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  • 1.
    Alajrami, S.
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Romanovsky, A.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom.
    EXE-SPEM: Towards cloud-based executable software process models2016In: MODELSWARD 2016 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development, 2016, p. 517-526Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Executing software processes in the cloud can bring several benefits to software development. In this paper, we discuss the benefits and considerations of cloud-based software processes. EXE-SPEM is our extension of the Software and Systems Process Engineering (SPEM2.0) Meta-model to support creating cloud-based executable software process models. Since SPEM2.0 is a visual modelling language, we introduce an XML notation meta-model and mapping rules from EXE-SPEM to this notation which can be executed in a workflow engine. We demonstrate our approach by modelling an example software process using EXE-SPEM and mapping it to the XML notation. 

  • 2.
    Alajrami, S.
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom .
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Romanovsky, A.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom .
    Isberg, Petter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards cloud-based enactment of safety-related processes2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 9922, 2016, p. 309-321Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering safety-critical systems is a complex task which involves multiple stakeholders. It requires shared and scalable computation to systematically involve geographically distributed teams. The paper proposes a model-driven cloud-based enactment architecture automating safety-critical processes. This work adapts our previous work on cloud-based software engineering by enriching the architecture with an automatic support for generation of both, product-based safety arguments from failure logic analysis results and process-based arguments from the process model and the enactment data. The approach is demonstrated using a fragment of a process adapted from the aerospace domain. 

  • 3.
    Alajrami, S.
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Romanovsky, A.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Software development in the Post-PC era: Towards software development as a service2016In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., 2016, p. 662-671Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years, software development has evolved to meet the needs of new types of applications and to embrace new technological disruptions. Today, we witness the rise of mobility where the role of the conventional high-end PC is declining. Some refer to this era as the Post- PC era. This technological shift, powered by a key enabling technology, cloud computing, has opened new opportunities for human advancement. Consequently, the evolving landscape of software systems drives the need for new methods for conceiving them. Such methods need to: (a) address the challenges and requirements of this era and (b) embrace the benefits of new technological breakthroughs. In this paper, we list the characteristics of the Post-PC era from the software development perspective and describe two motivating trends of software development processes. Then, we derive a list of requirements for the future software development from the characteristics of the Post-PC era and from the motivating trends. Finally, we propose a reference architecture for cloud-based software process enactment as an enabler for Software Development as a Service. The architecture is the first step addressing the needs that we have identified.

  • 4.
    Alajrami, Sami
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Romanovsky, Alexander
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Enabling GSD Task Allocation via Cloud-based Software Processes2017In: Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications SERA-2017, Springer, 2017, p. 179-192Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allocating tasks to distributed sites in Global Software Development (GSD) projects is often done unsystematically and based on the personal experi- ence of project managers. Wrong allocation decisions increase the project’s risks as tasks have dependencies that are inherited by the distributed sites. Decision sup- port can help make the task allocation a more informed and systematic process. The challenges in allocating tasks to distributed sites exist because of three dis- tance dimensions between sites (geographical, temporal and cultural). An informed task allocation decision needs to consider these distances. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to integrate and semi-automate the calculation of an existing Global Distance Metric (GDM) into an architecture that supports executing cloud-based software processes. We analyze the potential of integrating the GDM into this archi- tecture and identify the needed extensions to the architecture.

  • 5.
    Alajrami, Sami
    et al.
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Romanovsky, Alexander
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Enabling GSD Task Allocation via Cloud-based Software Processes2017In: International Journal of Networked and Distributed Computing, ISSN 2211-7938, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 221-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allocating tasks to distributed sites in Global Software Development (GSD) projects is often done unsystematically and based on the personal experience of project managers. Wrong allocation decisions increase the project’s risks as tasks have dependencies that are inherited by the distributed sites. Decision support can help make the task allocation a more informed and systematic process. The challenges in allocating tasks to distributed sites exist because of three distance dimensions between sites (geographical, temporal and cultural). An informed task allocation decision needs to consider these distances. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to integrate and semi-automate the calculation of an existing Global Distance Metric (GDM) into an architecture that supports executing cloud-based software processes. We analyze the potential of integrating the GDM into this architecture and identify the needed extensions to the architecture.

  • 6.
    Alajrami, Sami
    et al.
    Newcasle University, UK.
    Romanovsky, Alexander
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cost-Aware Scheduling of Software Processes Execution in the Cloud2018In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development - Volume 1, 2018, p. 203-212Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Alemzadeh, H.
    et al.
    University of Virginia, United States.
    Barbosa, R.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Brancati, F.
    Resil Tech S.r.l, Italy.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lawford, M.
    McMaster University, Canada.
    Natella, R.
    Federico II University of Naples, Italy.
    Netkachova, K.
    City University of London, United Kingdom.
    Pietrantuono, R.
    Federico II University of Naples, Italy.
    Silva, N.
    CRITICAL Software S.A, Portugal.
    Message from the WoSoCer workshop organizers2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 28th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2017, p. xxxviii-, article id 8109232Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ayala, Inmaculada
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Tool-based Security-informed Safety Oriented Process Line Engineering2016In: 1st International workshop on Interplay of Security, Safety and System/Software Architecture ISSA-2016, 2016, article id 38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the purpose of certification, manufactures of nowadays highly connected safety-critical systems are expected to en- gineer their systems according to well-defined engineering processes in compliance with safety and security standards. Certification is an extremely expensive and time-consuming process. Since safety and security standards exhibit a certain degree of commonality, certification-related artifacts (e.g., process models) should to some extent be reusable. To en- able systematic reuse and customization of process infor- mation, in this paper we further develop security-informed safety-oriented process line engineering (i.e., engineering of sets of processes including security and safety concerns). More specifically, first we consider three tool-supported ap- proaches for process-related commonality and variability man- agement and we apply them to limited but meaningful por- tions of safety and security standards within airworthiness. Then, we discuss our findings. Finally, we draw our conclu- sions and sketch future work.

