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  • 1.
    Alajrami, S.
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom .
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Romanovsky, A.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom .
    Isberg, Petter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards cloud-based enactment of safety-related processes2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 9922, 2016, p. 309-321Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering safety-critical systems is a complex task which involves multiple stakeholders. It requires shared and scalable computation to systematically involve geographically distributed teams. The paper proposes a model-driven cloud-based enactment architecture automating safety-critical processes. This work adapts our previous work on cloud-based software engineering by enriching the architecture with an automatic support for generation of both, product-based safety arguments from failure logic analysis results and process-based arguments from the process model and the enactment data. The approach is demonstrated using a fragment of a process adapted from the aerospace domain. 

  • 2.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    SŠljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards a Safety-oriented Process Line for Enabling Reuse in Safety Critical Systems Development and Certification2012In: Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE 35th Software Engineering Workshop, SEW 2012, 2012, p. 148-157Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety standards define development processes by indicating the set of partially ordered tasks that have to be executed to achieve acceptably safe systems. Process compliance constitutes a fundamental ingredient in safety argumentation for certification purposes. Certification is a very expensive, time-consuming and quality demanding activity. To increase quality and reduce time and cost, reusebased approaches are being investigated. In this paper, we adopt process line approach in the framework of safety processes. This means that we treat a family of processes as a product line, and we identify commonalities and variabilities between them. The resulting information guides developers in reusing parts of the process, the system and safety case, e.g. which parts to make more generic, isolating changes in others to avoid ripple effects etc..

  • 3.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Contract-Based Assurance for Wireless Cooperative Functions of Vehicular Systems2017In: IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2017, p. 8391-8396Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation of vehicular systems is the stepping stone towards both road and indoor smart transportation systems. It aims at increasing transportation efficiency and safety compared to the stand-alone vehicular systems. The usage of wireless communication as the foundation of such safety-critical cooperation needs to be embraced with all its benefits and flaws compared to the wired communication. The cooperative functions need to be designed to adapt to the varying reliability of the wireless communication channels such that both the stand-alone vehicles as well as the smart transportation system formed by their cooperation are deemed sufficiently safe. In this paper we build upon a contract-based runtime monitoring architecture and propose a methodology for assuring adaptive behaviour of transportation with respect to the wireless communication channel failures. More specifically, we elaborate how safety analysis of the interaction of the wirelessly connected vehicles can be used as the basis for derivation of the adaptive modes and the corresponding contracts. Furthermore, we discuss how such contracts can be used as the basis for assurance of the adaptive wireless cooperation. We illustrate the proposed methodology on a smart transportation system of a factory.

  • 4.
    Jaradat, Omar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Habli, Ibrahim
    University of York, UK.
    Hawkins, Richard
    University of York, UK.
    Challenges of Safety Assurance for Industry 4.02017In: European Dependable Computing Conference EDCC'17, Geneva, Switzerland: IEEE Computer Society , 2017, p. 103-106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) has enabled Industry 4.0 as a new manufacturing paradigm. The envisioned future of Industry 4.0 and Smart Factories is to be highly configurable and composed mainly of the 'things' that are expected to come with some, often partial, assurance guarantees. However, many factories are categorised as safety-critical, e.g. due to the use of heavy machinery or hazardous substances. As such, some of the guarantees provided by the 'things', e.g. related to performance and availability, are deemed as necessary in order to ensure the safety of the manufacturing processes and the resulting products. In this paper, we explore key safety challenges posed by Industry 4.0 and identify the characteristics that its safety assurance should exhibit. We propose a set of safety assurance responsibilities, e.g. system integrators, cloud service providers and `things' suppliers. Finally, we reflect on the desirable modularity of such a safety assurance approach as a basis for cooperative, on-demand and continuous reasoning for Industry 4.0 architectures and services.

