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  • 1.
    Alajrami, S.
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Romanovsky, A.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom.
    EXE-SPEM: Towards cloud-based executable software process models2016In: MODELSWARD 2016 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development, 2016, p. 517-526Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Executing software processes in the cloud can bring several benefits to software development. In this paper, we discuss the benefits and considerations of cloud-based software processes. EXE-SPEM is our extension of the Software and Systems Process Engineering (SPEM2.0) Meta-model to support creating cloud-based executable software process models. Since SPEM2.0 is a visual modelling language, we introduce an XML notation meta-model and mapping rules from EXE-SPEM to this notation which can be executed in a workflow engine. We demonstrate our approach by modelling an example software process using EXE-SPEM and mapping it to the XML notation. 

  • 2.
    Alajrami, S.
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom .
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Romanovsky, A.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom .
    Isberg, Petter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards cloud-based enactment of safety-related processes2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 9922, 2016, p. 309-321Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering safety-critical systems is a complex task which involves multiple stakeholders. It requires shared and scalable computation to systematically involve geographically distributed teams. The paper proposes a model-driven cloud-based enactment architecture automating safety-critical processes. This work adapts our previous work on cloud-based software engineering by enriching the architecture with an automatic support for generation of both, product-based safety arguments from failure logic analysis results and process-based arguments from the process model and the enactment data. The approach is demonstrated using a fragment of a process adapted from the aerospace domain. 

  • 3.
    Alajrami, S.
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Romanovsky, A.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Software development in the Post-PC era: Towards software development as a service2016In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., 2016, p. 662-671Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years, software development has evolved to meet the needs of new types of applications and to embrace new technological disruptions. Today, we witness the rise of mobility where the role of the conventional high-end PC is declining. Some refer to this era as the Post- PC era. This technological shift, powered by a key enabling technology, cloud computing, has opened new opportunities for human advancement. Consequently, the evolving landscape of software systems drives the need for new methods for conceiving them. Such methods need to: (a) address the challenges and requirements of this era and (b) embrace the benefits of new technological breakthroughs. In this paper, we list the characteristics of the Post-PC era from the software development perspective and describe two motivating trends of software development processes. Then, we derive a list of requirements for the future software development from the characteristics of the Post-PC era and from the motivating trends. Finally, we propose a reference architecture for cloud-based software process enactment as an enabler for Software Development as a Service. The architecture is the first step addressing the needs that we have identified.

  • 4.
    Alajrami, Sami
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Romanovsky, Alexander
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Enabling GSD Task Allocation via Cloud-based Software Processes2017In: Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications SERA-2017, Springer, 2017, p. 179-192Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allocating tasks to distributed sites in Global Software Development (GSD) projects is often done unsystematically and based on the personal experi- ence of project managers. Wrong allocation decisions increase the project’s risks as tasks have dependencies that are inherited by the distributed sites. Decision sup- port can help make the task allocation a more informed and systematic process. The challenges in allocating tasks to distributed sites exist because of three dis- tance dimensions between sites (geographical, temporal and cultural). An informed task allocation decision needs to consider these distances. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to integrate and semi-automate the calculation of an existing Global Distance Metric (GDM) into an architecture that supports executing cloud-based software processes. We analyze the potential of integrating the GDM into this archi- tecture and identify the needed extensions to the architecture.

  • 5.
    Alajrami, Sami
    et al.
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Romanovsky, Alexander
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Enabling GSD Task Allocation via Cloud-based Software Processes2017In: International Journal of Networked and Distributed Computing, ISSN 2211-7938, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 221-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allocating tasks to distributed sites in Global Software Development (GSD) projects is often done unsystematically and based on the personal experience of project managers. Wrong allocation decisions increase the project’s risks as tasks have dependencies that are inherited by the distributed sites. Decision support can help make the task allocation a more informed and systematic process. The challenges in allocating tasks to distributed sites exist because of three distance dimensions between sites (geographical, temporal and cultural). An informed task allocation decision needs to consider these distances. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to integrate and semi-automate the calculation of an existing Global Distance Metric (GDM) into an architecture that supports executing cloud-based software processes. We analyze the potential of integrating the GDM into this architecture and identify the needed extensions to the architecture.

  • 6.
    Alajrami, Sami
    et al.
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Romanovsky, Alexander
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cost-Aware Scheduling of Software Processes Execution in the Cloud2018In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development - Volume 1, 2018, p. 203-212Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using cloud computing to execute software processes brings several benefits to software development. In a previous work, we proposed a reference architecture, which treats software processes as workflows and uses cloud computing to execute them. Scheduling the execution in the cloud impacts the execution cost and the cloud resources utilization. Existing workflow scheduling algorithms target business and scientific (data-driven) workflows, but not software processes workflows. In this paper, we adapt three scheduling algorithms for our architecture and propose a fourth one; the Proportional Adaptive Task Schedule algorithm. We evaluate the algorithms in terms of their execution cost, makespan and cloud resource utilization. Our results show that our proposed algorithm saves between 19.74% and 45.78% of the execution cost and provides the best resource (virtual machine) utilization compared to the adapted algorithms while providing the second best makespan. 