  • 9.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    A Formal Approach for Flexible Modeling and Analysis of Transaction Timeliness and Isolation2016In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems, Brest, France, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional Concurrency Control (CC) mechanisms ensure absence of undesired interference in transaction-based systems and enforce isolation. However, CC may introduce unpredictable delays that could lead to breached timeliness, which is unwanted for real-time transactions. To avoid deadline misses, some CC algorithms relax isolation in favor of timeliness, whereas others limit possible interleavings by leveraging real-time constraints and preserve isolation. Selecting an appropriate CC algorithm that can guarantee timeliness at an acceptable level of isolation thus becomes an essential concern for system designers. However, trading-off isolation for timeliness is not easy with existing analysis techniques in database and real-time communities. In this paper, we propose to use model checking of a timed automata model of the transaction system, in order to check the traded-off timeliness and isolation. Our solution provides modularization for the basic transactional constituents, which enables flexible modeling and composition of various candidate CC algorithms, and thus reduces the effort of selecting the appropriate CC algorithm.

  • 10.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Customized Real-Time Data Management for Automotive Systems: A Case Study2017In: IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2017, p. 8397-8404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time DataBase Management Systems (RTDBMS) have been considered as a promising means to manage data for data-centric automotive systems. During the design of an RTDBMS, one must carefully trade off data consistency and timeliness, in order to achieve an acceptable level of both properties. Previously, we have proposed a design process called DAGGERS to facilitate a systematic customization of transaction models and decision on the run-time mechanisms. In this paper, we evaluate the applicability of DAGGERS via an industrially relevant case study that aims to design the transaction management for an on-board diagnostic system, which should guarantee both timeliness and data consistency under concurrent access. To achieve this, we apply the pattern-based approach of DAGGERS to formalize the transactions, and derive the appropriate isolation level and concurrency control algorithm guided by model checking. We show by simulation that the implementation of our designed system satisfies the desired timeliness and derived isolation, and demonstrate that DAGGERS helps to customize desired real-time transaction management prior to implementation.

  • 11.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    DAGGTAX: A Taxonomy of Data Aggregation Processes2017In: Model and Data Engineering: 7th International Conference, MEDI 2017, Barcelona, Spain, October 4–6, 2017, Proceedings, 2017, p. 324-339Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data aggregation processes are essential constituents for data management in modern computer systems, such as decision support systems and Internet of Things (IoT) systems. Due to the heterogeneity and real-time constraints in such systems, designing appropriate data aggregation processes often demands considerable effort. A study on the characteristics of data aggregation processes is then desirable, as it provides a comprehensive view of such processes, potentially facilitating their design, as well as the development of tool support to aid designers. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy called DAGGTAX, which is a feature diagram that models the common and variable characteristics of data aggregation processes, with a special focus on the real-time aspect. The taxonomy can serve as the foundation of a design tool, which we also introduce, enabling designers to build an aggregation process by selecting and composing desired features, and to reason about the feasibility of the design. We apply DAGGTAX on industrial case studies, showing that DAGGTAX not only strengthens the understanding, but also facilitates the model-driven design of data aggregation processes.

  • 12.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    DAGGTAX: A Taxonomy of Data Aggregation Processes2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data aggregation processes are essential constituents in many data management applications. Due to their complexity, designing data aggregation processes often demands considerable efforts. A study on the features of data aggregation processes will provide a comprehensive view for the designers and ease the design process. Existing works either propose application-specific aggregation solutions, or focus on particular aspects of aggregation processes such as aggregate functions, hence they do not offer a high-level, generic description. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy of data aggregation processes called DAGGTAX, which builds on the results of an extensive survey within various application domains. Our work focuses on the features of aggregation processes and their implications, especially on the temporal data consistency and the process timeliness. We present our taxonomy as a feature diagram, which is a visual notation with formal semantics. The taxonomy can then serve as the foundation of a design tool that enables designers to build an aggregation process by selecting and composing desired features. Based on the implications of the features, we formulate three design rules that eliminate infeasible feature combinations. We also provide a set of design heuristics that could help designers to decide the appropriate mechanisms for achieving the selected features. 

  • 13.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    DAGGTAX: A taxonomy of data aggregation processes2017In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 324-339Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data aggregation processes are essential constituents for data management in modern computer systems, such as decision support systems and Internet of Things (IoT) systems. Due to the heterogeneity and real-time constraints in such systems, designing appropriate data aggregation processes often demands considerable effort. A study on the characteristics of data aggregation processes is then desirable, as it provides a comprehensive view of such processes, potentially facilitating their design, as well as the development of tool support to aid designers. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy called DAGGTAX, which is a feature diagram that models the common and variable characteristics of data aggregation processes, with a special focus on the real-time aspect. The taxonomy can serve as the foundation of a design tool, which we also introduce, enabling designers to build an aggregation process by selecting and composing desired features, and to reason about the feasibility of the design. We apply DAGGTAX on industrial case studies, showing that DAGGTAX not only strengthens the understanding, but also facilitates the model-driven design of data aggregation processes. © 2017, Springer International Publishing AG.