  • 5.
    Lisova, Elena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Safety and Security Co-Analyses: A Systematic Literature Review2019In: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 2189-2200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latest technological trends lead toward systems connected to public networks even in critical domains. Bringing together safety and security work is becoming imperative, as a connected safety-critical system is not safe if it is not secure. The main objective of this study is to investigate the current status of safety and security co-analysis in system engineering by conducting a systematic literature review. The steps of the review are the following: the research questions identification; agreement upon a search string; applying the search string to chosen databases; a selection criterion formulation for the relevant publications filtering; selected papers categorization and analysis. We focused on the early system development stages and identified 33 relevant publications categorized as follows: combined safety and security approaches that consider the mutual influence of safety and security; safety-informed security approaches that consider influence of safety on security; and security-informed safety approaches that consider influence of security on safety. The results showed that a number of identified approaches are driven by needs in fast developing application areas, e.g., automotive, while works focusing on combined analysis are mostly application area independent. Overall, the study shows that safety and security co-analysis is still a developing domain.

  • 6.
    Medawar, S.
    et al.
    Embeded Systems, Alten AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Scholle, D.
    Embeded Systems, Alten AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Šljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cooperative safety critical CPS platooning in SafeCOP2017In: 2017 6th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing, MECO 2017 - Including ECYPS 2017, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 29-33, article id 7977210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the platooning research within the Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication (SafeCOP) project. Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) using wireless communication and having multiple stakeholders, dynamic system definitions (openness), and unpredictable operating environments, are the main application of SafeCOP. In addition to safety assurance methods and tools, SafeCOP devises a runtime manager architecture that detects irregular operation, hence, prompting a safe degraded mode in case of need. SafeCOP lays a safety and security umbrella over the usage of current wireless technologies, contributes to new standards and regulations by providing scientifically validated solutions to establish standards which also addresses cooperation and system-of-systems issues. SafeCOP addresses several use cases that solve customer related problems. However, in this paper we will present a use case that extract generic principles from the combination of the previous use cases to stimulate the European collaboration around the project objectives, and to collect general requirements for the SafeCOP solution, applicable across all the areas considered. We consider a CO-CPS composed of two or more systems moving in a platoon while cooperating in a safe function. 

  • 7.
    Pop, P.
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Scholle, D.
    Alten Sverige AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Šljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Widforss, Gunnar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rosqvist, Malin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Safe cooperating cyber-physical systems using wireless communication: The SafeCOP approach2017In: Microprocessors and microsystems, ISSN 0141-9331, E-ISSN 1872-9436, Vol. 53, p. 42-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled “Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication” (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016–2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless communication, multiple stakeholders, dynamic system definitions (openness), and unpredictable operating environments. SafeCOP will provide an approach to the safety assurance of CO-CPS, enabling thus their certification and development. The project will define a runtime manager architecture for runtime detection of abnormal behaviour, triggering if needed a safe degraded mode. SafeCOP will also develop methods and tools, which will be used to produce safety assurance evidence needed to certify cooperative functions. SafeCOP will extend current wireless technologies to ensure safe and secure cooperation, and also contribute to new standards and regulations, by providing certification authorities and standardization committees with the scientifically validated solutions needed to craft effective standards extended to also address cooperation and system-of-systems issues. The project has 28 partners from 6 European countries, and a budget of about 11 million Euros corresponding to about 1,300 person-months. 

  • 8.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Assurance Aware Contract-based Design for Safety-critical Systems2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems are those systems whose malfunctioning can result in harm or loss of human life, or damage to property or the environment. Such systems usually need to comply with a domain-specific safety standard, which often require a safety case in form of an explained argument supported by evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe to operate in a given context. Developing safety-critical systems to comply with safety standards is a time-consuming and costly process. It can often be the case that the development of the safety case is more costly than the development of the system itself.