  • 7.
    Alemzadeh, H.
    et al.
    University of Virginia, United States.
    Barbosa, R.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Brancati, F.
    Resil Tech S.r.l, Italy.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lawford, M.
    McMaster University, Canada.
    Natella, R.
    Federico II University of Naples, Italy.
    Netkachova, K.
    City University of London, United Kingdom.
    Pietrantuono, R.
    Federico II University of Naples, Italy.
    Silva, N.
    CRITICAL Software S.A, Portugal.
    Message from the WoSoCer workshop organizers2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 28th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2017, p. xxxviii-, article id 8109232Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Alemzadeh, H.
    et al.
    University of Virginia, Virginia, United States.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Natella, R.
    Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
    Netkachova, K.
    University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Pietrantuono, R.
    Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
    Silva, N.
    CRITICAL Software S.A., Portugal.
    Message from the WoSoCer 2018 Workshop Chairs2018In: Proceedings - 29th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, article id 8539151Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ayala, Inmaculada
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Tool-based Security-informed Safety Oriented Process Line Engineering2016In: 1st International workshop on Interplay of Security, Safety and System/Software Architecture ISSA-2016, 2016, article id 38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the purpose of certification, manufactures of nowadays highly connected safety-critical systems are expected to en- gineer their systems according to well-defined engineering processes in compliance with safety and security standards. Certification is an extremely expensive and time-consuming process. Since safety and security standards exhibit a certain degree of commonality, certification-related artifacts (e.g., process models) should to some extent be reusable. To en- able systematic reuse and customization of process infor- mation, in this paper we further develop security-informed safety-oriented process line engineering (i.e., engineering of sets of processes including security and safety concerns). More specifically, first we consider three tool-supported ap- proaches for process-related commonality and variability man- agement and we apply them to limited but meaningful por- tions of safety and security standards within airworthiness. Then, we discuss our findings. Finally, we draw our conclu- sions and sketch future work.

  • 10.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    A Formal Approach for Flexible Modeling and Analysis of Transaction Timeliness and Isolation2016In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems, Brest, France, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional Concurrency Control (CC) mechanisms ensure absence of undesired interference in transaction-based systems and enforce isolation. However, CC may introduce unpredictable delays that could lead to breached timeliness, which is unwanted for real-time transactions. To avoid deadline misses, some CC algorithms relax isolation in favor of timeliness, whereas others limit possible interleavings by leveraging real-time constraints and preserve isolation. Selecting an appropriate CC algorithm that can guarantee timeliness at an acceptable level of isolation thus becomes an essential concern for system designers. However, trading-off isolation for timeliness is not easy with existing analysis techniques in database and real-time communities. In this paper, we propose to use model checking of a timed automata model of the transaction system, in order to check the traded-off timeliness and isolation. Our solution provides modularization for the basic transactional constituents, which enables flexible modeling and composition of various candidate CC algorithms, and thus reduces the effort of selecting the appropriate CC algorithm.

  • 11.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Customized Real-Time Data Management for Automotive Systems: A Case Study2017In: IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2017, p. 8397-8404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time DataBase Management Systems (RTDBMS) have been considered as a promising means to manage data for data-centric automotive systems. During the design of an RTDBMS, one must carefully trade off data consistency and timeliness, in order to achieve an acceptable level of both properties. Previously, we have proposed a design process called DAGGERS to facilitate a systematic customization of transaction models and decision on the run-time mechanisms. In this paper, we evaluate the applicability of DAGGERS via an industrially relevant case study that aims to design the transaction management for an on-board diagnostic system, which should guarantee both timeliness and data consistency under concurrent access. To achieve this, we apply the pattern-based approach of DAGGERS to formalize the transactions, and derive the appropriate isolation level and concurrency control algorithm guided by model checking. We show by simulation that the implementation of our designed system satisfies the desired timeliness and derived isolation, and demonstrate that DAGGERS helps to customize desired real-time transaction management prior to implementation.

  • 12.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    DAGGTAX: A Taxonomy of Data Aggregation Processes2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data aggregation processes are essential constituents in many data management applications. Due to their complexity, designing data aggregation processes often demands considerable efforts. A study on the features of data aggregation processes will provide a comprehensive view for the designers and ease the design process. Existing works either propose application-specific aggregation solutions, or focus on particular aspects of aggregation processes such as aggregate functions, hence they do not offer a high-level, generic description. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy of data aggregation processes called DAGGTAX, which builds on the results of an extensive survey within various application domains. Our work focuses on the features of aggregation processes and their implications, especially on the temporal data consistency and the process timeliness. We present our taxonomy as a feature diagram, which is a visual notation with formal semantics. The taxonomy can then serve as the foundation of a design tool that enables designers to build an aggregation process by selecting and composing desired features. Based on the implications of the features, we formulate three design rules that eliminate infeasible feature combinations. We also provide a set of design heuristics that could help designers to decide the appropriate mechanisms for achieving the selected features. 

  • 13.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    DAGGTAX: A taxonomy of data aggregation processes2017In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10563, Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 324-339Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data aggregation processes are essential constituents for data management in modern computer systems, such as decision support systems and Internet of Things (IoT) systems. Due to the heterogeneity and real-time constraints in such systems, designing appropriate data aggregation processes often demands considerable effort. A study on the characteristics of data aggregation processes is then desirable, as it provides a comprehensive view of such processes, potentially facilitating their design, as well as the development of tool support to aid designers. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy called DAGGTAX, which is a feature diagram that models the common and variable characteristics of data aggregation processes, with a special focus on the real-time aspect. The taxonomy can serve as the foundation of a design tool, which we also introduce, enabling designers to build an aggregation process by selecting and composing desired features, and to reason about the feasibility of the design. We apply DAGGTAX on industrial case studies, showing that DAGGTAX not only strengthens the understanding, but also facilitates the model-driven design of data aggregation processes. © 2017, Springer International Publishing AG.