  • 14.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards the verification of temporal data consistency in Real-Time Data Management2016In: 2016 2nd International Workshop on Modelling, Analysis, and Control of Complex CPS, CPS Data 2016, 2016, article id Article number 7496422Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) require both timeliness of computation and temporal consistency of their data. Therefore, when using real-time databases in a real-time CPS application, the Real-Time Database Management Systems (RTDBMSs) must ensure both transaction timeliness and temporal data consistency. RTDBMSs prevent unwanted interferences of concurrent transactions via concurrency control, which in turn has a significant impact on the timeliness and temporal consistency of data. Therefore it is important to verify, already at early design stages that these properties are not breached by the concurrency control. However, most often such early on guarantees of properties under concurrency control are missing. In this paper we show how to verify transaction timeliness and temporal data consistency using model checking. We model the transaction work units, the data and the concurrency control mechanism as a network of timed automata, and specify the properties in TCTL. The properties are then checked exhaustively and automatically using the UPPAAL model checker. 

  • 15.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Trading-off Data Consistency for Timeliness in Real-Time Database Systems2015In: 27th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems ECRTS'15, 2015, p. 13-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to guarantee transaction timeliness, Realtime Database Management Systems (RTDBMSs) often relax data consistency by relaxing the ACID transaction properties. Such relaxation varies depending on the application and thus different transaction management mechanisms have to be decided for developing a tailored RTDBMS. However, current RTDBMSs development does not include systematic verification of timeliness and desired ACID properties. Consequently, the implemented transaction management mechanisms may breach timeliness of transactions. In this paper, we propose a process called DAGGERS for developing a tailored RTDBMS that guarantees timeliness and desired data consistency for real-time systems by employing model-checking techniques during the process. Based on the characteristics of the desired data manipulations, transaction models are designed and then formally verified iteratively together with selected run-time mechanisms, in order to achieve the desired/necessary trade-offs between timeliness and data consistency. The outcome of DAGGERS is thus a tailored transaction management with guaranteed appropriate trade-offs, as well as the model-checking based worst-case execution times and blocking times of transactions under these mechanisms and assumptions of the hardware architecture.

  • 16.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Alf
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Design of Cloud Monitoring Systems via DAGGTAX: A Case Study2017In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 109, p. 424-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient auto-scaling of cloud resources relies on the monitoring of the cloud, which involves multiple aggregation processes and large amounts of data with various and interdependent requirements. A systematic way of describing the data together with the possible aggregations is beneficial for designers to reason about the properties of these aspects as well as their implications on the design, thus improving quality and lowering development costs. In this paper, we propose to apply DAGGTAX, a feature-oriented taxonomy for organizing common and variable data and aggregation process properties, to the design of cloud monitoring systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of DAGGTAX via a case study provided by industry, which aims to design a cloud monitoring system that serves auto-scaling for a video streaming system. We design the cloud monitoring system by selecting and composing DAGGTAX features, and reason about the feasibility of the selected features. The case study shows that the application of DAGGTAX can help designers to identify reusable features, analyze trade-offs between selected features, and derive crucial system parameters.

  • 17.
    Capilla, R.
    et al.
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cetina, C.
    Universidad San Jorge, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Foreword2018In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Capilla, Rafael
    et al.
    King Juan Carlos University (URJC), Spain.
    Gallina, BarbaraMälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.Cetina, CarlosSan Jorge University (USJ), Spain.
    New Opportunities for Software Reuse2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains the proceedings of the International Conference on Software Reuse (ICSR 18) held during May 21–23, 2018, in Madrid, Spain. The International Conference on Software Reuse is the premier international event in the software reuse community. The main goal of ICSR is to present the most recent advances and breakthroughs in the area of software reuse and to promote an intensive and continuous exchange among researchers and practitioners. The conference featured two keynotes by John Favaro, Intecs SpA (Italy) and Alberto Abella from MELODA (Spain). We received 29 submissions (excluding withdrawn submissions). Each submission was reviewed by three Program Committee members. The Program Committee decided to accept 11 papers (nine full papers and two short ones), resulting in an acceptance rate of 37.9%. The program also included one full-day tutorial, one invited talk, and a panel about the future of software reuse. This conference was a collaborative work that could only be realized through many dedicated efforts. We would like to thank all the colleagues who made possible the success of ICSR 2018: Barbara Gallina, Carlos Cetina, Mathieu Acher, Tewfik Ziadi, Roberto E. López Herrejón, Gregorio Robles, Jens Knodel, Carlos Carrillo, and Alejandro Valdezate. We also thank the ICSR Steering Committee for the approval to organize this edition in Madrid. Last but not least, we would like to sincerely thank all authors who submitted papers to the conference for their contributions and interest in ICSR 2018. We also thank the members of the Program Committee and the additional reviewers for their accurate reviews as well as their participation in the discussions of the submissions. Finally, we thank Danilo Beuche for his tutorial and the members that participated as panelists including the support from people of The Reuse Company (Spain).

  • 19.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Formal Contract Logic Based Patterns for Facilitating Compliance Checking against ISO 262622018In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Volume 2049, 2018, p. 65-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ISO 26262 demands a confirmation review of the safety plan, which includes the compliance checking of planned processes against safety requirements. Formal Contract Logic (FCL), a logic-based language stemming from business compliance, provides means to formalize normative requirements enabling automatic compliance checking. However, formalizing safety requirements in FCL requires skills, which cannot be taken for granted. In this paper, we provide a set of ISO 26262-specific FCL compliance patterns to facilitate rules formalization. First, we identify and define the patterns, based on Dwyer' et al.'s specification patterns style. Then, we instantiate the patterns to illustrate their applicability. Finally, we sketch conclusions and future work.