    Component-based development is a method that separates the development of the components of a system from the development of the system itself. The latter is done by composing reusable components that are developed independently of the system. Safety-critical systems require that the safety case of such components is integrated in the overall safety case of the system. For this purpose, the reusable components, together with their safety case, can be described via specifications called contracts. By checking the contracts of each component of the system against each other, it is possible to determine if the components can be composed together and still fulfil the contract specifications. Contract-based design combined with component-based development has the potential to reduce the cost and time needed to develop both the system and the accompanying safety case. Such contract-based design can then be used to facilitate reuse of parts of the system as well as verifying that the system fulfils certain requirements. While contract-based design can be used to verify that a system meets certain requirements based on its contract-specification, actually assuring that the system behaves according to the verification results require additional evidence. Hence, reuse of safety-relevant components via contract-based design is not sufficient without the reuse of the accompanying safety case artefacts, which include both the safety argument and the supporting evidence.

    In this thesis we focus on developing the notion of safety contracts that can be used to make a contract-based design aware of the needs of safety assurance. The goals of such assurance aware contract-based design are to promote reuse of the assurance-related artefacts such as arguments and evidence, as well as to automate creation of parts of the safety assurance case. To address this, we explore the following research goals in more detail: (1) to facilitate automated contract-driven assurance, (2) to facilitate reuse of safety-relevant components and their accompanying assurance-relevant artefacts, and (3) to align such assurance-aware contract-based design with existing failure logic analysis. To meet the first goal, we identify the additional information needed for contract-based assurance and structure it in form of argumentation patterns of reusable reasoning. Then, we define a meta-model to connect the system modelling elements related to the contracts with the safety case elements, such as evidence and arguments. Based on this meta-model, we define an algorithm for automated instantiation of the proposed argumentation patterns from system models compliant with the proposed meta-model. To facilitate reuse of the assurance-related artefacts (goal (2)), we define variability on the contract level to distinguish between contracts that are relevant for all systems and those that are system-specific. Furthermore, we align the assurance-aware contract-based design with the ISO 26262 automotive safety standard and its reuse concepts. Finally, in addressing the third goal, we connect the assurance-aware contract-based design with an existing failure logic analysis and show how such combination can be used to automate instantiation of existing argumentation patterns. In a number of real-world examples we demonstrate and evaluate the feasibility of our contributions.

  • 9.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fostering Reuse within Safety-critical Component-based Systems through Fine-grained Contracts2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim is to develop a notion of safety contracts and related reasoning that supports the reuse of software components in and across safety-critical systems, including support for certification related activities such as using the contract reasoning in safety argumentation. In this paper we introduce a formalism for specifying assumption/guarantee contracts for components developed out of context. We are utilising the concepts of weak and strong assumptions and guarantees to customise ne-grained contracts for addressing a broader component context and specification of properties for speci c alternative contexts. These out of context contracts can be conveniently instantiated to a speci c context, thereby providing support for component reuse.

  • 10.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Building Multiple-Viewpoint Assurance Cases Using Assumption/Guarantee Contracts2016In: 1st International workshop on Interplay of Security, Safety and System/Software Architecture ISSA-2016, 2016, article id 39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assurance cases in form of structured arguments are often required by standards to show that a system is acceptable for its intended purpose with respect to a particular assurance viewpoint such as safety or security. The goal of such a case is to present an argument that connects the requirements of a particular viewpoint with the supporting evidence. Building a set of assurance cases for the different viewpoints can be time-consuming and costly. Means are needed to automate and reuse the assurance case artefacts between the assurance cases for the different viewpoints. In this paper we present how assumption/guarantee contracts can be used to facilitate reuse of assurance case artefacts by building multiple-viewpoint assurance cases from the contracts. More specifically, we build upon the previous work on argument-fragment generation from such contracts to allow for generating viewpoint specific argument-fragments. We illustrate the approach on a motivating case.

