidence. Seemingly minor changes may have a major impact. Changes to a system or its environment can necessitate a costly and painstaking impact analysis for systems and their safety cases. In addition, changes may require system developers to generate completely new items of evidence by repeating the verification activities. Therefore, changes can exacerbate the cost of producing and maintaining safety cases.  

    Safety contracts have been proposed as a means for helping to manage changes. There have been works that discuss the usefulness of contracts for reusability and maintainability. However, there has been little attention on how to derive them and how exactly they can be utilised for system or safety case maintenance.

    The main goal of this thesis is to support the change impact analysis as a key factor to enhance the maintainability of safety cases. We focus on utilising safety contracts to achieve this goal. To address this, we study how safety contracts can support essential factors for any useful change management process, such as (1) identifying the impacted  elements  and  those  that  are  not  impacted, (2) minimising the number of impacted  safety  case  elements, and (3) reducing the  work  needed  to  make  the  impacted  safety  case  elements valid again. The preliminary finding of our study reveals that using safety contracts can be promising to develop techniques and processes to facilitate safety case maintenance. The absence of safety case maintenance guidelines from safety standards and the lack of systematic and methodical maintenance techniques have motivated the work of this thesis. Our work is presented through a set of developed and assessed techniques, where these techniques utilise safety contracts to achieve the overall goal by various contributions. We begin by a framework for evaluation of the impact of change on safety critical systems and safety cases. Through this, we identify and highlight the most sensitive system components to a particular change. We propose new ways to associate system design elements with safety case arguments to enable traceability. How to identify and reduce the propagation of change impact is addressed subsequently.  Our research also uses safety contracts to enable through-life safety assurance by monitoring and detecting any potential mismatch between the design safety assumptions and the actual behaviour of the system during its operational phase. More specifically, we use safety contracts to capture thresholds of selected safety requirements and compare them with the runtime related data (i.e., operational data) to continuously assess and evolve the safety arguments.

    In summary, our proposed techniques pave the way for cost-effective maintenance of safety cases upon preventive, perfective, corrective or adaptive changes in safety critical systems thus helping better decision support for change impact analysis.

  • 5.
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Enhancing the Maintainability of Safety Cases Using Safety Contracts2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety critical systems are those systems whose failure could result in loss of life, significant property damage, or damage to the environment. These systems require high quality and dependability levels in them, where system safety is a major property that should be adequately assured to avoid any severe outcomes. Many safety critical systems in different domains (e.g., avionics, railway, automotive, etc.) are subject to a certification. The certification process is based on an evaluation of whether the associated hazards to a system are mitigated to an acceptable level. Safety cases are often required to demonstrate how a regulatory body can reasonably conclude that a system is acceptably safe from the evidence available. The development of safety cases has become common practice in many safety critical system domains. However, safety cases are costly since they need significant amount of time and efforts to produce. This cost can be dramatically increased (even for already certified systems) due to system changes as they require maintaining the safety case before it can be submitted for certification. Anticipating potential changes is useful since it reveals traceable consequences that will eventually reduce the maintenance efforts. However, considering a complete list of anticipated changes is difficult. What can be easier though is to determine the flexibility of system components to changes.

    Sensitivity analysis has been proposed as a useful tool to measure the flexibility of the different system properties to changes. Furthermore, the concept of contracts have been proposed as a means for facilitating the change management process due to their ability to record the dependencies among system's components. In this thesis, we use sensitivity analysis to support changes prediction and prioritisation. We also use safety contracts to record the information of changes that will ultimately advise the engineers what to consider and check when changes actually happen.

  • 6.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bate, Iain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. University of York, UK.
    Deriving Hierarchical Safety Contracts2015In: Proceedings: 2015 IEEE 21st Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC 2015, 2015, Vol. jan, p. 119-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety cases need significant amount of time and effort to produce. The required amount of time and effort can be dramatically increased due to system changes as safety cases should be maintained before they can be submitted for certification or re-certification. Anticipating potential changes is useful since it reveals traceable consequences that will eventually reduce the maintenance efforts. However, considering a complete list of anticipated changes is difficult. What can be easier though is to determine the flexibility of system components to changes. Using sensitivity analysis is useful to measure the flexibility of the different system properties to changes. Furthermore, contracts have been proposed as a means for facilitating the change management process due to their ability to record the dependencies among system’s components. In this paper, we extend a technique that uses a sensitivity analysis to derive safety contracts from Fault Tree Analyses (FTA) and uses these contracts to trace changes in the safety argument. The extension aims to enabling the derivation of hierarchical and correlated safety contracts.We motivate the extension through an illustrative example within which we identify limitations of the technique and discuss potential solutions to these limitations. 

  • 7.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bate, Iain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Systematic Maintenance of Safety Cases to Reduce Risk2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 9923, 2016, p. 17-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of safety cases has become common practice in many safety critical system domains. Safety cases are costly since they need a significant amount of time and efforts to be produced. More- over, safety critical systems are expected to operate for a long period of time and constantly subject to changes during both development and operational phases. Hence, safety cases are built as living documents that should always be maintained to justify the safety status of the associated system and evolve as these system evolve. However, safety cases document highly interdependent elements (e.g., safety goals, evidence, assumptions, etc.) and even seemingly minor changes may have a major impact on them, and thus dramatically increase their cost. In this paper, we identify and discuss some challenges in the maintenance of safety cases. We also present two techniques that utilise safety contracts to facilitate the maintenance of safety cases, we discuss the roles of these techniques in coping with some of the identified maintenance challenges, and we finally discuss potential limitations and suggest some solutions.