  • 14.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Data Aggregation Processes: A Survey, A Taxonomy, and Design Guidelines2019In: Computing, ISSN 0010-485X, E-ISSN 1436-5057, Vol. 101, no 10, p. 1397-1429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data aggregation processes are essential constituents for data management in modern computer systems, such as decision support systems and Internet of Things (IoT) systems, many with timing constraints. Understanding the common and variable features of data aggregation processes, especially their implications to the timerelated properties, is key to improving the quality of the designed system and reduce design effort. In this paper, we present a survey of data aggregation processes in a variety of application domains from literature.We investigate their common and variable features, which serves as the basis of our previously proposed taxonomy called DAGGTAX. By studying the implications of the DAGGTAX features, we formulate a set of constraints to be satisfied during design, which helps to check the correctness of the specifications and reduce the design space. We also provide a set of design heuristics that could help designers to decide the appropriate mechanisms for achieving the selected features. We apply DAGGTAX on industrial case studies, showing that DAGGTAX not only strengthens the understanding, but also serves as the foundation of a design tool which facilitates the model-driven design of data aggregation processes.

  • 15.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Effective Test Suite Design for Detecting Concurrency Control Faults in Distributed Transaction Systems2018In: 8th International Symposium On Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation ISoLA 2018, 2018, p. 355-374Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrency control faults may lead to unwanted interleavings, and breach data consistency in distributed transaction systems. However, due to the unpredictable delays between sites, detecting concurrency control faults in distributed transaction systems is difficult. In this paper, we propose a methodology, relying on model-based testing and mutation testing, for designing test cases in order to detect such faults. The generated test inputs are designated delays between distributed operations, while the outputs are the occurrence of unwanted interleavings that are consequences of the concurrency control faults. We mutate the distributed transaction specification with common concurrency control faults, and model them as UPPAAL timed automata, in which designated delays are encoded as stopwatches. Test cases are generated via reachability analysis using UPPAAL Model Checker, and are selected to form an effective test suite. Our methodology can reduce redundant test cases, and find the appropriate delays to detect concurrency control faults effectively.

  • 16.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Specification and Automated Verification of Atomic Concurrent Real-Time Transactions2019Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Specification and Formal Verification of Atomic Concurrent Real-Time Transactions2018In: 23rd IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing PRDC 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although atomicity, isolation and temporal correctness are crucial to the dependability of many real-time database-centric systems, the selected assurance mechanism for one property may breach another. Trading off these properties requires to specify and analyze their dependencies, together with the selected supporting mechanisms (abort recovery, concurrency control, and scheduling), which is still insufficiently supported. In this paper, we propose a UML profile, called UTRAN, for specifying atomic concurrent real-time transactions, with explicit support for all three properties and their supporting mechanisms. We also propose a pattern-based modeling framework, called UPPCART, to formalize the transactions and the mechanisms specified in UTRAN, as UPPAAL timed automata. Various mechanisms can be modeled flexibly using our reusable patterns, after which the desired properties can be verified by the UPPAAL model checker. Our techniques facilitate systematic analysis of atomicity, isolation and temporal correctness trade-offs with guarantee, thus contributing to a dependable real-time database system.

  • 18.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Statistical Model Checking for Real-Time Database Management Systems: A Case Study2019In: The 24th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial control systems manage critical data using Database Management Systems (DBMS). The correctness of transactions, especially their atomicity, isolation and temporal correctness, is essential for the dependability of the entire system. Existing methods and techniques, however, either lack the ability to analyze the interplay of these properties, or do not scale well for systems with large amounts of transactions and data, and complex transaction management mechanisms. In this paper, we propose to analyze large scale real-time database systems using statistical model checking. We propose a pattern-based framework, by extending our previous work, to model the real-time DBMS as a network of stochastic timed automata, which can be analyzed by UPPAAL Statistical Model Checker. We present an industrial case study, in which we design a collision avoidance system for multiple autonomous construction vehicles, via concurrency control of a real-time DBMS. The desired properties of the designed system are analyzed using our proposed framework.

  • 19.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards the verification of temporal data consistency in Real-Time Data Management2016In: 2016 2nd International Workshop on Modelling, Analysis, and Control of Complex CPS, CPS Data 2016, 2016, article id Article number 7496422Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) require both timeliness of computation and temporal consistency of their data. Therefore, when using real-time databases in a real-time CPS application, the Real-Time Database Management Systems (RTDBMSs) must ensure both transaction timeliness and temporal data consistency. RTDBMSs prevent unwanted interferences of concurrent transactions via concurrency control, which in turn has a significant impact on the timeliness and temporal consistency of data. Therefore it is important to verify, already at early design stages that these properties are not breached by the concurrency control. However, most often such early on guarantees of properties under concurrency control are missing. In this paper we show how to verify transaction timeliness and temporal data consistency using model checking. We model the transaction work units, the data and the concurrency control mechanism as a network of timed automata, and specify the properties in TCTL. The properties are then checked exhaustively and automatically using the UPPAAL model checker. 

  • 20.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Trading-off Data Consistency for Timeliness in Real-Time Database Systems2015In: 27th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems ECRTS'15, 2015, p. 13-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to guarantee transaction timeliness, Realtime Database Management Systems (RTDBMSs) often relax data consistency by relaxing the ACID transaction properties. Such relaxation varies depending on the application and thus different transaction management mechanisms have to be decided for developing a tailored RTDBMS. However, current RTDBMSs development does not include systematic verification of timeliness and desired ACID properties. Consequently, the implemented transaction management mechanisms may breach timeliness of transactions. In this paper, we propose a process called DAGGERS for developing a tailored RTDBMS that guarantees timeliness and desired data consistency for real-time systems by employing model-checking techniques during the process. Based on the characteristics of the desired data manipulations, transaction models are designed and then formally verified iteratively together with selected run-time mechanisms, in order to achieve the desired/necessary trade-offs between timeliness and data consistency. The outcome of DAGGERS is thus a tailored transaction management with guaranteed appropriate trade-offs, as well as the model-checking based worst-case execution times and blocking times of transactions under these mechanisms and assumptions of the hardware architecture.