  • 11.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Configuration-aware contracts2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 9923, 2016, p. 43-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assumption/guarantee contracts represent the basis for independent development of reusable components and their safety assurance within contract-based design. In the context of safety-critical systems, their use for reuse of safety assurance efforts has encountered some challenges: the need for evidence supporting the confidence in the contracts; and the challenge of context, where contracts need to impose different requirements on different systems. In this paper we propose the notion of configuration-aware contracts to address the challenge contract-based design faces with multiple contexts. Since reusable components are often developed with a set of configuration parameters that need to be configured in each context, we extend the notion of contract to distinguish between the configuration parameters and the other variables. Moreover, we define a multi-context reusable component based on the configuration-aware contracts. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the multi-context components on a motivating case. 

  • 12.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Generation of Safety Case Argument-Fragments from Safety Contracts2014In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 8666, 2014, p. 170-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Certification of safety-critical systems is a costly and time-consuming activity. To reduce the cost of certification and time-to-market, composable safety certification envisions reuse of safety case argument-fragments together with safety-relevant components developed out-of-context. The argument-fragments could cover safety aspects relevant for different contexts in which the component can be used. Creating argument-fragments for such out-of-context components is also time-consuming and currently no satisfying approach exists to facilitate their automatic generation. In this work we propose (semi-)automatic generation of argument-fragments from assumption/guarantee safety contracts. We use the contracts to capture the safety claims related to the component, including supporting evidence. We provide an overview of the argument-fragment architecture and rules for automatic generation, including their application in an illustrative example. By automating generation of argument-fragments, we enable safety engineers to focus on increasing the confidence in the knowledge about the system, rather than documenting a safety case.

  • 13.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Strong and Weak Contract Formalism for Third-Party Component Reuse2013In: 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2013, 2013, p. 359-364Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim is to contribute to bridging the gap between the justified need from industry to reuse third-party components and skepticism of the safety community in integrating and reusing components developed without real knowledge of the system context. We have developed a notion of safety contract that will help to capture safety-related information for supporting the reuse of software components in and across safety-critical systems. In this paper we present our extension of the contract formalism for specifying strong and weak assumption/guarantee contracts for out-of-context reusable components. We elaborate on notion of satisfaction, including refinement, dominance and composition check. To show the usage and the expressiveness of our extended formalism, we specify strong and weak safety contracts related to a wheel braking system.

  • 14.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using Safety Contracts to Guide the Integration of Reusable Safety Elements within ISO 262622015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems usually need to be compliant with a domain-specific safety standard, which in turn requires an explained and well-founded body of evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe. To reduce the cost and time needed to achieve the standard compliance, reuse of safety elements is not sufficient without the reuse of the accompanying evidence. The difficulties with reuse of safety elements within safety-critical systems lie mainly in the nature of safety being a system property and the lack of support for systematic reuse of safety elements and their accompanying artefacts. While safety standards provide requirements and recommendations on what should be subject to reuse, guidelines on how to perform reuse are typically lacking. We have developed a concept of strong and weak safety contracts that can be used to facilitate systematic reuse of safety elements and their accompanying artefacts. In this report we define a safety contracts development process and provide guidelines to bridge the gap between reuse and integration of reusable safety elements in the ISO 26262 safety standard. We use a real-world case for demonstration of the process, in which a safety element is developed out-of-context and reused together with its accompanying safety artefacts within two products of a construction equipment product-line.

  • 15.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Using Safety Contracts to Guide the Integration of Reusable Safety Elements within ISO 262622015In: Proceedings - 2015 IEEE 21st Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC 2015, 2015, p. 129-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems usually need to comply with a domain-specific safety standard. To reduce the cost and time needed to achieve the standard compliance, reuse of safety-relevant components is not sufficient without the reuse of the accompanying artefacts. Developing reusable safety components out-of-context of a particular system is challenging, as safety is a system property, hence support is needed to capture and validate the context assumptions before integration of the reusable component and its artefacts in-context of the particular system. We have previously developed a concept of strong and weak safety contracts to facilitate systematic reuse of safety-relevant components and their accompanying artefacts. In this work we define a safety contracts development process and provide guidelines to bridge the gap between reuse of safety elements developed out-of-context of a particular system and their integration in the ISO 26262 safety standard. We use a real-world case for demonstration of the process.