  • 20.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Efficiently Checking Compliance Against Automotive Security and Safety Standards2017In: The 7th IEEE International Workshop on Software Certification WoSoCer 2017, 2017, p. 317-324Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing connectivity of the systems that we rely on e.g. transportation vehicles is pushing towards the introduction of new standards aimed at providing a baseline to address cybersecurity besides safety. If the interplay of the two normative spaces is not mastered, compliance management might become more time consuming and costly, preventing engineers from dedicating their energies to system engineering. In this paper, we build on top of previous work aimed at increasing efficiency and confidence in compliance management. More specifically, we contribute to building a terminological framework needed to enable the systematization of commonalities and variabilities within ISO 26262 and SAE J3061. Then, we focus our attention on the requirements for software design and implementation and we use defeasible logic to prove compliance. Based on the compliance checking results, we reveal reuse opportunities. Finally, we draw our conclusions and sketch future research directions.

  • 21.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Towards Increased Efficiency and Confidence in Process Compliance2017In: 24th European & Asian Systems, Software & Service Process Improvement & Innovation EuroAsiaSPI2 '17, 2017, p. 162-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the engineering of (software) systems has to comply with di erent standards, which often exhibit common requirements or at least a signi cant potential for synergy. Compliance management is a delicate, time-consuming, and costly activity, which would bene- t from increased con dence, automation, and systematic reuse. In this paper, we introduce a new approach, called SoPLE&Logic-basedCM. SoPLE&Logic-basedCM combines (safety-oriented) process line engineering with defeasible logic-based approaches for formal compliance checking. As a result of this combination, SoPLE&Logic-basedCM enables automation of compliance checking and systematic reuse of process elements as well as compliance proofs. To illustrate SoPLE&Logic-basedCM, we apply it to the automotive domain and we draw our lessons learnt.

  • 22.
    Cârlan, C.
    et al.
    fortiss GmbH, Munich, Germany.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kacianka, S.
    Technische Universität München, Garching, Germany.
    Breu, R.
    Institut für Informatik, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Arguing on software-level verification techniques appropriateness2017In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 39-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the pondered selection of innovative software verification technology in the safety-critical domain and its implications. Verification tools perform analyses, testing or simulation activities. The compliance of the techniques implemented by these tools to fulfill standard-mandated objectives (i.e., to be means of compliance in the context of DO-178C and related supplements) should be explained to the certification body. It is thereby difficult for practitioners to use novel techniques, without a systematic method for arguing their appropriateness. Thus, we offer a method for arguing the appropriate application of a certain verification technique (potentially in combination with other techniques) to produce the evidence needed to satisfy certification objectives regarding fault detection and mitigation in a realistic avionics application via safety cases. We use this method for the choice of an appropriate compiler to support the development of a drone.

  • 23.
    Dardar, Raghad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Industrial Experiences of Building a Safety Case in Compliance with ISO 262622012In: 23RD IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SOFTWARE RELIABILITY ENGINEERING WORKSHOPS (ISSREW 2012), 2012, p. 349-354Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 26262 functional safety standard provides appropriate development processes, requirements and safety integrity levels specific for the automotive domain. One crucial requirement consists of the creation of a safety case, a structured argument, which inter-relates evidence and claims, needed to show that safety-critical systems are acceptably safe. The standard is currently not mandatory to be applied to safety critical systems installed in heavy trucks; however, this is likely to be changed by 2016. This paper describes the experience gathered by applying the standard to the Fuel Level Estimation and Display System, a subsystem that together with other subsystems plays a significant role in terms of global system safety for heavy trucks manufactured by Scania. More specifically, exploratory and laborious work related to the creation of a safety case in compliance with ISO 26262 in an inexperienced industrial setting is described, and the paper ends with presenting some lessons learned together with guidelines to facilitate the adoption of ISO 26262.

  • 24.
    Forsberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Saab AB, Sweden.
    Mårbring Isaksson, Eva
    Saab AB, Sweden.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Penna, Achille
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Elaboration of Safety Requirements2013In: AIAA/IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference - Proceedings2013, 2013, p. 7C21-7C29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the aircraft standard ARP4754A, requirements should be carefully traced and validated. A systematic methodology for safety requirements elaboration (refinement/decomposition as well as allocation management) is lacking. To overcome this lack, an ARP-aligned and DOORS implementable approach called RAP (Requirements Allocation Process) is proposed. RAP offers a textual as well as graphical means for managing safety requirements. Besides supporting requirements decomposition and allocation, RAP also supports design decisions. The usefulness of RAP is illustrated by an example, applying the approach to a High Lift System.

  • 25.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A model-driven safety certification method for process compliance2014In: Proceedings - IEEE 25th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2014, 2014, p. 204-209Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A safety case is a contextualized structured argument constituted of process and product-based sub-arguments to show that a system is acceptably safe. The creation of a safety case is an extremely time-consuming and costly activity needed for certification purposes. To reduce time and cost, reuse as well as automatic generation possibilities represent urgent research directions. In this paper, we focus on safety processes mandated by prescriptive standards and we identify process-related structures from which process-based arguments (those aimed at showing that a required development process has been applied according to the standard) can be generated and more easily reused. Then, we propose a model-driven safety certification method to derive those arguments as goal structures given in Goal Structuring Notation from process models given in compliance with Software Process Engineering Meta-model 2.0. The method is illustrated by generating process-based arguments in the context of ISO 26262.