  • 21.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, A.
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tool-supported design of data aggregation processes in cloud monitoring systems2019In: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, ISSN 1868-5137, E-ISSN 1868-5145, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 2519-2535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient monitoring of a cloud system involves multiple aggregation processes and large amounts of data with various and interdependent requirements. A thorough understanding and analysis of the characteristics of data aggregation processes can help to improve the software quality and reduce development cost. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach for designing data aggregation processes in cloud monitoring systems. Our approach applies a feature-oriented taxonomy called DAGGTAX (Data AGGregation TAXonomy) to systematically specify the features of the designed system, and SAT-based analysis to check the consistency of the specifications. Following our approach, designers first specify the data aggregation processes by selecting and composing the features from DAGGTAX. These specified features, as well as design constraints, are then formalized as propositional formulas, whose consistency is checked by the Z3 SAT solver. To support our approach, we propose a design tool called SAFARE (SAt-based Feature-oriented dAta aggREgation design), which implements DAGGTAX-based specification of data aggregation processes and design constraints, and integrates the state-of-the-art solver Z3 for automated analysis. We also propose a set of general design constraints, which are integrated by default in SAFARE. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated via a case study provided by industry, which aims to design a cloud monitoring system for video streaming. The case study shows that DAGGTAX and SAFARE can help designers to identify reusable features, eliminate infeasible design decisions, and derive crucial system parameters.

  • 22.
    Cai, Simin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, Alf
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Design of Cloud Monitoring Systems via DAGGTAX: A Case Study2017In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 109, p. 424-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient auto-scaling of cloud resources relies on the monitoring of the cloud, which involves multiple aggregation processes and large amounts of data with various and interdependent requirements. A systematic way of describing the data together with the possible aggregations is beneficial for designers to reason about the properties of these aspects as well as their implications on the design, thus improving quality and lowering development costs. In this paper, we propose to apply DAGGTAX, a feature-oriented taxonomy for organizing common and variable data and aggregation process properties, to the design of cloud monitoring systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of DAGGTAX via a case study provided by industry, which aims to design a cloud monitoring system that serves auto-scaling for a video streaming system. We design the cloud monitoring system by selecting and composing DAGGTAX features, and reason about the feasibility of the selected features. The case study shows that the application of DAGGTAX can help designers to identify reusable features, analyze trade-offs between selected features, and derive crucial system parameters.

  • 23.
    Capilla, R.
    et al.
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cetina, C.
    Universidad San Jorge, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Foreword2018In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Capilla, R.
    et al.
    Rey Juan Carlos University, Madrid, Spain.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cetina Englada, C.
    Universidad San Jorge, Zaragoza, Spain.
    The new era of software reuse2019In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 31, no 8, article id e2221Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Capilla, Rafael
    et al.
    King Juan Carlos University (URJC), Spain.
    Gallina, BarbaraMälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.Cetina, CarlosSan Jorge University (USJ), Spain.
    New Opportunities for Software Reuse2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains the proceedings of the International Conference on Software Reuse (ICSR 18) held during May 21–23, 2018, in Madrid, Spain. The International Conference on Software Reuse is the premier international event in the software reuse community. The main goal of ICSR is to present the most recent advances and breakthroughs in the area of software reuse and to promote an intensive and continuous exchange among researchers and practitioners. The conference featured two keynotes by John Favaro, Intecs SpA (Italy) and Alberto Abella from MELODA (Spain). We received 29 submissions (excluding withdrawn submissions). Each submission was reviewed by three Program Committee members. The Program Committee decided to accept 11 papers (nine full papers and two short ones), resulting in an acceptance rate of 37.9%. The program also included one full-day tutorial, one invited talk, and a panel about the future of software reuse. This conference was a collaborative work that could only be realized through many dedicated efforts. We would like to thank all the colleagues who made possible the success of ICSR 2018: Barbara Gallina, Carlos Cetina, Mathieu Acher, Tewfik Ziadi, Roberto E. López Herrejón, Gregorio Robles, Jens Knodel, Carlos Carrillo, and Alejandro Valdezate. We also thank the ICSR Steering Committee for the approval to organize this edition in Madrid. Last but not least, we would like to sincerely thank all authors who submitted papers to the conference for their contributions and interest in ICSR 2018. We also thank the members of the Program Committee and the additional reviewers for their accurate reviews as well as their participation in the discussions of the submissions. Finally, we thank Danilo Beuche for his tutorial and the members that participated as panelists including the support from people of The Reuse Company (Spain).

  • 26.
    Capilla, Rafael
    et al.
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, Spain.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cetina, Carlos
    Universidad San Jorge, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Favaro, John
    Intecs Solutions, Pisa, Italy.
    Opportunities for Software Reuse in an Uncertain World: From Past to Emerging Trends2019In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 31, no 8, article id e2217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been investigated about software reuse since the software crisis. The development of software reuse methods, implementation techniques, and cost models has resulted in a significant amount of research over years. Nevertheless, the increasing adoption of reuse techniques, many of them subsumed under higher level software engineering processes, and advanced programming techniques that ease the way to reuse software assets, have hidden somehow in the recent years new research trends on the practice of reuse and caused the disappearance of several reuse conferences. Also, new forms of reuse like open data and feature models have brought new opportunities for reuse beyond the traditional software components. From past to present, we summarize in this research the recent history of software reuse, and we report new research areas and forms of reuse according to current needs in industry and application domains, as well as promising research trends for the upcoming years.