  • 16.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Puri, Stefano
    Intecs SpA, Italy.
    A Method to Generate Reusable Safety Case Argument-Fragments from Compositional Safety Analysis2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 131, p. 570-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems usually need to be accompanied by an explained and well-founded body of evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe. While reuse within such systems covers mainly code, reusing accompanying safety artefacts is limited due to a wide range of context dependencies that need to be satisfied for safety evidence to be valid in a different context. Currently, the most commonly used approaches that facilitate reuse lack support for systematic reuse of safety artefacts. To facilitate systematic reuse of safety artefacts we provide a method to generate reusable safety case argument-fragments that include supporting evidence related to compositional safety analysis. The generation is performed from safety contracts that capture safety-relevant behaviour of components in assumption/guarantee pairs backed up by the supporting evidence. We evaluate the feasibility of our approach in a real-world case study where a safety related component developed in isolation is reused within a wheel-loader.

  • 17.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Puri, Stefano
    Intecs SpA, Italy.
    A Method to Generate Reusable Safety Case Fragments from Compositional Safety Analysis2014In: Software Reuse for Dynamic Systems in the Cloud and Beyond,: 14th International Conference on Software Reuse, ICSR 2015, Miami, FL, USA, January 4-6, 2015. Proceedings, Miami, Florida, United States: Springer International Publishing , 2014, p. 253-268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems usually need to be accompanied by an explained and well-founded body of evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe. While reuse within such systems covers mainly code, reusing accompanying safety artefacts is limited due to a wide range of context dependencies that need to be satisfied for safety evidence to be valid in a different context. Currently the most commonly used approaches that facilitate reuse lack support for reuse of safety artefacts. To facilitate reuse of safety artefacts we provide a method to generate reusable safety case argument-fragments that include supporting evidence related to safety analysis. The generation is performed from safety contracts that capture safety-relevant behaviour of components within assumption/guarantee pairs backed up by the supporting evidence. We illustrate our approach by applying it to an airplane wheel braking system example.

  • 18.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Puri, Stefano
    Intecs SpA, Italy.
    Tool-Supported Safety-Relevant Component Reuse: From Specification to Argumentation2018In: 23rd International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies - Ada-Europe 2018 Ada-Europe-2018, 2018, Vol. 10873, p. 19-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contracts are envisaged to support compositional verification of a system as well as reuse and independent development of their implementations. But reuse of safety-relevant components in safety-critical systems needs to cover more than just the implementations. As many safety-relevant artefacts related to the component as possible should be reused together with the implementation to assist the integrator in assuring that the system they are developing is acceptably safe. Furthermore, the reused assurance information related to the contracts should be structured clearly to communicate the confidence in the component. In this work we present a tool-supported methodology for contract-driven assurance and reuse. We define the variability on the contract level in the scope of a trace-based approach to contract-based design. With awareness of the hierarchical nature of systems subject to compositional verification, we propose assurance patterns for arguing confidence in satisfaction of requirements and contracts. We present an implementation extending the AMASS platform to support automated instantiation of the proposed patterns, and evaluate its adequacy for assurance and reuse in a real-world case study.

  • 19.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kaiser, B.
    Berner & Mattner Systemtechnik GmbH, Munich, Germany.
    Assuring degradation cascades of car platoons via contracts2017In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10489, Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 317-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated cooperation is arriving in practice, for instance in vehicular automation like platoon driving. The development and safety assurance of those systems poses new challenges, as the participating nodes are not known at design time; they engage in communication at runtime and the system behaviour can be distorted at any time by failures in some participant or in the communication itself. When running on a highway, simply switching off the function is not an option, as this would also result in hazardous situations. Graceful degradation offer a systematic approach to define a partial-order of less and less acceptable operation modes, of which the best achievable is selected in presence of failures. In this work we propose an approach for assurance of the degradation cascades based on mode-specific assertions, captured by assumption/guarantee contracts. More specifically, we share our experiences and methodology for specifying the contracts for both the nominal safe behaviour as well as the less safe but acceptable behaviour in presence of failures. Furthermore, we present an argument pattern for adequacy of the degradation cascades for meeting the global safety goals based on the contracts. We illustrate our approach by a car platooning case study.