  • 26.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Education-oriented ISO 26262 Interpretation Combined with Constructive Alignment2015In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings: 1st International Workshop on Software Process Education, Training and Professionalism / [ed] Ross M., O'Connor R.V. ,Mitasiunas A., 2015, Vol. 1368, p. 41-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety standards (e.g., ISO 26262) define safety life-cycles to be adopted for the development of safety-critical systems. Professionals (i.e., safety engineers, safety managers, and, more broadly safety cultureaware personnel) who are responsible of the development of such systems can be, in turn, considered as safety-critical systems. Coursemodules aimed at forming such professionals are critical. Given the criticality of such modules, the intended learning outcomes, before being constructively aligned [Biggs07] with teaching / learning / examination activities, should be derived by applying an education-oriented risk-driven process. The typical “what if” questions aimed at brainstorming on what if something goes wrong become essential to establish the expected stringency related to the knowledge and skills that personnel involved in the development of safety-critical systems should have. ISO 26262 defines a risk-driven safety life-cycle for developing safety-critical systems. In this paper, we give an educationoriented ISO 26262 interpretation and then we combine it with constructive alignment principles and we introduce SCA, Safetycritical Constructive Alignment, a new process to design Master’s level safety-critical courses or modules. To illustrate SCA and its potential effectiveness, we then apply it to design a specific module.

  • 27.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Enabling Reuse in the Context of Safety-critical Product Lines2015In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Product LinE Approaches in Software Engineering, 2015, p. 15-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of safety-critical product lines, industries have to face an urgent challenge: reduction of time and cost for the creation of a safety case. A safety case is a contextualized structured argument constituted of process and product-based sub-arguments to show that a system is acceptably safe. Its creation is an extremely time-consuming and costly activity. To reduce time and cost, reuse capabilities are being investigated from different perspectives however currently no satisfying approach is available. In this paper, we propose a new methodological framework called Anti-Sisyphus. Anti-Sisyphus is aimed at enabling reuse by combining process lines, product lines and safety case lines. The systematization of what varies and what remains in common with respect to process as well as product elements in turns enables the systematization of what varies and remains in common in terms of process-based as well as product-based arguments within a safety case line. Anti-Sisyphus thus has the potential to enable a 3D reuse.

  • 28.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Andrews, Anneliese
    Univ Denver, Denver, CO USA..
    Deriving Verification-related Means of Compliance for a Model-based Testing Process2016In: 2016 IEEE/AIAA 35TH DIGITAL AVIONICS SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (DASC), 2016, article id 7778046Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DO-331 is the supplement of DO-178C for modelbased development. DO-331 is an objective-based guidance, which defines a set of objectives that have to be achieved for the modelbased development of aeronautical software. The guidance also recommends the evidence in terms of activities and work products that should respectively be carried out and produced to meet the objectives. To explain why the evidence collected supports the claims concerning objectives achievement, manufacturers could adopt a safety case-based approach. Fail-SafeMBT is an academic, recently proposed, and potentially innovative model-based testing process, which needs compelling arguments to be adopted for the development of aeronautical software. To reduce the gap between industrial settings and academic settings, in this paper, we adopt the safety case-based approach and we explain how to semiautomatically derive means for compliance, aimed at arguing Fail-SafeMBT's compliance. Our focus is limited to the Verification Planning Process and we contribute to partially justify the adequacy of Fail-SafeMBT to act as process evidence by creating fragments of compelling arguments. To do that, we first manually check if Fail-SafeMBT includes DO-178C/DO-331-compliant process elements, then we model Fail-SafeMBT in compliance with Software Process Engineering Meta-model 2.0, then, we derive process-based arguments from the Fail-SafeMBT process model by using MDSafeCer, the recently introduced Model Driven Safety Certification method. By doing so, we provide a threefold contribution: we pioneer the interpretation of DO-331 in academic settings, we validate MDSafeCer in the avionics domain and we strengthen Fail-SafeMBT by providing suggestions aimed at increasing its maturity level.

  • 29.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Atif Javed, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ul Muram, Faiz
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Model-driven Dependability Analysis Method for Component-based Architectures2012In: Proceedings - 38th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2012, 2012, p. 233-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical distributed real-time embedded component-based systems must be dependable and thus be able to avoid unacceptable failures. To efficiently evaluate the dependability of the assembly obtained by selecting and composing components, well-integrated and tool-supported techniques are needed. Currently, no satisfying tool-supported technique fully integrated in the development life-cycle exists. To overcome this limitation, we propose CHESS-FLA, which is a model-driven failure logic analysis method. CHESS-FLA allows designers to: model the nominal as well as the failure behaviour of their architectures, automatically perform dependability analysis through a model transformation, and, finally, ease the interpretation of the analysis results through back-propagation onto the original architectural model. CHESS-FLA is part of an industrial quality tool-set for the functional and extra-functional development of high integrity embedded component-based systems, developed within the EU-ARTEMIS funded CHESS project. Finally, we present a case study taken from the telecommunication domain to illustrate and assess the proposed method.