  • 27.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Formal Contract Logic Based Patterns for Facilitating Compliance Checking against ISO 262622018In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Volume 2049, 2018, p. 65-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ISO 26262 demands a confirmation review of the safety plan, which includes the compliance checking of planned processes against safety requirements. Formal Contract Logic (FCL), a logic-based language stemming from business compliance, provides means to formalize normative requirements enabling automatic compliance checking. However, formalizing safety requirements in FCL requires skills, which cannot be taken for granted. In this paper, we provide a set of ISO 26262-specific FCL compliance patterns to facilitate rules formalization. First, we identify and define the patterns, based on Dwyer' et al.'s specification patterns style. Then, we instantiate the patterns to illustrate their applicability. Finally, we sketch conclusions and future work.

  • 28.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Efficiently Checking Compliance Against Automotive Security and Safety Standards2017In: The 7th IEEE International Workshop on Software Certification WoSoCer 2017, 2017, p. 317-324Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing connectivity of the systems that we rely on e.g. transportation vehicles is pushing towards the introduction of new standards aimed at providing a baseline to address cybersecurity besides safety. If the interplay of the two normative spaces is not mastered, compliance management might become more time consuming and costly, preventing engineers from dedicating their energies to system engineering. In this paper, we build on top of previous work aimed at increasing efficiency and confidence in compliance management. More specifically, we contribute to building a terminological framework needed to enable the systematization of commonalities and variabilities within ISO 26262 and SAE J3061. Then, we focus our attention on the requirements for software design and implementation and we use defeasible logic to prove compliance. Based on the compliance checking results, we reveal reuse opportunities. Finally, we draw our conclusions and sketch future research directions.

  • 29.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Towards Increased Efficiency and Confidence in Process Compliance2017In: 24th European & Asian Systems, Software & Service Process Improvement & Innovation EuroAsiaSPI2 '17, 2017, p. 162-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the engineering of (software) systems has to comply with di erent standards, which often exhibit common requirements or at least a signi cant potential for synergy. Compliance management is a delicate, time-consuming, and costly activity, which would bene- t from increased con dence, automation, and systematic reuse. In this paper, we introduce a new approach, called SoPLE&Logic-basedCM. SoPLE&Logic-basedCM combines (safety-oriented) process line engineering with defeasible logic-based approaches for formal compliance checking. As a result of this combination, SoPLE&Logic-basedCM enables automation of compliance checking and systematic reuse of process elements as well as compliance proofs. To illustrate SoPLE&Logic-basedCM, we apply it to the automotive domain and we draw our lessons learnt.

  • 30.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Governatori, Guido
    Data61, CSIRO, Australia.
    Lessons Learned while formalizing ISO 26262 for Compliance Checking2018In: Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Technologies for Regulatory Compliance (TeReCom), 2018, p. 5-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A confirmation review of the safety plan is required during compliance assessment with ISO 26262. Its production could be facilitated by creating a specification of the standard’s requirements in FCL (Formal Contract Logic), which is a language that can be used to automatically checking compliance. However, we have learned, via previous experiences, that interpreting ISO 26262 requirements and specifying them in FCL is complex. Thus, we perform a formalization-oriented pre-processing of ISO 26262 to find effective ways to proceed with this task. In this paper, we present the lessons learned from this pre-processing which includes the identification of the essential normative parts to be formalized, the identification of SCP (Safety Compliance Patterns) and its subsequent documentation as templates, and the definition of a methodological guideline to facilitate the formalization of normative clauses. Finally, we illustrate the defined methodology by formalizing ISO 26262 part 3 and discuss our findings.

  • 31.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    UL Muram, Faiz
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Enabling Compliance Checking against Safety Standards from SPEM 2.0 Process Models2018In: The Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compliance with process-based safety standards may imply the provision of a safety plan and its corresponding compliance justification. The provision of this justification is time-consuming since it requires that the process engineer checks the fulfillment of hundred of requirements by taking into account the evidence provided by the process entities. Available methodologies and their implemented tools can be used to automate this checking and provide a compliance report that can be part of the justification to be scrutinized by the safety auditor. In this paper, we explain our compliance checking vision for supporting the process engineer, in which the interaction between SPEM 2.0 (Software & Systems Process Engineering Metamodel) and Regorous (a tool-supported methodology for compliance checking) is established. Then, we focus on SPEM 2.0 to identify mechanisms to provide the minimal set of elements required to be processed by Regorous and describe how to implement them in EPF Composer. We also illustrate these mechanisms by modeling a simple example from ISO 26262 and show how a compliance report can be used to trace unfulfilled requirements.

  • 32.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    UL Muram, Faiz
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Transforming SPEM 2.0-compatible process models into models checkable for compliance2018In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 918, p. 233-247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manual compliance with process-based standards is time-consuming and prone-to-error. No ready-to-use solution is currently available for increasing efficiency and confidence. In our previous work, we have presented our automated compliance checking vision to support the process engineer’s work. This vision includes the creation of a process model, given by using a SPEM 2.0 (Systems & Software Process Engineering Metamodel)-reference implementation, to be checked by Regorous, a compliance checker used in the business context. In this paper, we move a step further for the concretization of our vision by defining the transformation, necessary to automatically generate the models required by Regorous. Then, we apply our transformation to a small portion of the design phase recommended in the rail sector. Finally, we discuss our findings, and present conclusions and future work. 