  • 8.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bate, Iain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using Safety Contracts to Guide the Maintenance of Systems and Safety Cases2017In: European Dependable Computing Conference EDCC'17, 2017, p. 95-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes to safety-critical systems are inevitable and can impact the safety confidence about a system as their effects can refute articulated claims about safety or challenge the supporting evidence on which this confidence relies. In order to maintain the safety confidence under changes, system developers need to re-analyse and re-verify the system to generate new valid items of evidence. Identifying the effects of a particular change is a crucial step in any change management process as it enables system developers to estimate the required maintenance effort and reduce the cost by avoiding wider analyses and verification than strictly necessary. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis-based technique which aims at measuring the ability of a system to contain a change (i.e., robustness) without the need to make a major re-design. The proposed technique exploits the safety margins in the budgeted failure probabilities of events in a probabilistic fault-tree analysis to compensate for unaccounted deficits or changes due to maintenance. The technique utilises safety contracts to provide prescriptive data for what is needed to be revisited and verified to maintain system safety when changes happen. We demonstrate the technique on an aircraft wheel braking system.

  • 9.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bate, Iain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using Safety Contracts to Guide the Maintenance of Systems and Safety Cases: An Example2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes to safety critical systems are inevitable and can impact the safety confidence about a system as their effects can refute articulated claims about safety or challenge the supporting evidence on which this confidence relies. In order to maintain the safety confidence due to changes, system developers need to re-analyse and re-verify the system to generate new valid items of evidence. Moreover, identifying the effects of a particular change is a crucial step in any change management process as it enables system developers to estimate the required maintenance effort and reduce the cost by avoiding wider analyses and verification than strictly necessary. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis-based technique which aims at measuring the ability of a system to contain a change (i.e., robustness) without the need to make a major re-design. The technique exploits the safety margins in the assigned failure probabilities to the events of a probabilistic fault-tree analysis to compensate some potential deficits in the overall failure probability budget due to changes. The technique also utilises safety contracts to provide prescriptive data for what is needed to be revisited and verified to maintain system safety when changes happen. We demonstrate the technique on a realistic safety critical system.

  • 10.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bate, Iain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Facilitating the Maintenance of Safety Cases2015In: The 3rd International Conference on Reliability, Safety and Hazard - Advances in Reliability, Maintenance and Safety ICRES-ARMS'15, 2015, Vol. F5Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bate, Iain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using Sensitivity Analysis to Facilitate The Maintenance of Safety Cases2015In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) / [ed] Juan Antonio de la Puente, Tullio Vardanega, 2015, Vol. 9111, p. 162-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A safety case contains safety arguments together with supporting evidence that together should demonstrate that a system is acceptably safe. System changes pose a challenge to the soundness and cogency of the safety case argument. Maintaining safety arguments is a painstaking process because it requires performing a change impact analysis through interdependent elements. Changes are often performed years after the deployment of a system making it harder for safety case developers to know which parts of the argument are affected. Contracts have been proposed as a means for helping to manage changes. There has been significant work that discusses how to represent and to use them but there has been little on how to derive them. In this paper, we propose a sensitivity analysis approach to derive contracts from Fault Tree Analyses and use them to trace changes in the safety argument, thus facilitating easier maintenance of the safety argument. 

  • 12.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Graydon, Patrick
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bate, Iain
    University of York, UK.
    An Approach to Maintaining Safety Case Evidence After A System Change2014In: 2014 Tenth European Dependable Computing Conference EDCC 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developers of some safety critical systems construct a safety case. Developers changing a system during development or after release must analyse the change's impact on the safety case. Evidence might be invalidated by changes to the system design, operation, or environmental context. Assumptions valid in one context might be invalid elsewhere. The impact of change might not be obvious. This paper proposes a method to facilitate safety case maintenance by highlighting the impact of changes.

  • 13.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Graydon, Patrick
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bate, Iain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The Role of Architectural Model Checking in Conducting Preliminary Safety Assessment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preliminary safety assessment is an important activity in safety systems development since it provides insight into the proposed system’s ability to meet its safety requirements. Because preliminary safety assessment is conducted before the system is implemented, developers rely on high-level designs of the system to assess safety in order to reduce the risk of finding issues later in the process. Since system architecture is the first design artefact developers produce, developers invest considerable time in assessing the architecture’s impact on system safety. Typical safety standards require developers to show that a plan of safety activities, chosen from recommended options or alternatives, meets a set of objectives. More specifically, the automotive safety standard ISO 26262 recommends formally verifying the software architecture to show that it “complies” with safety requirements. In this paper, we apply an architecture-based verification technique for Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) specifications to an architectural design for a fuel level estimation system to validate certain architectural properties. Subsequently, we build part of the conformance argument to show how the model checking can satisfy some ISO 26262 obligations. Furthermore, we show how the method could be used as a part of preliminary safety assessments and how it can be upheld by the later implementations beside of the other recommend methods.