  • 30.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania.
    Towards Shaping ISO 26262-compliant Resources for OSLC-based Safety Case Creation2016In: 4th International Workshop on Critical Automotive Applications: Robustness & Safety CARS-2016, Göteborg, Sweden, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traceable documentation management represents a mandatory activity according to ISO 26262. This activity is also essential for the creation of an ISO 26262-compliant safety case, which is defined as a compilation of work products. OSLC represents a promising integration framework for enabling tool interoperability and thus seamless traceability and documentation management, including safety case creation and management. In this paper, we present a step related to our work aimed at offering an OSLC-based infrastructure enabling the automatic generation of safety case fragments. Our step consists of the identification, representation and shaping of resources needed to create the safety case. Finally, conclusion and perspectives for future work are also drawn.ISO 26262,

  • 31.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Dimov, A.
    University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fuzzy-enabled failure behaviour analysis for dependability assessment of networked systems2011In: M and N 2011 - IEEE International Workshop on Measurements and Networking, Proceedings, 2011, p. 53-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dependability assessment of networked component-based systems requires fine-grained modelling of the failure behaviour and propagation aspects of individual components. We have recently introduced a formalism called FI 4FA, enabling the analysis of I 4 (incompletion, inconsistency, interference and impermanence) failures as well as the analysis of the corresponding mitigations. 

  • 32.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fabre, Laurent
    Critical Systems Labs Inc, Vancouver, Canada.
    Benefits of Security-informed Safety-oriented Process Line Engineering2015In: Digital Avionics Systems Conference DASC-34, Prague, Czech Republic: IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, given the growing aircraft connectivity, security-informed safety is crucial. To certify aircrafts, safety as well as security standards need to be taken into consideration. In this context, a process engineer has to succeed in mastering the growing complexity of the standards interplay. To support process engineers, we propose to: first, consider a common terminological framework, aimed at reconciling security and safety within dependability; then identify and systematize commonalities and variabilities between the processes. To enable this systematization we introduce Security-informed Safety-oriented Process Line Engineering (SiSoPLE), which extends SoPLE to address security concerns. To show the effectiveness and benefits of SiSoPLE, we apply this new process line engineering to two aerospace standards, SAE ARP 4761 (Safety) and RTCA DO-326A (Security). We then provide our lessons learned and concluding remarks. Finally, we sketch some perspectives for future investigation.

  • 33.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fabre, Laurent
    Crit Syst Labs, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    BENEFITS OF SECURITY-INFORMED SAFETY-ORIENTED PROCESS LINE ENGINEERING2015In: 2015 IEEE/AIAA 34TH DIGITAL AVIONICS SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (DASC), IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, given the growing aircraft connectivity, security-informed safety is crucial. To certify aircrafts, safety as well as security standards need to be taken into consideration. In this context, a process engineer has to succeed in mastering the growing complexity of the standards interplay. To support process engineers, we propose to: first, consider a common terminological framework, aimed at reconciling security and safety within dependability; then identify and systematize commonalities and variabilities between the processes. To enable this systematization we introduce Security-informed Safety-oriented Process Line Engineering (SiSoPLE), which extends SoPLE to address security concerns. To show the effectiveness and benefits of SiSoPLE, we apply this new process line engineering to two aerospace standards, SAE ARP 4761 (Safety) and RTCA DO-326A (Security). We then provide our lessons learned and concluding remarks. Finally, we sketch some perspectives for future investigation.

  • 34.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallucci, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania, Sweden.
    VROOM & cC: a Method to Build Safety Cases for ISO 26262-compliant Product Lines2013In: Proceedings of SASSUR@SAFECOMP. 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Gomez-Martinez, Elena
    Univ East London, London, England..
    Earle, Clara Benac
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Deriving Safety Case Fragments for Assessing MBASafe's Compliance with EN 501282016In: SOFTWARE PROCESS IMPROVEMENT AND CAPABILITY DETERMINATION (SPICE 2016), 2016, p. 3-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to EN 50129, manufacturers of rail vehicles shall justify via a safety case that their vehicles are adequately safe for their intended applications. MBASafe is a recently proposed and potentially innovative design and verification process. In the presence of compelling arguments concerning its adequacy as process evidence, MBASafe could support the safety claims within the required safety cases. In this paper, we contribute to partially justify the adequacy of MBASafe to act as process evidence. To do that, we first manually check if MBASafe includes EN 50128-compliant process elements, then we model MBASafe in compliance with Software Process Engineering Meta-model 2.0, then, we derive process-based arguments from the MBASafe process model by using MDSafeCer, the recently introduced Model Driven Safety Certification method. By doing so, we provide a twofold contribution: we further validate MDSafeCer in the rail domain and we strengthen MBASafe.

  • 36.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Guelfi, N.
    Laboratory for Advanced Software Systems, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Reusing transaction models for dependable cloud computing2012In: Software Reuse in the Emerging Cloud Computing Era, IGI Global , 2012, p. 248-277Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing represents a technological change in computing. Despite the technological change, however, the quality of the computation, in particular its dependability, remains a fundamental requirement. To ensure dependability, and more specifically, reliability, transaction models represent an effective means. In the literature, several transaction models exist. Choosing (reusing entirely) or introducing (reusing partially) transaction models for cloud computing is not an easy task. The difficulty of this task is due to the fact that it requires a deep understanding of the properties that characterize transaction models to be able to discriminate reusable from non reusable properties with respect to cloud computing characteristics. To ease this task, the PRISMA process is introduced. PRISMA is a Process for Requirements Identification, Specification and Machine-supported Analysis that targets transaction models. PRISMA is then applied to engineer reusable requirements suitable for the achievement of the adequate transaction models for cloud computing.