  • 33.
    Cârlan, C.
    et al.
    fortiss GmbH, Munich, Germany.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kacianka, S.
    Technische Universität München, Garching, Germany.
    Breu, R.
    Institut für Informatik, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Arguing on software-level verification techniques appropriateness2017In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 39-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the pondered selection of innovative software verification technology in the safety-critical domain and its implications. Verification tools perform analyses, testing or simulation activities. The compliance of the techniques implemented by these tools to fulfill standard-mandated objectives (i.e., to be means of compliance in the context of DO-178C and related supplements) should be explained to the certification body. It is thereby difficult for practitioners to use novel techniques, without a systematic method for arguing their appropriateness. Thus, we offer a method for arguing the appropriate application of a certain verification technique (potentially in combination with other techniques) to produce the evidence needed to satisfy certification objectives regarding fault detection and mitigation in a realistic avionics application via safety cases. We use this method for the choice of an appropriate compiler to support the development of a drone.

  • 34.
    Dardar, Raghad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johnsen, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Industrial Experiences of Building a Safety Case in Compliance with ISO 262622012In: 23RD IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SOFTWARE RELIABILITY ENGINEERING WORKSHOPS (ISSREW 2012), 2012, p. 349-354Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 26262 functional safety standard provides appropriate development processes, requirements and safety integrity levels specific for the automotive domain. One crucial requirement consists of the creation of a safety case, a structured argument, which inter-relates evidence and claims, needed to show that safety-critical systems are acceptably safe. The standard is currently not mandatory to be applied to safety critical systems installed in heavy trucks; however, this is likely to be changed by 2016. This paper describes the experience gathered by applying the standard to the Fuel Level Estimation and Display System, a subsystem that together with other subsystems plays a significant role in terms of global system safety for heavy trucks manufactured by Scania. More specifically, exploratory and laborious work related to the creation of a safety case in compliance with ISO 26262 in an inexperienced industrial setting is described, and the paper ends with presenting some lessons learned together with guidelines to facilitate the adoption of ISO 26262.

  • 35.
    de Oliveira, André Luiz
    et al.
    Federal University of Juiz de for A, Brazil.
    Paiva Bressan, Lucas
    Federal University of Juiz de for A, Brazil.
    Montecchi, Leonardo
    University of Campinas, Brazil.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Systematic Process for Applying the CHESS Methodology in the Creation of Certifiable Evidence2018In: 14th European Dependable Computing Conference EDCC-2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Forsberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Saab AB, Sweden.
    Mårbring Isaksson, Eva
    Saab AB, Sweden.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Penna, Achille
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Elaboration of Safety Requirements2013In: AIAA/IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference - Proceedings2013, 2013, p. 7C21-7C29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the aircraft standard ARP4754A, requirements should be carefully traced and validated. A systematic methodology for safety requirements elaboration (refinement/decomposition as well as allocation management) is lacking. To overcome this lack, an ARP-aligned and DOORS implementable approach called RAP (Requirements Allocation Process) is proposed. RAP offers a textual as well as graphical means for managing safety requirements. Besides supporting requirements decomposition and allocation, RAP also supports design decisions. The usefulness of RAP is illustrated by an example, applying the approach to a High Lift System.

  • 37.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A model-driven safety certification method for process compliance2014In: Proceedings - IEEE 25th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2014, 2014, p. 204-209Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A safety case is a contextualized structured argument constituted of process and product-based sub-arguments to show that a system is acceptably safe. The creation of a safety case is an extremely time-consuming and costly activity needed for certification purposes. To reduce time and cost, reuse as well as automatic generation possibilities represent urgent research directions. In this paper, we focus on safety processes mandated by prescriptive standards and we identify process-related structures from which process-based arguments (those aimed at showing that a required development process has been applied according to the standard) can be generated and more easily reused. Then, we propose a model-driven safety certification method to derive those arguments as goal structures given in Goal Structuring Notation from process models given in compliance with Software Process Engineering Meta-model 2.0. The method is illustrated by generating process-based arguments in the context of ISO 26262.

  • 38.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Education-oriented ISO 26262 Interpretation Combined with Constructive Alignment2015In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings: 1st International Workshop on Software Process Education, Training and Professionalism / [ed] Ross M., O'Connor R.V. ,Mitasiunas A., 2015, Vol. 1368, p. 41-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety standards (e.g., ISO 26262) define safety life-cycles to be adopted for the development of safety-critical systems. Professionals (i.e., safety engineers, safety managers, and, more broadly safety cultureaware personnel) who are responsible of the development of such systems can be, in turn, considered as safety-critical systems. Coursemodules aimed at forming such professionals are critical. Given the criticality of such modules, the intended learning outcomes, before being constructively aligned [Biggs07] with teaching / learning / examination activities, should be derived by applying an education-oriented risk-driven process. The typical “what if” questions aimed at brainstorming on what if something goes wrong become essential to establish the expected stringency related to the knowledge and skills that personnel involved in the development of safety-critical systems should have. ISO 26262 defines a risk-driven safety life-cycle for developing safety-critical systems. In this paper, we give an educationoriented ISO 26262 interpretation and then we combine it with constructive alignment principles and we introduce SCA, Safetycritical Constructive Alignment, a new process to design Master’s level safety-critical courses or modules. To illustrate SCA and its potential effectiveness, we then apply it to design a specific module.