  • 20.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Jaradat, Omar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bate, Iain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Graydon, Patrick
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Deriving Safety Contracts to Support Architecture Design of Safety Critical Systems2015In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, 2015, Vol. january, p. 126-133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of contracts to enhance the maintainability of safety-critical systems has received a significant amount of research effort in recent years. However some key issues have been identified: the difficulty in dealing with the wide range of properties of systems and deriving contracts to capture those properties; and the challenge of dealing with the inevitable incompleteness of the contracts. In this paper, we explore how the derivation of contracts can be performed based on the results of failure analysis. We use the concept of safety kernels to alleviate the issues. Firstly the safety kernel means that the properties of the system that we may wish to manage can be dealt with at a more abstract level, reducing the challenges of representation and completeness of the “safety” contracts. Secondly the set of safety contracts is reduced so it is possible to reason about their satisfaction in a more rigorous manner.

  • 21.
    Šljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Facilitating Reuse of Safety Case Artefacts Using Safety Contracts2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Safety-critical systems usually need to comply with a domain-specific safety standard, which often require a safety case in form of an explained argument supported by evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe to operate in a given context. Developing such systems to comply with a safety standard is a time-consuming and costly process. Reuse within development of such systems is used to reduce the cost and time needed to both develop the system and the accompanying safety case. Reuse of safety-relevant components that constitute the system is not sufficient without the reuse of the accompanying safety case artefacts that include the safety argument and the supporting evidence. The difficulties with reuse of the such artefacts within safety-critical systems lie mainly in the nature of safety being a system property and the lack of support for systematic reuse of such artefacts.

    In this thesis we focus on developing the notion of safety contracts that can be used to facilitate systematic reuse of safety-relevant components and their accompanying artefacts. More specifically, we explore the following issues: in which way such contracts should be specified, how they can be derived, and in which way they can be utilised for reuse of safety artefacts. First, we characterise the contracts as either “strong” or “weak” to facilitate capturing different behaviours reusable components can exhibit in different systems. Then, we present methods for deriving safety contracts from failure analyses. As the basis of the safety-critical systems development lies in the failure analyses and identifying which malfunctions eventually can lead to accidents, we deem that the basis for specifying the safety contracts lies in capturing information identified by such failure analyses within the contracts. Finally, we provide methods for generative reuse of the safety case artefacts by utilising the safety contracts. Moreover, we define a safety contracts development process as guidance for systematic reuse based on the safety contracts. We use a real-world case to demonstrate the proposed process. 

  • 22.
    Šljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Agent-centred Approach for Assuring Ethics in Dependable Service Systems2017In: 13th IEEE World Congress on Services SERVICES 2017, 2017, p. 51-58, article id 8036721Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the world enters the information era, more and more dependable services controlling and even making our decisions are moved to the ubiquitous smart devices. While various standards are in place to impose the societal ethical norms on decision-making of those devices, the rights of the individuals to satisfy their own moral norms are not addressed with the same scrutiny. Hence, the right of the individuals to reason on their own and evaluate morality of certain decisions is at stake, as many decisions are outsourced from the user to the service providers and third party stakeholders without the user's full awareness of all the aspects of those decisions. In this work we propose an agent-centred approach for assuring ethics in dependable technological service systems. We build upon assurance of safety and security and propose the notion of ethics assurance case as a way to assure that individual users have been made aware of all the ethically challenging decisions that might be performed or enabled by the service provider. We propose a framework for identifying and categorising ethically challenging decisions, and documenting the ethics assurance case. We apply the framework on an illustrative example.

1 - 22 of 22
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