  • 37.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. University of Luxembourg.
    Guelfi, Nicolas
    University of Luxembourg.
    A Product Line Perspective for Quality Reuse of Development Frameworks for Distributed Transactional Applications2008In: Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2008, 2008, p. 739-744Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexibility, autonomy, distribution and openness of the modern computing systems are properties which expand the spectrum of interactions possible among system components. Moreover these properties tend to impose more rigorous quality requirements on software development. To ensure the quality of distributed applications two notions have already been introduced: concurrency control and fault-tolerance. These notions are present and refined in so-called advanced transactional frameworks. All these frameworks have different interpretations of these two notions because they try to solve different issues. Engineering from scratch such aframework is a complex task which will achieve a low level result, if not supported by a quality oriented approach. This paper solves this issue by introducing a product line perspective founded on the semantic analysis of the variabilities and commonalities of the ACID (Atomicity, Isolation, Durability and Consistency) properties. Varying and composing ACID properties in a disciplined way is in our opinion a key issue to increasequality and quality reuse in the development of advanced transactional frameworks. For this our approach allows the elicitation of the requirements of the advanced transactional frameworks product line using the "DRET" template.

  • 38.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    University of Luxembourg,.
    Guelfi, Nicolas
    University of Luxembourg.
    SPLACID: an SPL-oriented, ACTA-based, Language for Reusing (varying) ACID Properties2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability) properties characterize the initial Transactional Model (TM). Being too restrictive and functionally limited to face the requirements of more recent application domains, the semantics of these properties has been relaxed (weakened) leading to an important set of TMs. Understanding, comparing and synthesizing TMs on the basis of core features and, more specifically, understanding and comparing relaxed ACID properties to be able to reuse them, during the synthesis of TMs, is still an unreached goal. The ACTA framework represented a relevant step towards the achievement of that goal. ACTA, however, as we contribute in highlighting, presents several points of weakness. To contribute in easing the identification and specification of reusable and composable commonalities and variabilities among TMs, we introduce a Software Product Line oriented, ACTA-based, language, called SPLACID. SPLACID is dedicated to the formal specification of TMs in terms of the selection and specialisation of a set of TM standard features. SPLACID promotes reuse and enhance rigor and precision by providing a well structured concrete syntax.

  • 39.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    University of Luxembourg.
    Guelfi, Nicolas
    University of Luxembourg.
    Kelsen, P
    University of Luxembourg.
    Towards an Alloy Formal Model for Flexible Advanced Transactional Model Development2009In: Proceedings - 33rd Annual IEEE Software Engineering Workshop, SEW-33 2009, Skövde, Sweden, 2009, p. 94-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SPLACID is a semi-formal language conceived for the specification and synthesis of (advanced) transactional models from basic features, such as transaction types and (relaxed) ACID variants. SPLACID is an improvement of the ACTA framework offering a well-structured and formal syntax. Neither ACTA nor SPLACID, however, benefit from a formal tool-supported semantics. This paper presents the first step for having a fullformal semantics of SPLACID by translation to Alloy. In particular, we present the translation of the SPLACID concepts into Alloy concepts focusing on those concepts pertaining to the structure of a TransactionalModel and those characterizing the isolation variant. The Alloy specification obtained by this translation preserve the SPLACID main key-properties, namely, modularity, flexibility and reusability. To support this claim we show how flexible, modular and reusable structures and isolation variants can be obtained in Alloy. Finally, we analyze the flat and nested transactional model structures and the serializability-based isolation variant using the Alloy Analyzer. 

  • 40.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gómez-Martínez, Elena
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Benac Earle, Clara
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Evaluación de Requisitos de Seguridad con MBASafe conforme a la norma EN 501282017In: XVII Jornadas de Programación y Lenguajes, part of SISTEDES 2017 PROLE-2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to EN 50129, manufacturers of rail vehicles shall justify via a safety case that their vehicles are adequately safe for their intended applications. MBASafe is a recently proposed and potentially innovative design and verification process. In the presence of compelling arguments concerning its adequacy as process evidence, MBASafe could support the safety claims within the required safety cases. In this paper, we contribute to partially justify the adequacy of MBASafe to act as process evidence. To do that, we first manually check if MBASafe includes EN 50128-compliant process elements, then we model MBASafe in compliance with Software Process Engineering Metamodel 2.0, then, we derive process-based arguments from the MBASafe process model by using MDSafeCer, the recently introduced Model Driven Safety Certification method. By doing so, we provide a twofold contribution: we further validate MDSafeCer in the rail domain and we strengthen MBASafe. 

  • 41.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gómez-Martínez, Elena
    University of East London, London, United Kingdom.
    Benac Earle, Clara
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Promoting MBA in the Rail Sector by Deriving Process-related Evidence via MDSafeCer2017In: Computer Standards & Interfaces, ISSN 0920-5489, E-ISSN 1872-7018, Vol. -54, no 3, p. 119-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An EN 50129-compliant safety case should include process-related evidence in terms of quality as well as safety management. Potentially innovative engi- neering methods developed in academic settings could act as process-related evidence. However, to ease their acceptance within the rail industrial set- tings, the adequacy of these methods need to be justified. In this paper, we extend our previous work and we provide a broader justification including performance aspects aimed at showing that the entire MBA (Model-Based design methodology for Assessing performance and safety requirements of critical systems) is partly compliant with EN 50128.To do that, we tackle safety and performance process-related compliance as follows: we first man- ually check if MBA includes EN 50128-compliant process elements, then we model MBA in compliance with Software Process Engineering Meta-model 2.0, then, we derive process-based arguments from the MBA process model by using the MDSafeCer (Model Driven Safety Certification) method. By doing so, we provide a twofold contribution: we further validate MDSafeCer in the rail domain and we strengthen MBA.