  • 39.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Quantitative Evaluation of Tailoring within SPICE-compliant Security-informed Safety-oriented Process LinesIn: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of SPICE‐compliant and (security‐informed) safety processes, efficient process tailoring is necessary due to the increasing proliferation of requirements, which, if not systematised, may become an unmanageable cognitive overload leading to process degradation instead of improvement. Recently, security‐informed safety‐oriented process line engineering (SiSoPLE) has been proposed as a sound solution to systematise common and variable process elements in the context of security‐informed safety‐oriented processes described within security as well as safety‐related standards. SiSoPLE represents an extension of safety‐oriented process line engineering (SoPLE). The gain of the application of SoPLE in terms of efficient tailoring via reuse was measured in a previous work, where the GQM+ Strategies model, an extension of the goal/question/metric (GQM) paradigm, was adopted to develop a measurement model for achieving quantitative evidence. In this paper, we develop further our previously proposed measurement model to achieve quantitative evidence regarding the benefits of using process line engineering extended to SPICE‐compliant security‐informed safety processes. We then apply our extended GQM+ Strategies model on a SPICE for space‐compliant SiSoPL to illustrate and assess its usefulness. Finally, we discuss our findings and provide our perspectives on quantitative evaluation of tailoring in the context of critical‐systems engineering.

  • 40.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Enabling Reuse in the Context of Safety-critical Product Lines2015In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Product LinE Approaches in Software Engineering, 2015, p. 15-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of safety-critical product lines, industries have to face an urgent challenge: reduction of time and cost for the creation of a safety case. A safety case is a contextualized structured argument constituted of process and product-based sub-arguments to show that a system is acceptably safe. Its creation is an extremely time-consuming and costly activity. To reduce time and cost, reuse capabilities are being investigated from different perspectives however currently no satisfying approach is available. In this paper, we propose a new methodological framework called Anti-Sisyphus. Anti-Sisyphus is aimed at enabling reuse by combining process lines, product lines and safety case lines. The systematization of what varies and what remains in common with respect to process as well as product elements in turns enables the systematization of what varies and remains in common in terms of process-based as well as product-based arguments within a safety case line. Anti-Sisyphus thus has the potential to enable a 3D reuse.

  • 41.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Andrews, Anneliese
    Univ Denver, Denver, CO USA..
    Deriving Verification-related Means of Compliance for a Model-based Testing Process2016In: 2016 IEEE/AIAA 35TH DIGITAL AVIONICS SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (DASC), 2016, article id 7778046Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DO-331 is the supplement of DO-178C for modelbased development. DO-331 is an objective-based guidance, which defines a set of objectives that have to be achieved for the modelbased development of aeronautical software. The guidance also recommends the evidence in terms of activities and work products that should respectively be carried out and produced to meet the objectives. To explain why the evidence collected supports the claims concerning objectives achievement, manufacturers could adopt a safety case-based approach. Fail-SafeMBT is an academic, recently proposed, and potentially innovative model-based testing process, which needs compelling arguments to be adopted for the development of aeronautical software. To reduce the gap between industrial settings and academic settings, in this paper, we adopt the safety case-based approach and we explain how to semiautomatically derive means for compliance, aimed at arguing Fail-SafeMBT's compliance. Our focus is limited to the Verification Planning Process and we contribute to partially justify the adequacy of Fail-SafeMBT to act as process evidence by creating fragments of compelling arguments. To do that, we first manually check if Fail-SafeMBT includes DO-178C/DO-331-compliant process elements, then we model Fail-SafeMBT in compliance with Software Process Engineering Meta-model 2.0, then, we derive process-based arguments from the Fail-SafeMBT process model by using MDSafeCer, the recently introduced Model Driven Safety Certification method. By doing so, we provide a threefold contribution: we pioneer the interpretation of DO-331 in academic settings, we validate MDSafeCer in the avionics domain and we strengthen Fail-SafeMBT by providing suggestions aimed at increasing its maturity level.

  • 42.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Atif Javed, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ul Muram, Faiz
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Model-driven Dependability Analysis Method for Component-based Architectures2012In: Proceedings - 38th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2012, 2012, p. 233-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical distributed real-time embedded component-based systems must be dependable and thus be able to avoid unacceptable failures. To efficiently evaluate the dependability of the assembly obtained by selecting and composing components, well-integrated and tool-supported techniques are needed. Currently, no satisfying tool-supported technique fully integrated in the development life-cycle exists. To overcome this limitation, we propose CHESS-FLA, which is a model-driven failure logic analysis method. CHESS-FLA allows designers to: model the nominal as well as the failure behaviour of their architectures, automatically perform dependability analysis through a model transformation, and, finally, ease the interpretation of the analysis results through back-propagation onto the original architectural model. CHESS-FLA is part of an industrial quality tool-set for the functional and extra-functional development of high integrity embedded component-based systems, developed within the EU-ARTEMIS funded CHESS project. Finally, we present a case study taken from the telecommunication domain to illustrate and assess the proposed method.