  • 14.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using Safety Contracts to Verify Design Assumptions During Runtime2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Volume 10873, 2018, p. 3-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A safety case comprises evidence and argument justifying how each item of evidence supports claims about safety assurance. Supporting claims by untrustworthy or inappropriate evidence can lead to a false assurance regarding the safe performance of a system. Having sufficient confidence in safety evidence is essential to avoid any unanticipated surprise during operational phase. Sometimes, however, it is impractical to wait for high quality evidence from a system’s operational life, where developers have no choice but to rely on evidence with some uncertainty (e.g., using a generic failure rate measure from a handbook to support a claim about the reliability of a component). Runtime monitoring can reveal insightful information, which can help to verify whether the preliminary confidence was over- or underestimated. In this paper, we propose a technique which uses runtime monitoring in a novel way to detect the divergence between the failure rates (which were used in the safety analyses) and the observed failure rates in the operational life. The technique utilises safety contracts to provide prescriptive data for what should be monitored, and what parts of the safety argument should be revisited to maintain system safety when a divergence is detected. We demonstrate the technique in the context of Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs).

  • 15.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Habli, Ibrahim
    University of York, UK.
    Hawkins, Richard
    University of York, UK.
    Challenges of Safety Assurance for Industry 4.02017In: European Dependable Computing Conference EDCC'17, Geneva, Switzerland: IEEE Computer Society , 2017, p. 103-106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) has enabled Industry 4.0 as a new manufacturing paradigm. The envisioned future of Industry 4.0 and Smart Factories is to be highly configurable and composed mainly of the 'things' that are expected to come with some, often partial, assurance guarantees. However, many factories are categorised as safety-critical, e.g. due to the use of heavy machinery or hazardous substances. As such, some of the guarantees provided by the 'things', e.g. related to performance and availability, are deemed as necessary in order to ensure the safety of the manufacturing processes and the resulting products. In this paper, we explore key safety challenges posed by Industry 4.0 and identify the characteristics that its safety assurance should exhibit. We propose a set of safety assurance responsibilities, e.g. system integrators, cloud service providers and `things' suppliers. Finally, we reflect on the desirable modularity of such a safety assurance approach as a basis for cooperative, on-demand and continuous reasoning for Industry 4.0 architectures and services.

  • 16.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Automated Verification of AADL-Specifications Using UPPAAL2012In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE), 2012, p. 130-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) is used to represent architecture design decisions of safety-critical and real-time embedded systems. Due to the far-reaching effects these decisions have on the development process, an architecture design fault is likely to have a significant deteriorating impact through the complete process. Automated fault avoidance of architecture design decisions therefore has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of the development while increasing the dependability of the end product. To provide means for automated fault avoidance when developing systems specified in AADL, a formal verification technique has been developed to ensure completeness and consistency of an AADL specification as well as its conformity with the end product. The approach requires the semantics of AADL to be formalized and implemented. We use the methodology of semantic anchoring to contribute with a formal and implemented semantics of a subset of AADL through a set of transformation rules to timed automata constructs. In addition, the verification technique, including the transformation rules, is validated using a case study of a safety-critical fuel-level system developed by a major vehicle manufacturer.

  • 17.
    Salameh, Abdallah
    et al.
    University of Salford, Manchester, UK.
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Safety-Centric Change Management Framework by Tailoring Agile and V-Model Processes2018In: 36th International System Safety Conference ISSC 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety critical systems are evolutionary and subject to preventive, perfective, corrective or adaptive changes during their lifecycle. Changes to any part of those systems can undermine the confidence in safety since changes can refute articulated claims about safety or challenge the supporting evidence on which this confidence relies. Changes to the software components are no exception. In order to maintain the confidence in the safety performance, developers must update their system and its safety case. Agile methodologies are known to embrace changes to software where agilists strive to manage changes, not to prevent them. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework in which we tailor a hybrid process of agile software development and the traditional V-model. The tailored process aims to facilitate the accommodation of non-structural changes to the software parts of safety critical systems. We illustrate our framework in the context of ISO 26262 safety standard.

  • 18.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bate, Iain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Graydon, Patrick
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Deriving Safety Contracts to Support Architecture Design of Safety Critical Systems2015In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, 2015, Vol. january, p. 126-133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of contracts to enhance the maintainability of safety-critical systems has received a significant amount of research effort in recent years. However some key issues have been identified: the difficulty in dealing with the wide range of properties of systems and deriving contracts to capture those properties; and the challenge of dealing with the inevitable incompleteness of the contracts. In this paper, we explore how the derivation of contracts can be performed based on the results of failure analysis. We use the concept of safety kernels to alleviate the issues. Firstly the safety kernel means that the properties of the system that we may wish to manage can be dealt with at a more abstract level, reducing the challenges of representation and completeness of the “safety” contracts. Secondly the set of safety contracts is reduced so it is possible to reason about their satisfaction in a more rigorous manner.

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