  • 42.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Haider, Zulqarnain
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlsson, Anna
    OHB Sweden, Sweden.
    Towards Generating ECSS-compliant Fault Tree Analysis Results via ConcertoFLA2018In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 351, issue 1, 2018, Vol. 351, article id UNSP 012001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attitude Control Systems (ACSs) maintain the orientation of the satellite in threedimensional space. ACSs need to be engineered in compliance with ECSS standards and need to ensure a certain degree of dependability. Thus, dependability analysis is conducted at various levels and by using ECSS-compliant techniques. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is one of these techniques. FTA is being automated within various Model Driven Engineering (MDE)- based methodologies. The tool-supported CHESS-methodology is one of them. This methodology incorporates ConcertoFLA, a dependability analysis technique enabling failure behavior analysis and thus FTA-results generation. ConcertoFLA, however, similarly to other techniques, still belongs to the academic research niche. To promote this technique within the space industry, we apply it on an ACS and discuss about its multi-faceted potentialities in the context of ECSS-compliant engineering.

  • 43.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kashiyarandi, Shaghayegh
    Martin, Helmut
    VIRTUAL VEHICLE Research Center, Austria.
    Bramberger, Robert
    VIRTUAL VEHICLE Research Center, Austria.
    Modeling a Safety- and Automotive-oriented Process Line to Enable Reuse and Flexible Process Derivation2014In: 38th Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC), 2014, p. 504-509Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ISO 26262 is a recently introduced automotive functional safety standard. This standard imposes new requirements that must be fulfilled for conformance purposes. Thus, companies used to develop safety-related E/E systems in compliance with either only Automotive SPICE (ASPICE) or a combination of ASPICE and IEC 61508 have to quickly perform a gap analysis in order to introduce adequate changes in their way of working. Implementing such changes in a visionary way with expectations of a long-term payback is an urgent open issue. To contribute to addressing such issue, in this paper, we intro- duce a safety-oriented process line-based methodological frame- work to model commonalities and variabilities (changes) between the standards to enable reuse and flexible process derivation. To show the usefulness of our approach, we apply it to model a proc- ess-phase line for the development of safety-critical control units. Finally, we provide our lessons learned and concluding remarks.

  • 44.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kashiyarandi, Shaghayegh
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Zugsbratl, Karlheinz
    Geven, Arjan
    Enabling Cross-Domain Reuse of Tool Qualification Certification Artefacts2014In: COMPUTER SAFETY, RELIABILITY, AND SECURITY, 2014, p. 255-266Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and verification of safety-critical systems increasingly relies on the use of tools which automate/replace/supplement complex verification and/or development tasks. The safety of such systems risks to be compromised, if the tools fail. To mitigate this risk, safety standards (e.g. DO-178C/DO330, IEC 61508) define prescriptive tool qualification processes. Compliance with these processes can be required for (re-)certification purposes. To enable reuse and thus reduce time and cost related to certification, cross-domain tool manufacturers need to understand what varies and what remains in common when transiting from one domain to another. To ease reuse, in this paper we focus on verification tools and model a cross-domain tool qualification process line. Finally, we discuss how reusable cross-domain process-based arguments can be obtained.

  • 45.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    THRUST: A method for speeding up the creation of process-related deliverables2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Certification of safety-critical avionics systems is an expensive and time-consuming activity due to the necessity of providing numerous deliverables. Some of these deliverables are process-related. To reduce time and cost related to the provision of process-related deliverables, in this paper, we propose to combine three approaches: the safety-oriented process line engineering approach, the process-based argumentation line approach, and the model driven certification-oriented approach. More specifically, we focus on safety-related processes for the development of avionics systems and we define how these three approaches are combined and which techniques, tools and guidelines should be used to implement the resulting approach, called THRUST. Advantages and disadvantages of possible existing techniques and tools are discussed and proposals as well as conceptual solutions for new techniques are sketched. Based on the sketched conceptual solutions, we then apply THRUST to speed up the creation of process-related deliverables in compliance with DO-178B/C.

  • 46.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Forsberg, Kristina
    Saab AB, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    THRUST: A METHOD FOR SPEEDING UP THE CREATION OF PROCESS-RELATED DELIVERABLES2014In: 2014 IEEE/AIAA 33RD DIGITAL AVIONICS SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (DASC), IEEE , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Certification of safety-critical avionics systems is an expensive and time-consuming activity due to the necessity of providing numerous deliverables. Some of these deliverables are process-related. To reduce time and cost related to the provision of process-related deliverables, in this paper, we propose to combine three approaches: the safety-oriented process line engineering approach, the process-based argumentation line approach, and the model driven certification-oriented approach. More specifically, we focus on safety-related processes for the development of avionics systems and we define how these three approaches are combined and which techniques, tools and guidelines should be used to implement the resulting approach, called THRUST. Advantages and disadvantages of possible existing techniques and tools are discussed and proposals as well as conceptual solutions for new techniques are sketched. Based on the sketched conceptual solutions, we then apply THRUST to speed up the creation of process-related deliverables in compliance with DO-178B/C.

  • 47.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Forsberg, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, Vasteras, Sweden.;Saab AB, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    THRUST: A Method for Speeding up the Creation of Process-related Deliverables2014In: 2014 IEEE/AIAA 33RD DIGITAL AVIONICS SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (DASC), IEEE , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Natella, R.
    Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    Special section on: Reliability and Safety Certification of Software-Intensive Systems2017In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 158Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Natella, RobertoUniversità degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    Reliability Engineering & System Safety, Vol. 158, 2017: Special section on: Reliability and Safety Certification of Software-Intensive Systems2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania, Sweden.
    An EN5012x-compliant OSLC-based Safety Case Generator2016Other (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 79
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