  • 43.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Castellanos Ardila, Julieth Patricia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania.
    Towards Shaping ISO 26262-compliant Resources for OSLC-based Safety Case Creation2016In: 4th International Workshop on Critical Automotive Applications: Robustness & Safety CARS-2016, Göteborg, Sweden, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traceable documentation management represents a mandatory activity according to ISO 26262. This activity is also essential for the creation of an ISO 26262-compliant safety case, which is defined as a compilation of work products. OSLC represents a promising integration framework for enabling tool interoperability and thus seamless traceability and documentation management, including safety case creation and management. In this paper, we present a step related to our work aimed at offering an OSLC-based infrastructure enabling the automatic generation of safety case fragments. Our step consists of the identification, representation and shaping of resources needed to create the safety case. Finally, conclusion and perspectives for future work are also drawn.ISO 26262,

  • 44.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Dimov, A.
    University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Fuzzy-enabled failure behaviour analysis for dependability assessment of networked systems2011In: M and N 2011 - IEEE International Workshop on Measurements and Networking, Proceedings, 2011, p. 53-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dependability assessment of networked component-based systems requires fine-grained modelling of the failure behaviour and propagation aspects of individual components. We have recently introduced a formalism called FI 4FA, enabling the analysis of I 4 (incompletion, inconsistency, interference and impermanence) failures as well as the analysis of the corresponding mitigations. 

  • 45.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fabre, Laurent
    Critical Systems Labs Inc, Vancouver, Canada.
    Benefits of Security-informed Safety-oriented Process Line Engineering2015In: Digital Avionics Systems Conference DASC-34, Prague, Czech Republic: IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, given the growing aircraft connectivity, security-informed safety is crucial. To certify aircrafts, safety as well as security standards need to be taken into consideration. In this context, a process engineer has to succeed in mastering the growing complexity of the standards interplay. To support process engineers, we propose to: first, consider a common terminological framework, aimed at reconciling security and safety within dependability; then identify and systematize commonalities and variabilities between the processes. To enable this systematization we introduce Security-informed Safety-oriented Process Line Engineering (SiSoPLE), which extends SoPLE to address security concerns. To show the effectiveness and benefits of SiSoPLE, we apply this new process line engineering to two aerospace standards, SAE ARP 4761 (Safety) and RTCA DO-326A (Security). We then provide our lessons learned and concluding remarks. Finally, we sketch some perspectives for future investigation.

  • 46.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Friedemann, BitschNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway.
    Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 37th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2018, Västerås, Sweden, September 19-21, 2018, Proceedings2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gallucci, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania, Sweden.
    VROOM & cC: a Method to Build Safety Cases for ISO 26262-compliant Product Lines2013In: Proceedings of SASSUR@SAFECOMP. 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Gomez-Martinez, Elena
    Univ East London, London, England..
    Earle, Clara Benac
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Deriving Safety Case Fragments for Assessing MBASafe's Compliance with EN 501282016In: SOFTWARE PROCESS IMPROVEMENT AND CAPABILITY DETERMINATION (SPICE 2016), 2016, p. 3-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to EN 50129, manufacturers of rail vehicles shall justify via a safety case that their vehicles are adequately safe for their intended applications. MBASafe is a recently proposed and potentially innovative design and verification process. In the presence of compelling arguments concerning its adequacy as process evidence, MBASafe could support the safety claims within the required safety cases. In this paper, we contribute to partially justify the adequacy of MBASafe to act as process evidence. To do that, we first manually check if MBASafe includes EN 50128-compliant process elements, then we model MBASafe in compliance with Software Process Engineering Meta-model 2.0, then, we derive process-based arguments from the MBASafe process model by using MDSafeCer, the recently introduced Model Driven Safety Certification method. By doing so, we provide a twofold contribution: we further validate MDSafeCer in the rail domain and we strengthen MBASafe.

  • 49.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Guelfi, N.
    Laboratory for Advanced Software Systems, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Reusing transaction models for dependable cloud computing2012In: Software Reuse in the Emerging Cloud Computing Era, IGI Global , 2012, p. 248-277Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing represents a technological change in computing. Despite the technological change, however, the quality of the computation, in particular its dependability, remains a fundamental requirement. To ensure dependability, and more specifically, reliability, transaction models represent an effective means. In the literature, several transaction models exist. Choosing (reusing entirely) or introducing (reusing partially) transaction models for cloud computing is not an easy task. The difficulty of this task is due to the fact that it requires a deep understanding of the properties that characterize transaction models to be able to discriminate reusable from non reusable properties with respect to cloud computing characteristics. To ease this task, the PRISMA process is introduced. PRISMA is a Process for Requirements Identification, Specification and Machine-supported Analysis that targets transaction models. PRISMA is then applied to engineer reusable requirements suitable for the achievement of the adequate transaction models for cloud computing.

  • 50.
    Gallina, Barbara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. University of Luxembourg.
    Guelfi, Nicolas
    University of Luxembourg.
    A Product Line Perspective for Quality Reuse of Development Frameworks for Distributed Transactional Applications2008In: Proceedings - International Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2008, 2008, p. 739-744Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexibility, autonomy, distribution and openness of the modern computing systems are properties which expand the spectrum of interactions possible among system components. Moreover these properties tend to impose more rigorous quality requirements on software development. To ensure the quality of distributed applications two notions have already been introduced: concurrency control and fault-tolerance. These notions are present and refined in so-called advanced transactional frameworks. All these frameworks have different interpretations of these two notions because they try to solve different issues. Engineering from scratch such aframework is a complex task which will achieve a low level result, if not supported by a quality oriented approach. This paper solves this issue by introducing a product line perspective founded on the semantic analysis of the variabilities and commonalities of the ACID (Atomicity, Isolation, Durability and Consistency) properties. Varying and composing ACID properties in a disciplined way is in our opinion a key issue to increasequality and quality reuse in the development of advanced transactional frameworks. For this our approach allows the elicitation of the requirements of the advanced transactional frameworks product line using the "DRET" template.

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